| IDENTIFICATION, EVALUATION, DOCUMENTATION, AND REGISTRATION
Historic View (c. 1910) of the Prospect
Park Subdivision, Pasadena, California, shows how pioneers in California's
Arts and Crafts movement transformed the dry and barren site along
the Arroyo Seco into one of the region's earliest and most attractive
planned suburbs. Historic photographs shape our understanding of
past time and place. They enable surveyors to trace the evolution
of a particular historic neighborhood, as well as visualize the
ways that demographic trends, modes of transportation, and changing
ideas about subdivision planning, house design, and gardening defined
distinct stages of suburban growth and, in many places, have contributed
to regional character. (Photo courtesy Pasadena Historical Society)
Identification activities are designed to recognize properties associated
with historic patterns of suburbanization and to gather information
to determine the National Register eligibility of historic subdivisions
and neighborhoods. The identification process calls for the development
of a historic context at the local or metropolitan level and the documentation
of associated properties using historical research methods and field
Contextual information on local patterns of suburbanization can guide
survey work by providing a link between historic events and the physical
evolution of communities. In turn, survey information expands the understanding
of local patterns, adding to the local context information about the
location, character, and condition of representative subdivisions and
Information previously gathered through the statewide comprehensive
survey and other historic contexts (local or state) should be supplemented
by new research and field surveys that extend not only the geographical
area covered by earlier surveys but also the chronological period considered
historic. Keep in mind that the findings of earlier surveys and context
statements may need to be reevaluated and updated according to new contextual
information about historic patterns of suburbanization.
Figure 5. Process for Identification, Evaluation,
| Step One: Develop local or metropolitan context
1. Conduct historical research.
2. Determine geographical scale and chronological periods.
3. Compile data from historic maps, plats, and other sources.
4. Prepare a written statement of context.
|Step Two: Conduct field surveys of historic
1. Select appropriate survey forms.
2. Gather materials for field reference.
3. Conduct a reconnaissance or preliminary survey.
4. Analyze survey results and identify potentially eligible districts
5. Conduct an intensive-level survey of selected properties.
|Step One: Define significance
1. Apply the National Register criteria.
2. Select areas of significance.
3. Define period of significance.
|Step Two: Assess historic integrity
1. Apply seven qualities of integrity.
2. Identify changes and threat to integrity.
3. Classify contributing and noncontributing resources.
4. Weigh overall integrity.
|Step Three: Select boundaries
1. Define the historic boundaries.
2. Decide what to include.
3. Select appropriate edges.
|Steps for Completing the National Register
Multiple Property Form (NPS-10-900b)
1. Provide a statement of context.
2. Provide an analysis of property types.
3. Define registration requirements.
4. Explain methodology.
5. Provide bibliographical references.
6. Acquire official certification.
|Steps for Completing the National Register
Registration Form (NPS-10-900)
1. Describe historic district.
2. Provide a list of contributing resources.
3. Provide a statement explaining the local context.
4. Document the history of the district.
5. Explain how district meets National Register criteria and criteria
6. Provide bibliographical references.
7. Define and justify district boundaries.
8. Provide photographs and maps.
9. Acquire official certification.
|Step Three: Follow registration procedures
1. Consult Federal regulations (36 CFR Part 60) for nominations.
2. Consult Federal regulations (36 CFR Part 63) for determinations
DEVELOPING A LOCAL HISTORIC CONTEXT
The nationwide context, "The Suburbanization of Metropolitan Areas
of the United States, 1830 to 1960," can be applied to the study of
suburbanization on a local or metropolitan scale. In addition, a number
of states have developed historic contexts and multiple property submissions
that address various aspects of suburbanization (See
Recommended Reading for a list of associated multiple property listings).
Through historical research and field surveys, documentation is gathered
to form a written statement of historic context, a master list of residential
subdivisions, and one or a series of maps charting suburban growth of
an entire metropolitan area or a single or small group of local communities
Conducting Historical Research:
Initially historical research is directed at gathering general information
about metropolitan or local patterns of development, most importantly
1) demographic trends, 2) transportation systems and routes, 3) patterns
of land development and subdivision design, and 4) trends in suburban
housing and landscape design. Later, additional research in conjunction
with field surveys may examine the history of specific neighborhoods.
Photograph (c. 1898) of Shaw Avenue Place,
one of St. Louis's "private places." Historic photographs documenting
the design, construction and daily life of residential suburbs exist
in many local historical collections. (Photo courtesy Missouri Botanical
Primary and secondary source materials-often available in local libraries,
historical collections, and government offices-yield a wealth of information
about local patterns of suburbanization as well as the history and development
of local neighborhoods. Historic maps and subdivision plats should be
identified early in the study. For a summary of source materials useful
for developing contexts on suburbanization and documenting suburban
neighborhoods, see Historical Sources for Researching Local Patterns
of Suburbanization on pages. (Figure 5)
Determining Geographical Scale and Chronological Periods:
Demographic trends can help document the approximate growth and extent
of local suburbanization and establish the periods of development associated
with particular methods of transportation. From this data, predictions
can be made about the types of suburbs likely to exist. For example,
metropolitan areas in the eastern United States, which experienced rapid
growth due to industrialization during the nineteenth century, likely
contain the full spectrum of suburban properties. Those in the Midwest,
which began to experience significant growth in the 1880s, would probably
include streetcar, early automobile, and freeway suburbs; and western
cities, which didn't expand until the twentieth century, can be expected
to contain early automobile and postwar or freeway suburbs.
Using the date of legal incorporation for the central city as a starting
point, researchers can make an initial estimate of the period of historic
suburbanization by plotting a graph that compares the population growth
of the central city to that of adjacent counties (or smaller jurisdictions
if the data is available for them) in ten-year intervals through 1960,
using data from the U.S. Census. Such a graph will indicate not only
when and where suburbanization likely occurred but also the extent to
which local patterns correspond to the broad chronological periods identified
in the national context.
The metropolitan area is the most appropriate scale for studying patterns
of suburbanization and establishing a local historic context. However,
limitations of time and funding, as well as the difficulty of coordinating
efforts among multiple governing jurisdictions (sometimes located in
several states), may make this approach impractical and make it necessary
to establish a context for a single or small group of localities within
the larger metropolitan area. In such cases, sufficient information
should be gathered about metropolitan trends to explain how the history
and development of the local community reflected patterns of suburbanization
that shaped the metropolitan area as a whole.
For research and survey purposes, a set of historic chronological periods
should be defined that correspond to local events and stages of suburbanization.
