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Table 1
Archeological Evidence of Firearms Types at Monroe's Crossroads
(Scott and Hunt 1998)

Firearm Type Represented in Archeological Collection Represented in Private Collection
.30-caliber (unknown) -- Yes
.36-caliber (unknown) -- Yes
.40-caliber (unknown) Yes --

Colt .44 revolver

Yes --
Remington .44 revolver Yes --
.44 Henry rifle -- Yes
12 mm revolver (?) -- Yes
.50 Smith carbine Yes Yes
.51 Hall (?) carbine Yes Yes
.52 Sharps Yes Yes
.54 Starr carbine -- Yes
.54 1841 rifle (?) Yes Yes
.54 Enfield/Austrian Yes Yes
.54 Burnside Yes Yes
.56-56 Joslyn Yes Yes
.56-56 Spencer Yes Yes
.577 Enfield Yes (bullets) Yes (musket parts)
.58 Springfield Yes (bullets) Yes (musket parts)
.69 muskets Yes Yes
Shotguns Yes Yes
3-Inch Ordnance Rifle Yes (case & canister) Yes (complete shell)
Total
20 firearms types

 

Table 2
Federal Weapons at Monroe's Crossroads

(Scott and Hunt 1998)
Edged Weapons
Bayonet, triangular -- 4th (Provisional) Brigade
Saber -- Mounted units
Pistols
Model 1858 Remington Army revolver .44 inch
Model 1860 Colt Army revolver .44 inch
Rifles and Carbines
Springfield rifled musket .58 inch -- 4th (Provisional) Brigade
Smith carbine .50 inch
Sharps carbine .52 inch
Burnside carbine .54 inch -- 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment

Spencer carbine .56-56 inch -- 5th Ohio Cavalry Regiment

Artillery
2 X (3-inch) Ordnance Rifle Cannon -- Stetson's Section, 10th Battery, Wisconsion Light Artillery
Projectiles: 3-Inch Hotchkiss shell and canister

 

Table 3
Confederate Weapons at Monroe's Crossroads
Edged Weapons
Saber
Pistols
Model 1858 Remington Army revolver .44 inch
Model 1860 Colt Army revolver .44 inch
Unknown .40 inch
Rifles, Muskets, and Carbines
Model 1841 "Mississippi" rifle .54 inch
Model 1841 South Carolina "Palmetto" rifle .54 inch
Enfield musket .577 inch
Rifled musket .58 inch
Musket .69 inch
Hall carbine .52 inch
Smith carbine .50 inch
Sharps carbine .52 inch
Burnside carbine .54 inch
Joslyn carbine .56
Shotguns
1.,.40,.50,.58,.62 inch and Buck and Ball -- common in the Texas Brigade

 

Table 4
Weapons Capabilities
Weapon Type Effective Range Rate of Fire
Pistols
Colt revolver, six-shot 20-50 yards 6 rounds in 10 seconds
Remington revolver, six-shot 20-50 yards 6 rounds in 10 seconds
Rifles and Muskets
U.S. rifled musket, muzzle loaded, .58 Inch 200-300 yards 3 rounds per minute
Enfield rifled musket, muzzle loaded, .577 Inch 200-300 yards 3 rounds per minute
Smooth-bore musket, muzzle loaded, .69 Inch 50-100 yards 3 rounds per minute
Carbines
Spencer carbine, breech loaded, seven round magazine; the Spencer, "Quick Loader," ammunition box contained 8 magazines 150-200 yards 8 rounds in 20 seconds
Sharps carbine, breech loaded, single shot 150-200 yards 9 rounds per minute
Burnside carbine 150-200 yards 9 rounds per minute
Shotguns
Single and double barrel 50-100 yards 3 rounds per minute
Artillery
3-Inch ordnance rifle 1,800 yards 2 rounds per minute

 

Table 5
Weather and Light Conditions for Early March in the Monroe's Crossroads Area

(Geis 1996)
Date Sun Rise Begin Morning Nautical Twilight Sun Set End Evening Nautical Twilight Moon Rise Moon Set % Lunar Illumination
Wednesday March 1 06:45 05:50 18:07 19:02 09:10 22:52 24
Thursday March 2 06:43 05:48 18:08 19:03 09:56 23:57 33
Friday
March 3
06:42 05:47 18:09 19:04 10:44 00:04 42
Saturday March 4 06:41 05:46 18:10 19:05 11:34 00:59 52
Sunday March 5 06:39 05:44 18:10 19:05 12:28 01:54 62
Monday March 6 06:38 05:43 18:11 19:06 13:31 02:44 72
Tuesday March 7 06:37 05:42 18:12 19:07 14:15 03:28 80
Wednesday March 8 06:35 05:40 18:13 19:08 15:11 04:08 87
Thursday March 9 06:34 05:39 18:14 19:09 16:06 04:45 94
Friday
March 10
06:33 05:38 18:15 19:10 17:00 05:18 97
Saturday March 11 06:31 05:36 18:16 19:11 17:54 05:50 98


The prevailing winds in the Monroe's Crossroads area are from the southwest. The average wind speed is highest in the Spring, about nine miles per hour. Throughout March in 1865, the weather in southeastern North Carolina was cool and rainy. The frequent rains indicate that temperatures tended to be above freezing. The nights would have been colder than the days. Roads were wet and muddy. With the creeks and rivers running high, fording points and approaches to bridges were often flooded. Adjacent wetlands stayed at flood stage. The rain ceased before dawn on 10 March at Monroe's Crossroads.

During the night, visibility was poor, with the light from the moon limited because of the cloudy skies and rain. Because of the sparse population in the area, there was little, if any, ambient light from towns or homes. Distant stores of turpentine, tar, and pitch, set ablaze by the Union Army, possibly reflected off the clouds. Campfires lit by Kilpatrick's Cavalry would have revealed the location of the Union camp.

Twilight on 10 March began at 05:38. Sunrise occurred at 06:33. During the Confederate assault, ground fog obscured low areas along Nicholson Creek. The fog probably dissipated completely about an hour after sunrise.

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