This can be done by dividing the history of local historic development
into chronological periods that generally correspond to those outlined
in the transportation section of this bulletin,
and assigning each period a set of dates based on local events, such
as the introduction of the streetcar or the subdivision of the first
automobile suburb. By comparing local trends in transportation, subdivision
design, and housing design and construction to general national trends,
researchers can make predictions about the types of subdivisions and
suburban housing likely to be present in the local study area, as well
as identify distinctive regional patterns.
Suburbanization has been an ongoing and continuous process in many
communities. For this reason, it is important to use specific events
and patterns in local history to define the beginning and closing dates
for the overall "historic" period, as well as dates for chronologically-based
property types. Approximate dates set at the beginning of the study
can be revised later after research and field surveys have been completed
to ensure accuracy. Actual events rather than an arbitrary 40- or 50-year
cutoff should be used when examining patterns of suburbanization after
World War II.
Compiling Data from Historic Maps and Plats:
Historic maps are particularly useful for studying patterns of suburbanization
because they graphically depict the relationship between transportation
corridors and residential development. Those from the mid-1880s are
particularly helpful in locating railroad suburbs, whereas maps dating
from 1900 to 1920 are good indicators of the expansion of streetcar
suburbs. Maps from the late 1930s to mid-1940s help trace the development
associated with the early automobile period, and those from the late
1950s will help trace the massive suburbanization spurred by the expansion
of arterial roads and freeways in the postwar period.
Because transportation methods and routes have historically defined
the limits of suburbanization, a sequence of historic maps indicating
transportation routes should be assembled. The maps should represent
dates far enough apart that they capture significant changes in the
overall landscape. These maps can be compared to trace the relationship
between transportation and subdivision development and determine the
dates when major episodes of suburbanization occurred locally. Because
little physical evidence of streetcar routes remains today, maps showing
these routes are a key resource for identifying and verifying the presence
of streetcar suburbs.
Publicly recorded plats provide an abundance
of information about local patterns of subdivision design and real
estate practices. Designed by William H. Schuchardt in 1922 as an
experimental housing cooperative of detached and semi-detached homes
to ease Milwaukee's housing shortage, the Garden Homes Subdivision
was replatted with subdivided lots in 1934 so that homes could be
sold to tenants and stockholders when the cooperative was dissolved.
(Historic plat by H. L. Lockhart, courtesy Wisconsin State Historical
Historic plats provide an abundance of information about local real
estate practices and patterns of subdivision design. They are also an
invaluable tool in surveying historic neighborhoods and in evaluating
significance and integrity. Plats typically indicate:
1) the date when a subdivision was platted;
2) original legal jurisdiction and boundaries of the subdivision;
3) name of the land development company or real estate developer responsible
for subdividing the land;
4) original layout of the streets, utilities, and house lots; and
5) adjoining streets and arterials.
The requirements for recording plats vary from locality to locality.
Researchers should make inquiries about local practices for both recording
subdivision plats and for maintaining them as archival records. Plat
books may be on file at the local courthouse or planning office. The
search for historic plats may also involve contacting distant repositories,
such as State historical societies or specialized archives housing the
records of developers, site planners, or landscape architects. Research
of fire insurance maps, recorded deeds, and written notices by land
development companies may provide similar and additional information
about community planning.
Mapping the Study Area
Information from the historic maps, plats, and other records can be
used to prepare a map or series of maps charting the outward expansion
of suburban development. Maps should indicate the name, date and location
of railroad stations, streetcar routes, major arterial streets, parkways
and boulevards, and highways, as well as principal land subdivisions.
Reference copies should be prepared for field surveys so that the presence
of resources can be verified and observations recorded about condition,
boundaries, and potential eligible resources.
The best approach for graphically depicting the relationship between
transportation and suburbanization is to begin with a current geographical
map of the study area as a base map and create a series of overlays
or period maps, each representing an important chronological period
and showing the relationship of transportation facilities and subdivision
development during that period. Such maps not only illustrate important
aspects of the historic context, they also can be used to document multiple
property listings, survey findings, and the evolution of large residential
districts. Geographical Information Systems (GIs), Global Positioning
Systems (GPS), and a number of softwares for mapping now make it possible
to efficiently organize digitized information about residential development
in the form of maps and comparative graphs.
Preparing a Master List of Residential Subdivisions
General street maps, local plats and planning documents, fire insurance
maps, and transportation maps usually provide sufficient information
to compile a master list of subdivisions for each chronological period.
For survey purposes, the list should be cross-referenced to the field
map and should provide the historic name, current name, dates of platting,
as well as the names of real estate developers and designers, if known.
Based on survey findings and additional research, the list can be further
annotated to describe key characteristics such as size, street design,
block size, number of lots, types of original improvements, periods
of construction, house types, and condition. Many communities are now
making tax assessment and planning information available online or on
CD-ROM; such a readily available source of digitized data not only provides
a wealth of information about residential subdivisions and local housing
types, but can be used in a variety of ways, including maps and comparative
Developing a Statement of Context:
Local contexts typically identify the general types of single and
multiple family housing associated with particular socioeconomic
groups, local industries, and stages of suburbanization. Three-deckers,
also called triple-deckers, making up the Houghton Street Historic
District (top) in Worcester, Massachusetts, represent a housing
type common to the industrial cities of the Northeast where immigrants
and others viewed renting out "flats" as a means of affording a
home of their own. The Georgian Revival steel house (bottom) with
garage located at 129 South Ridge is one of 22 homes constructed
between 1932 and 1941 in Troy, Ohio, by the Troy-based Hobart Welded
Steel House Company to demonstrate that arc-welding methods could
be used to produce high quality prefabricated housing at a low cost.
(Photo by Michael Steinitz, courtesy Massachusetts Historical Commission;
photo by Diana Cornelisse, courtesy Ohio Historic Preservation Office)
The development of a local historic context requires information gathered
through both historical research and field surveys. For this reason,
the written statement should be developed in several stages. An initial
statement based on research findings and previous surveys should be
prepared before the reconnaissance survey begins. The findings of subsequent
research and both reconnaissance and intensive-level surveys should
be added at later stages. The final statement of context can be used
in National Register nominations and multiple property listings, as
well as State or locally published contexts and survey documents.
The statement should include a brief summary of the history of
the metropolitan region and local community being studied and an explanation
of the factors-geographical, legislative, and economic-that have influenced
the growth and suburbanization of the region. In addition, the statement
should explain the jurisdictional boundaries within the metropolitan
region and identify the governing bodies historically responsible for
local planning and development in the area being studied. It should
contain dates, the proper names of influential individuals and organizations,
and references to representative historic subdivisions and neighborhoods
associated with the context.
Local contexts on suburbanization typically include information about
Transportation trends, including the location of railroad
stations, streetcar routes, major arterial streets, parkways and boulevards,
and express highways (freeways).
Local events that reflect national trends in transportation,
industry, commerce, and government.
Local economic, demographic, and other factors that historically
influenced the location and expansion of residential suburbs (e.g.
rise of aerospace industry).
Representative types of residential subdivisions and neighborhoods
believed or known to exist in the study area, including the name,
dates, and general characteristics of important examples.
General types of single and multiple family housing that characterize
the area's residential development, including their association with
particular income levels, socioeconomic groups, industries, or local
History of local or regional planning efforts, including the
introduction of zoning ordinances, comprehensive planning, and subdivision
regulations, which historically influenced patterns of suburbanization.
Local practices concerning mapping, recording of subdivision
plats, aerial surveys, and issuance of building permits, noting any
particular records that are strong indicators of suburban growth and
The ways that local patterns of suburbanization reflected changing
views and attitudes about family, home, and the social roles of men
The ways local patterns of housing and subdivision design reflected
national trends in architecture, landscape architecture, and community
Establishment and activities of local chapters of the National
Association of Real Estate Boards, National Association of Home Builders,
American Institute of Architects, American Society of Landscape Architects,
American Civic Association, American Institute of City Planners, Better
Homes of America, Inc., and Small House Architect's Service Bureau,
including the names of members who were influential in shaping local
patterns of suburbanization.
Page from architect James H. McGill's
Architectural Advertiser (1879) showing the Le Droit Park residence
designed for Mr. Scott of Washington, D.C. Promotional brochures
and advertisements are good sources of historical information
and may be found in the collections of local libraries, historical
societies, and community organizations. (Illustration courtesy
District of Columbia State Historic Preservation Office)
Principal subdividers, home builders, real estate developers,
and lending institutions, including a description of the types of
residential and other development with which they were associated,
and any distinctive local practices, such as the use of deed restrictions
or development of neighborhood shopping centers.
Principal site planners, architects, and landscape architects
known for residential design in the local community or metropolitan
area, including examples of their work, the housing types or characteristics
of design for which they were known, and the identity of subdividers
and builders with whom they routinely worked.
Biographical sketches of 1) real estate developers known to have
had substantial impact on local patterns of suburbanization, and 2)
architects, landscape architects, and engineers who influenced the design
and character of residential suburbs in the metropolitan area or local
community, by introducing innovations in design, achieving work of high
artistic quality, or establishing local traditions of design and construction.
Figure 6. Historical Sources for Researching
Local Patterns of Suburbanization
|The following historical sources are especially valuable
in researching local patterns of suburbanization and the history
of residential subdivisions. While many can be found in the collections
of local or regional libraries, archives, and historical societies,
others may be found among the public records of municipal and county
governments. Some source materials are available on microfilm or
CD-ROM and may be found in many research libraries.
| Historic Maps and Atlases: Historic maps indicating
the growth and development of a metropolitan area at various intervals
of time are especially valuable to chart the outward migration of
residential subdivisions in relationship to advances in transportation
technology and expansion of transportation routes. Maps were commonly
published by streetcar and transit companies, oil companies, local
chambers of commerce, highway departments, as well as local governments
for tax and planning purposes.
| Aerial Photographs: After World War II, many local
governments began making aerial surveys of their rapidly changing
landscape; many of these remain among local government records.
Beginning in the 1930s, the U.S. Department of Agriculture began
making aerial surveys of rural areas of the United States for soil
conservation purposes; these provide good coverage of the outlying
areas of metropolitan cities that were later subject to residential
development and are available on microfilm from the Cartographic
Division of the National Archives. As part of the Global Land Information
System (G.L.I.S.), the U.S.G.S. now makes available electronically
the aerial photographs (called "digital orthophoto quadrangles,"
or "DOQs") taken to update digital line graphs and topographic maps.
| Fire Insurance Maps: Insurance maps, such as those
compiled by the Sanborn Fire Insurance Company, are available in
many local libraries and at the Library of Congress. Due to a major
recording effort now underway, many Sanborn maps will soon be available
on CD-ROM at major research libraries.
| Local or County Ordinances: These indicate the dates
and provisions for local planning controls, such as zoning, subdivision
regulations, comprehensive planning processes, local design review,
and citizens' associations.
| City, County and Regional Plans: On file with local
planning offices and available in local libraries and archives,
these plans provide information about transportation routes, publicly
funded improvements (e.g. utilities, water, sewer, mass transit),
and overall plan of development that include distribution and density
of land use activities, including residential development.
continued: Figure 6. Historical Sources for
Researching Local Patterns of Suburbanization
| Subdivision Plats: Local land records for a county,
city or town, often organized chronologically in plat-books. While
some older records of this type may be found in public libraries
or historical collections, many remain among the public records
of local courthouse or local planning offices. Also, copies may
be found among the records of the architectural, planning, or development
firms responsible for the design.
| Building Permits/Tax Records: These records frequently
provide the names of site planners, architects, and developers and
often indicate the dates and cost of original construction and additions.
In many communities, tax assessment information is contained in
a computerized database and is available on CD-ROM.
| Deeds of Title, Mechanic Liens, and Real Estate Records:
Public court records indicate a property's chain of ownership and
the terms of any deed restrictions. These are generally organized
by date of recording and indexed by the names of sellers and purchasers.
They may also indicate dates of construction and additions, original
cost, source of mortgage, and identity of the subdivider or developer.
Mechanics liens-temporary encumbrances on the title of property
to ensure payment to the building contractor-may also identify the
building contractors and indicate the cost of construction.
| Building Contracts: Found in private and public
historical collections, the records of architectural firms, and,
when a legal dispute arises, in court records. In States where the
public recording of building contracts was required by statute,
they may be found in courthouse records. In the form of a legal
agreement between owner and contractor, they describe the property
to be constructed, often specifying materials, workmanship, design,
and other specifications. Purchase orders and bills of lading for
building materials may also be found with these records.
| Historic Photographs: Photographs documenting the
design, construction and daily life of residential suburbs exist
in many local historic collections. These include family or community
records; promotional or documentary materials used by realtors,
developers and designers; and illustrations in historic newspapers,
journals, magazines, and published portfolios. Although local historical
collections may be the best place to locate historic photographs,
specialized repositories may contain the work of local or regional
architects, landscape architects, and photographic studios.
| Site Plans, Architectural Drawings, Construction Plans,
and Planting Plans: Available from the office of developer or
architect, the archival repository for records of the architect,
builder, or developer. Clearinghouse services, such as the Cooperative
Preservation of Architectural Records (COPAR) and the Catalog of
Landscape Records in the United States, provide researchers assistance
in identifying repositories for the records of architectural firms
and landscape designers. In addition, home owners may be in possession
of promotional brochures, floor-plans, and landscape plans for their
yards. Promotional brochures and advertisements may also be found
in community archives and local historical societies.
continued: Figure 6. Historical Sources for
Researching Local Patterns of Suburbanization
| Historic Newspapers: Advertisements in the real
estate sections of local newspapers provide information about housing
design, subdivisions, housing costs, prospective home owners, and
availability of house financing. They are also a source of information
about local events affecting suburbanization, such as industrial
development, demographic trends, and expansion of transportation
routes. Advertisements for merchants, suppliers, and contractors
provide information about building materials and practices. Obituaries
provide biographical information about architects, landscape architects,
and real estate developers. Many local libraries maintain copies
of local newspapers on microfilm. Many news publishers now offer
archival indexing and assistance through the Internet; while these
services are useful for locating recent obituaries or retrospective
articles, few extend back far enough to locate original advertisements
| U.S. Census Records: Census records provide demographic
information about a subdivision or neighborhood, including the size
of families, whether they own or rent their house, and the country
of origin, education, occupation, and age of family members. The
Census Bureau also gathers statistics on economics, housing, and
population growth. Many census records are indexed and are available
on microfilm from the National Archives (Record Group 29). Enumerative
maps used by census takers are among the records of the Cartographic
Division of the National Archives.
| Oral History: Interviews with original and early
homeowners are a valuable source of oral history and may be recorded
in audio-tape, videotape, or written transcripts. Such individuals
may also own historic materials, such as promotional brochures,
architectural drawings, landscape plans, nursery receipts, photographs,
diaries and personal memoirs. Interviews with builders, contractors,
developers, architects, landscape architects, planners, and former
public officials may provide interesting insights into historic
patterns of suburbanization.
| Records of Neighborhood Associations: Community
newsletters, organizational minutes, correspondence, promotional
brochures, anniversary publications, news clippings, early advertisements,
neighborhood directories, historic photographs, and other information
related to the history of a neighborhood. Records may be maintained
by the organizations or may be on file in local library or historical
| City, Neighborhood, and Telephone Directories: Available
in local or regional libraries, historical societies, and community
collections, these directories give the name and addresses of residents
and their affiliated businesses as well as identify active merchants,
suppliers of construction materials, designers, and contractors.
Historic city directories for major cities are also available on
microfilm in many libraries.
| Records of Local Chapters: Local chapters of professional
and trade organizations should be contacted for information about
historic events and the role of former members in the form of historic
correspondence, official minutes, and newsletters. These include
chapters of the AIA, ASLA, NCCP, NAHB, NAREB, as well as regionally
continued: Figure 6. Historical Sources for
Researching Local Patterns of Suburbanization
| WPA Real Property Surveys: During the 1930s many
local governments, using Works Projects Administration (WPA) funds,
compiled large-scale, city block maps that recorded information
about real estate development and land use. The FHA used these maps
to graphically illustrate statistical data on housing in metropolitan
areas. Many of these maps are among the Records of the FHA (Record
Group 31) in the Cartographic Division of the National Archives.
Others may be on file in local libraries or archives.
| Housing Market Analysis Maps: Compiled by the FHA
beginning in 1937, these maps indicated areas surrounding selected
cities where it was considered safe to underwrite mortgages and
were supplemented by data concerning commuting times, the location
and condition of main highways, and the location of defense areas.
These maps are among the Records of the FHA (Record Group 31) in
the Cartographic Division of the National Archives.
| Pattern Books, Mail Order Catalogs, and Landscape Guidebooks:
Sources of popular house and yard designs by architects, landscape
architects, and mail-order companies such as Sears, Roebuck, Aladdin,
and Van Tine. Many are available in libraries in the form of published
reprints, microfilm, or CD-ROM, such as the microfiche edition of
the Architectural Trade Catalogs from the Columbia's Avery Library
or the microfilm collection of American Architectural Books (New
Haven: Research Publications).
| Home and Garden Periodicals: Popular trends in the
design of house and yard, including new designs, alterations and
additions, housing materials, gardening hints, and interior furnishings.
Also a source for model house plans and garden layouts, as well
as information about design awards and their recipients. Advertisements
provide an excellent source of information on materials for remedying
and new construction. Many historic periodicals are available in
libraries on microfilm or CD-ROM. Garden and Forest is now available
on the website of the Library of Congress.
| Trade Directories, Catalogs and Periodicals: Source
of advertising for building materials, plans, illustrations, and
information about innovative techniques, new materials, and award-winning
designs. Specialized libraries or archival collections may be the
best source for these materials. A number of these, including Sweets
Architectural Trade Catalogs, are available in libraries on
microfilm or microfiche. Advertising circulars, such as Philadelphia's
Real Estate Reports and Building News, contain references
to local builders and architects and their ongoing projects. National
directories include the Blue Book of Major Home Builders,
which began publication in the mid-twentieth century.
|For additional information about archival sources, readers should
also refer to the National Register bulletins, Guidelines
for Local Surveys: A Basis for Preservation Planning (rev.
1985) and Researching a Historic
Property (rev. 1998).
SURVEYING HISTORIC RESIDENTIAL SUBURBS
Most historic resource surveys are conducted in two phases once background
research has been completed. During the first, called the reconnaissance
survey, the study area is surveyed to identify subdivisions and other
property types illustrating local patterns of suburbanization. Observations
are systematically recorded about the general character and condition
of numerous subdivisions and neighborhoods.
During the second phase, called the intensive-level survey, more detailed
information is gathered on one or more neighborhoods and other resources
believed to meet the National Register criteria. Survey at this level
proceeds with the purpose of verifying significance and integrity, establishing
appropriate boundaries, and gathering sufficient documentation to complete
a National Register nomination.
Because of their large size and great number, residential suburbs present
a challenge to preservationists and decision makers. Field survey, data
analysis, and reporting methods can be greatly facilitated through the
use of an electronic database that can store, sort, and report data
in a number of ways. The State historic preservation office or Certified
Local Government should be contacted for guidelines about data entry
and retrieval systems currently being used for the statewide comprehensive
survey and acceptable formats for National Register nominations.
Streetscapes of the Cameron Park Historic
District, Raleigh, North Carolina, one of three large subdivisions
platted c. 1910 during an extensive period of urban growth. Neighborhoods
were nominated to the National Register through a survey of the
city's historic residential neighborhoods, which included the development
of a historic context documenting local patterns of suburbanization.
These efforts resulted in a multiple property submission entitled
Early Twentieth Century Raleigh Neighborhoods. Due to the extremely
large study area and predominance of residential resources, surveyors
systematically proceeded from the city's oldest sections to newer
ones recording block faces on multiple structures forms that were
later grouped together by subdivision and cross-referenced to files
on selected individual properties. (Photos by Diane Filipowicz,
courtesy North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources)
Field observations, as well as facts gathered from historical research,
should be recorded in a systematic and uniform way. Generally this is
done on inventory forms provided by the State historic preservation
office. The forms selected for use should be appropriate for the level
of the survey and the types of historic properties likely to be found
in the survey area.
During a reconnaissance survey, the use of a multi-structure or historic
district form may be most useful for recording preliminary information
about a subdivision, neighborhood, or streetscape cluster. For intensive
survey, a more detailed district form may be needed, as well as individual
structure forms to document the character and condition of individual
buildings or groups of buildings having common characteristics. Since
survey requirements vary from State to State, surveyors should work
out a plan with the State or local preservation office for making the
best use of existing survey forms and deciding how additional information,
such as street patterns or spatial organization, is to be collected.
Some State programs use the National Register
of Historic Places Registration Form (NPS 10-900) or a similar form
for recording intensive-level survey data, including an inventory of
contributing and noncontributing resourc-es. (161)
Information needed to evaluate the significance of a particular
residential subdivision or neighborhood depends to a large degree on
the chronological period in which it developed and the historical factors
that shaped it. Factors, such as the income level of prospective home
owners, the relationship of subdivider and home builder, and methods
of house construction, varied from period to period and frequently defined
a neighborhood's physical character, as well as social history.
Survey techniques should be appropriate to the type of properties one
expects to find. The forms used should enable surveyors to cross-reference
property files and add fields or textual explanations to supplement the
basic survey data. Since many survey forms currently in use do not record
information about site planning or landscape design, decisions should
be made before the survey begins on how information about spatial organization,
circulation network, street plantings, and other landscape characteristics
is to be recorded.
An oasis in the desert, Tucson's El Encanto
Estates evolved from a geometrically perfect radial plan (1929)
designed in the office of a California engineering firm and later
laid out by field engineers on the floor of the Sonoran desert.
A c. 1934 aerial photograph depicts early improvements, including
the layout of streets and spacious lots, rows of evenly-spaced street
trees, and a central, circular park. A sales map prepared in 1951
indicates the extent to which streets had been extended and lots
further subdivided following World War II. Supplementing State survey
forms, a horticultural inventory form was used to record information
about the Mexican fan palms (Washingtonia robusta) and date palms
(Phoenix dactylifera) lining the streets and the stately collection
of giant saquaro (Carnegiea gigantea) gracing the central park.
(Photo and sales map courtesy Arizona Historical Society Library/Tucson)
Field Reference Materials:
The master list of residential subdivisions and the composite or overlay
maps prepared for the local historic context (see Developing
a Statement of Context ) serve as valuable reference materials during
field survey. In addition, copies of the following documents will be
current street maps, planning maps, and U.S.G.S. quadrants;
early transportation maps, indicating streetcar routes, parkways
and boulevards, and highways;
aerial photographs (dating back as early as the 1930s in some
historic subdivision plats;
historic photographs and illustrations; and
fire insurance maps, such as those produced by the Sanborn Fire
Field reference materials should provide a level of detail appropriate
for the type of survey being conducted. For example, historic plats
and current planning maps showing principal streets, location and boundaries
of residential land use, and principal topographic features, are useful
for reconnaissance surveys, while tax parcel maps and Sanborn maps showing
the size, shape, and location of individual house lots provide detailed
information useful in intensive-level surveys.
The Reconnaissance Survey:
Information gathered during the reconnaissance survey strengthens
the local historic context, making it possible to identify locally significant
property types and set registration requirements for National Register
eligibility. The survey should result in an inventory of historic neighborhoods,
subdivisions, and other resources that are potentially eligible for
National Register listing. Survey results can be used to select the
best approach for nominating eligible properties to the National Register
and set priorities for local preservation planning.
Information collected should:
Provide a general picture of the distribution of different
kinds of subdivisions and house types in relationship to historic
Verify, refine, and expand information gathered through literature
and archival sources about patterns of suburbanization and the characteristics
of historic suburbs in the local or metropolitan area.
Provide enough information on the character and condition of
specific neighborhoods to identify locally important property types,
such as planned communities or apartment villages, and make recommendations
on neighborhoods and other related resources that merit intensive-level
survey and may be eligible for National Register listing.
Provide an understanding of the factors that threaten the integrity
of historic neighborhoods, and help establish a threshold for evaluating
historic integrity of individual neighborhoods and determining general
During field work, surveyors should take special note of and record
information about neighborhoods, as well as individual resources, which
are likely to represent important property types and illustrate important
aspects of the region's suburbanization. Such properties may include:
residential subdivisions, or groups of contiguous subdivisions,
that represent broad national trends in transportation, subdivision
design, community planning, architecture, or landscape architecture;
neighborhoods that possess historic associations with events
or activities in the history of a local community or metropolitan
area, or represent locally distinctive methods of construction or
clusters or streetscapes having historic values, associations,
or design characteristics that distinguish them from the larger subdivision
of which they were originally a part;
single homes associated with persons important in our past
or distinctive for their architectural design or method of construction,
or as the work of a master;
and community centers, schools, and shopping centers within
or adjacent to a residential neighborhood which are associated with
important historic events or possess architectural distinction.
While the residential subdivision is the focus of survey activities,
historic neighborhoods may extend beyond the boundaries of a single
subdivision. Historic associations or physical characteristics linking
these areas should be documented and considered in making recommendations
about their collective significance or National Register eligibility.
Conversely, where a historically important neighborhood no longer possesses
historic integrity in its entirety, a smaller area retaining significant
qualities and associations may be eligible. Individually eligible resources
associated with the suburbanization context but located outside the
boundaries of a potentially eligible historic district should also be
Information about city planning, including
the development of transportation routes, helps surveyors trace
the evolution of historic suburbs and determine appropriate boundaries
for historic districts. A c. 1923 aerial view depicts the infrastructure
of electric streetcar lines and wide boulevards that, extending
from downtown Cleveland, would spur the suburbanization of Shaker
Village in coming decades. By the end of the 1920s, Moreland Circle
(lower right of photo) would be transformed into Shaker Square,
a commercial center and transportation hub for the rapidly growing
suburb. By 1950, Shaker Village contained more than 4500 dwellings
and apartment buildings in numerous subdivisions.
A map of the
Shaker Village Historic District indicates historic district boundaries,
a complex pattern of neighborhood streets, and the rapid transit
routes and major thoroughfares that continue to serve the historic
district today. (Photo courtesy Western Reserve Historical Society;
map courtesy Ohio Historic Preservation Office)
Organizing an Itinerary
Organize an automobile itinerary that follows historic transportation
routes as closely as possible, directing surveyors from the oldest to
the newest subdivisions so they can gain a sense of the range of variation
that occurred in housing types and subdivision design throughout the
Because the boundaries of historic subdivisions are often invisible
in the field and may not be evident on contemporary street maps, it
is a good idea to have copies of historic maps, plats, and aerial photographs,
as well as the composite map or series of overlay maps prepared for
the historic context. This is especially important when surveying older
suburbs where housing was built in small subdivisions by a variety of
builders, often following the rectilinear urban grid, and where subdivision
boundaries are not necessarily signaled by changes in architectural
style, housing type, or street design.
Recording Field Observations
Following the itinerary and using current and historic street maps
as a guide, proceed in two stages. First, drive through as many subdivisions
as possible making general notes and taking photographs. Second, for
each major subdivision, neighborhood, or distinctive cluster, record
field observations incorporating information gathered from maps, plats,
and other field reference materials.
Surveyors should be prepared to take photographs, annotate field maps,
and complete survey forms as they proceed through each subdivision.
It is important to note the presence of distinctive features of architecture,
landscape design, and community planning that might be attributes of
historic significance and should receive further documentation during
an intensive survey. This includes unusual house types, distinctive
architectural types, characteristic streetscapes, evidence of professional
principles of landscape design, important vernacular trends in housing
or yard design, or highly distinctive site plans. Similarly, note interesting
historical associations or observations on community life, such as annual
traditions, the role of a citizens' association, or the presence of
a community center.
One can expect to find a huge variation in the size and design of
neighborhoods. Those subdivided before World War II may be relatively
small in size, often consisting of little more than a single, rectilinear
street with a handful of rectangular lots to either side. In these cases
it may be useful to develop a system of classifying such subdivisions
by attributes-such as street pattern or architectural variety-to define
local patterns and establish a set of local property types, or to look
for common characteristics that link subdivisions into larger historic
Analyzing Survey Results:
Survey data should be incorporated into the written statement of context,
and connections made between broad patterns of local suburbanization
and the development of specific suburbs and neighborhoods. At this point,
the master list of subdivisions can be annotated to include information
about developers, builders, architects, site planners, and other designers
and to note important events in social history that illustrate locally
important themes or trends. Also, note the condition of specific subdivisions
and the general nature of changes that each area has undergone since
the end of the historic period.
Information about distinctive characteristics of site planning, housing,
or landscape design should be used to define significant local patterns,
to document the work of important designers, and to identify properties
that should be more closely examined for significance in architecture,
landscape architecture, or community planning during the intensive survey.
Likewise, information about events in the neighborhood's cultural or
social history should be used to identify neighborhoods associated with
significant patterns of community life and social change. Survey information
about condition of local residential suburbs and housing types will
help establish thresholds for evaluating historic integrity in the local
From this synthesis, it is possible to 1) define the set of locally
important property types, 2) formulate registration requirements for
National Register listing, and 3) compile a list of subdivisions, neighborhoods
and other properties that appear eligible for the National Register
and merit intensive-level survey.
Analysis of survey data will also suggest areas of further research,
appropriate research methods, and special concerns for significance
or integrity. For example, observations about the range of housing types
may suggest clues about the relationship of subdividers and builders,
the period of development, sources of design, and use of restrictive
deeds, which can be substantiated through further research conducted
during the intensive-level survey. The presence of original home owners
or an active neighborhood organization may indicate opportunities for
conducting oral history or viewing community records.
Identifying Significant Patterns of Development
While the significance of a residential suburb depends to a large degree
on the local or regional context, the following characteristics generally
indicate aspects of a neighborhood's history that may reflect important
local or metropolitan trends and should receive further study through
an intensive-level survey to verify National Register eligibility.
The neighborhood's planning and construction related to the expansion
of local industry, wartime industry, important stages in metropolitan
development, or broad national trends such as returning GI's, the Better
Homes movement, and the bungalow craze.
A wide variety of plans for "architect-designed"
small houses were available to local builders in the 1920s and
1930s through architect service bureaus, trade publications, stock-plan
businesses, and even savings and loan associations. From top to
bottom: Tudor Revival house, Chautauqua Park Historic District,
Des Moines (photo by Barbara Beving Long, courtesy of State Historical
Society of Iowa); Moderne house, Westheight Manor Historic District,
Kansas City, Kansas (photo courtesy Kansas Historical Society);
Spanish Colonial Revival house, F.Q. Story Historic District,
Phoenix (photo by Robin Baldwin, courtesy Arizona Office of Historic
Preservation); Tudor revival house, Glenview Historic District,
Memphis (photo by Carroll van West, courtesy Tennessee Historical
Commission); English Colonial Revival house, Shaker Village Historic
District, Shaker Heights, Ohio (photo by Audra Bartley, courtesy
Ohio Historic Preservation Office); Moderne/International Style
house, Fort Street Historic District, Boise (photo by Susanne
Lichtenstein, courtesy State Historical Society of Idaho).
The neighborhood-through its site plan, overall landscape design,
and house design-reflects historic principles of design or achieved
high artistic quality in the areas of community planning, landscape
architecture, or architecture.
The subdivider and site planners responsible for the platting
and construction of the subdivision figured prominently in the suburban
development of the locality or region and made substantial contributions
to its character and the availability of housing.
The neighborhood's design represents the work of one or more
established professional designers-site planners, landscape architects,
architects, or engineers.
The subdivision design resulted from the collaboration of professionals
representing several fields of design, such as landscape architecture
The neighborhood exemplifies the role that a certain type of
developer (subdivider, home builder, community builder, operative
builder, or merchant builder) played in the growth and development
of the locality or metropolitan region.
The neighborhood was designed to conform to FHA-standards and
represents one of the "earliest," "most successful," "largest," "finest,"
or "most influential" examples locally.
Historic neighborhoods possessing a high degree of integrity
and exhibiting distinctive elements of design in the subdivision plan,
landscape architecture, or domestic architecture.
Historic neighborhoods reflecting important advances, established
principles, or popular trends in community planning or landscape architecture.
Neighborhoods containing homes in a variety of period styles,
or representing the work of one or a number of noted architects.
Neighborhoods whose housing represents one or more locally
important housing types (e.g., bungalows and foursquares).
Residential neighborhoods associated with important local industries
or local events and activities that are known to have stimulated suburban
growth and development.
Neighborhoods historically associated with important events
in the Civil Rights movement to provide equal access to housing.
Neighborhoods associated with important patterns of ethnic
settlement that contributed to local growth and development.
Neighborhoods with homes that received recognition or awards
from professional organizations, trade organizations, architectural
journals, popular magazines, or housing research foundations.
Neighborhoods that introduced or established patterns of subdivision
design, housing, financing, or building practices that became influential
in the local community, metropolitan area, or elsewhere.
Conducting an Intensive-Level Survey and Compiling National Register
Intensive-level survey provides a comprehensive study of selected
neighborhoods and gathers the detailed information necessary to document
properties for National Register listing and make determinations of
eligibility. Building upon the general observations made during the
reconnaissance survey, the intensive-level survey provides detailed,
factual information about the history and physical evolution of one
or more subdivisions or neighborhoods believed to be eligible for National
The intensive survey closely examines the neighborhood's historic significance,
integrity, and boundaries, firmly establishing its place within the
local historical context. Survey at this level gathers sufficient information
to confirm National Register eligibility and to document the property
according to National Register standards.
Documenting the Physical Evolution of a Historic Residential Suburb
During intensive-level survey, additional field observations and research
provide an in-depth record of the current character and condition of
a historic neighborhood and document its physical evolution and history.
The guidelines in Figure 7 list the information
that should be gathered during the intensive-level survey and reported
on the National Register registration form.
Several historical documents provide valuable comparative data for
tracing the physical evolution of a historic neighborhood. A comparison
of the neighborhood as it exists today and the original plat helps determine
the extent to which the plan was carried out and the periods of time
when housing was constructed. Such a comparison will also help determine
whether the neighborhood was developed by a subdivider, who consequently
sold unbuilt lots to builders, or, by a community builder, who not only
sold lots but also supervised the construction of houses. Historic photographs,
illustrations, maps and aerial photographs also reveal changes. In addition,
fire insurance maps, such as Sanborn Fire Insurance Company maps, drawn
soon after the completion of the subdivision, can be compared with more
recent maps to identify later construction. Recorded deeds and sometimes
tax records provide reliable dates of construction, which can be used
to create a series of period maps showing the neighborhood's evolution.
During the intensive-level survey, it is important to document the
physical evolution of the neighborhood, identifying who was responsible
for the subdivision plan as well as the design of houses and landscape
features. This means:
Determining which profile of developer (e.g. subdivider,
home builder, community builder, operative builder, or merchant builder)
the developer most closely fits.
Explaining the relationship between the developer and any site
planners, architects, landscape architects, engineers, and home builders
who contributed to the design of the neighborhood.
Documenting the specific contributions of each professional
group and of individual designers collaborating on the neighborhood's
Providing documentary evidence that deed restrictions were
used, mentioning specific provisions of such restrictions and explaining
how they influenced the character of the subdivision.
Indicating whether the original developer remained in charge
of executing the plan and, if not, describing any major changes made
by subsequent developers.
Classifying House Types for Inventory Purposes
An intensive survey of one or more residential suburbs often covers
an area of considerable extent and literally hundreds of houses and
other resources. Decisions need to be made about how houses and streetscapes
can be surveyed most efficiently so that determinations can be made
about district boundaries and the classification of contributing and
noncontributing resources. Sufficient information should be drawn from
the reconnaissance survey to determine whether a building-by-building
survey is needed or whether there are sufficient similarities of construction
and design so that resources can be grouped in categories based on common
housing types. Such a typology can then be used to define significant
patterns as well as facilitate the collection of information about condition
and integrity which is needed to complete the building-by-building inventory
of contributing and noncontributing resources.
Many subdivisions, especially during and after World War II, offered
prospective owners a limited number of house types, sometimes being
distinguished only by the number of rooms, roof design, or exterior
wall materials. For this reason, when conducting an intensive survey
in a neighborhood of similarly-designed houses, perhaps designed by
a single architect and constructed by a single builder, it makes sense
to classify houses or housing units by type and provide a general description
of each type. An inventory can be compiled by listing each house by
street address or building number and indicating its type according
to the general classification scheme and noting its condition, any major
alterations or additions, and status as contributing or noncontributing.
For example, in an FHA-approved neighborhood having a dozen house types,
the description of House Type 2-B might read:
House Type 2-B is a six-room, two-story hipped roof variation
of the standard 1144 square foot home whose lower-story is clad with
painted brick and upper story wooden clapboard. The house originally
featured metal casement windows, a side porch, and a side chimney. A
pedimented doorway, paneled door, and a moulded entablature reflect
minimal Colonial Revival styling.
An inventory entry for one such house could then read:
1212 Columbus Street, an example of Type 2-B, having an enclosed
porch, matching aluminum siding over wooden clapboards on upper story,
and replacement double-hung, vinyl windows on principal facades. Otherwise
house is in good condition. Contributing.
For more information on documenting historic suburbs, refer to the
Documentation and Registration
section and the National Register Bulletin,
How to Complete the National Register Registration Form.
Figure 7. Guidelines for Surveying Historic
|The following list should be used as a guide for gathering historical
facts and recording field observations that can be used to expand
the historic context and to identify National Register eligible
properties. Characteristics or evidence noted during the reconnaissance
survey should be documented during the intensive-level survey.
|1. Relationship to transportation routes and other factors
influencing location of subdivision
Identify the modes of transportation that residents historically
used to travel between home and work.
Note the proximity to former streetcar routes and other transportation
corridors, including ferry crossings, boulevards, parkways, major
arterials, highways, railroad lines, bus routes, and subways.
Mention common destinations for commuters other than the
center city, for example, centers of defense industry.
Mention other factors, including demographic patterns, politics,
economics, and natural topography, that influenced the subdivision's
location and design.
continued Figure 7. Guidelines for Surveying
Historic Residential Suburbs
|2. Site plan and subdivision design
Date and describe the subdivision plan, including the date
of plat, boundaries, location, approximate size (acreage and/or
number of blocks), the approximate number and type of streets (curvilinear
or rectilinear), the provision for pedestrian walkways or sidewalks,
overall density, and general lot size.
Identify the developer, site planner, or engineer responsible
for the subdivision design. Note any indications that the plan resulted
from the collaboration of designers from different fields.
Describe the circulation network, indicating whether the
street pattern is rectilinear or curvilinear and whether it follows
the urban gridiron plan or natural topography. Indicate whether
a hierarchy of roads is evident (from wide collector streets to
narrow cul-de-sacs), noting the presence of entrances, wide collector
streets, side streets, courts and cul-de-sacs, circles, and peripheral
Note evidence of established principles of landscape design
or important trends in community planning (e.g., radial plans with
circles and circular drives indicating the influence of City Beautiful
movement or curvilinear streets and cul-de-sacs characteristic of
Describe the nature and location of improvements made by
the subdivider (e.g. utilities, paved roads, public parks, and reservoirs).
Indicate physical evidence of the use of deed restrictions (e.g.,
mandatory setbacks, uniformity of housing type).
Note variations between the subdivision plan as drawn on
the plat and as carried out. Note any evidence indicating that subdivision
was developed in distinct stages (e.g. noticeable changes in street
design or house types).
Describe major alterations since the historic period, including
street closures or widenings, consolidation of lots, out-of-scale
additions, further subdivision of lots (infill), and new land uses
or incompatible activities.
|3. Character and condition of housing
Because great variation exists in house types, surveyors should
make detailed observations and photographs making sure that information
is gathered on the types of housing associated with all social groups
and income levels historically associated with local history and
development. Although published style guides are useful for describing
general housing styles and types, surveyors should look for local
and regional variations and confirm dates of construction using
local records. Surveyors should also consider the influence of local
firms of small house architects, FHA standards, local home building
practices, and availability of ready-cut houses in examining house
Describe the general pattern of housing (dwelling types,
chronological distribution, sources of design and construction,
building materials, and income range).
Indicate the approximate number of dwellings, noting whether
they are single-family (detached) houses, multiple family (attached
and semi-detached) units, or a combination of the two.
Describe the architectural styles and types represented by
the dwellings and garages, noting similarities and variations that
reflect the relationship between a developer and builder or exhibit
characteristics of a particular period or method of construction.
Identify architects and home builders responsible for the
design of houses.
Estimate the approximate span of years represented by housing
types, noting the character of predominant or distinctive house
types and styles. Describe the various periods of construction and
provide a general chronology of housing types from the earliest
to most recent types. (More accurate dates can be added during intensive-level
survey). Note evidence of gaps and changes in construction due to
events such as the Great Depression, World War II, bankruptcies,
or changing ownership.
Note distinctive aspects of design and construction, such
as materials, size, elements of architectural style, use of prefabricated
components, provision for scenic views, and relationship between
house and its setting.
Indicate if housing collectively serves an important design
element (e.g., through common set backs or architectural materials,
giving the neighborhood a cohesive yet varied character).
Describe the general condition of housing, including the
nature of alterations to individual homes (houses and lots)-e.g.,
siding, raised roofs, enclosure of carports, construction of garages
and additions, changes to windows (materials and fenestration),
porch enclosures, and addition of porches, dormers, and nonhistoric
| 4. Distinctive aspects of landscape design
Field observations are often the best source of information about
street plantings, yard design, and the relationship between a subdivision
plat and natural topography. Adherence to principles of landscape
design may be evident through the careful arrangement of streets
to follow the natural topography, an irregular artistic division
of land into house lots, the provision of parks and parkways to
accommodate water drainage as well as enhance the neighborhood's
beauty, and the presence of a unifying program of landscape plantings.
These characteristics help identify subdivisions that may be the
work of established masters of design or have high artistic values
and, therefore, merit further study and contextual development.
Describe the relationship of street design and overall site
plan to the natural topography, noting distinctive street patterns,
the way site is divided into house lots, and provisions for site
drainage and parks.
Describe elements of landscape design seen in entrance ways,
street plantings, boundary demarcations, recessed roadways, treatment
of corner lots, traffic circles, historic gardens, and the grading
of community facilities.
Identify principal types of vegetation, noting distinctive
patterns such as use of ornamental or shade trees, shrubbery, and
specimen trees. Indicate principal species using common, and, if
known, Latin names. Although plants and trees are best identified
during seasonal displays of flowers or foliage, they can be recognized
at other times of the year by their bark and fruit.
Note evidence of deed restrictions seen in uniform setbacks,
similarity of architectural style, and open, unfenced yards.
Describe distinctive materials and evidence of workmanship
in entrance signs or portals, ornamental plantings, curbs, bridges,
gutters, walls, and walkways.
Note distinctive features associated with utilities and street
improvements, including lighting, absence or presence of telephone
poles and power lines, reservoirs and water towers, sewer, curbs,
Describe the general size of lots and the placement of houses
on each lot, including the arrangement of corner lots.
Note whether streetscapes have uniform setbacks, form a regular
or irregular pattern, or exhibit striking vistas.
Describe distinctive patterns of yard design: open lawns,
perimeter fences or hedges, stairways and walls, patios and outdoor
terraces, gardens, specimen plants, and foundation plantings.
continued Figure 7. Guidelines for Surveying
Historic Residential Suburbs
|5. Presence of community facilities, such as schools and stores.
Describe and date community buildings, shopping areas, parks,
civic centers, club houses, country clubs, schools, and other facilities
that were built within or adjoining the neighborhood.
Explain whether these facilities were part of the neighborhood's
original design, and describe how they served and supported suburban
Note any distinctive elements of design present in the architectural
styles, landscape design, or methods of construction, and identify
architects or landscape designers responsible for their design.
|6. Patterns of social history
Provide a general profile of original or early home owners,
noting typical occupations, income group, and ethnic or racial associations.
(Keeping in mind that prior to the end of the 1940s, deed restrictions
were often used to exclude residents on the basis of income, profession,
race, and religion.)
Mention the presence of a citizens' association and established
Note whether or not the subdivision is part of a larger historic
neighborhood, and define the characteristics that link it to the
Name local industries or institutions (such as colleges or
defense plants) that created demand for housing.
Note changing patterns of ownership, indicating approximate
dates of general trends and describing the effects of change on
the physical character and social history of the neighborhood.
Note possible significance in social history and suggest
directions for further research, such as oral history and or the
review of community held records.