U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service
VII. WHERE TO TURN FOR HELP
There are many places to turn for more information on the topics discussed in this bulletin, most of which have been studied in detail by interpreters, historians, and others. This section provides a list of sources where additional information can be found, divided by topic following the order used in this bulletin, and annotated in some cases. Much of the material on this list will need to be ordered through inter-library loan, although some of it may be found in local school or university libraries or is available online. This section also includes a list of organizations that can provide assistance. Published sources can be purchased from some of these organizations. This section concludes with brief guidelines for identifying and selecting consultants to help with planning or creating interpretive programs.
THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES
National Register of Historic Places
Copies of individual National Register nominations and MPS forms can be obtained from the National Register or from historic preservation offices in each state (see below). Each nomination contains a description, historical background, evaluation of historic significance, bibliography, boundary description, maps, and current photographs. Some may contain copies of historic maps, photographs, or other documents.
The National Register Information System (NRIS) provides an index to the over 71,000 properties listed in 1999. It can also use selected data elements, such as location, period of significance, significant person, architectural style, or historical theme, to identify single properties or related groups of properties. Information on the NRIS can be obtained through the address and telephone number for the National Register listed above. It also can be accessed directly through the National Register Web site. The Web site provides links to National Register travel itineraries and introductions to and examples of Teaching with Historic Places educational materials.
Other bulletins in this series can be useful in developing interpretive programs. Many of these were initially prepared to help people who wanted to nominate particular property types. They provide a wealth of information which can be used to enrich the story of a specific place, such as a post office or historic mine, for instance. Most also include useful bibliographies.
Bulletins can be ordered from the National Register at the address shown above or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Related publications dealing with National Register programs include:
African American Historic Places. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1994 (distributed by John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY)
Chambers, S. Allen, Jr. National Landmarks, America's Treasures: The National Park Foundation's Complete Guide to National Historic Landmarks. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2000.
Cultural Diversity and Historic Preservation. Special issue of CRM (Cultural Resources Management-a journal published by the National Park Service), Vol. 15, No. 7, 1992
The National Register of Historic Places, 1966-1994. Washington, DC: Preservation Press, 1995 (distributed by John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY)
Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itineraries,
National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service.
Teaching with Historic Places lesson plans,
National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service.
Teaching With Historic Places. Special issue of CRM, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1993.
The Multiple Property Approach Video: Nominating Groups of Properties to the National Register of Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1992.
Through the Generations: Identifying and Protecting Traditional Cultural Places Video, National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1994.
Using the National Register of Historic Places. Special issue of CRM, Vol 17, No. 2, 1994
Alderson, William T., and Shirley Payne Low. Interpretation of Historic Sites. Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local History, 1976.
Beck, Larry, and Ted Cable. Interpretation for the 21st Century: Fifteen Guiding Principles for Interpreting Nature and Culture. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publications, 1997.
Ecroyd, Donald H. Talking with Young Visitors in the Parks.Philadelphia, PA: Eastern National Park & Monument Association, 1993.
Falk, John H., and Lynn D. Dierking. The Museum Experience.Washington, DC: Whalesback Books, 1992.
Fleming, Ronald Lee, and Judith Hadden Edington. If Walls Could Talk: Telling the Story of a Historic Building to Create a Market Edge.Washington, DC: The National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1989
Explains why interpretation is good business for projects funded with the Investment Tax Credit. Good examples and planning guidelines.
Grater, Russell K. The Interpreter's Handbook-Methods, Skills, and Techniques. Globe, AZ: Southwestern Parks and Monuments Association, 1976.
Grinder, Alison L., and E. Sue McCoy. The Good Guide: A Sourcebook for Interpreters, Docents, and Tour Guides.Scottsdale, AZ: Ironwood Press, 1985.
Knudson, Douglas M., Ted T. Cable, and Larry Beck. Interpretation of Cultural and Natural Resources. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, ca. 1995.
Lewis, William J. Interpreting for Park Visitors. Philadelphia, PA: Eastern Acorn Press, 1980.
Machlis, Gary E., and Donald R. Field, eds. On Interpretation: Sociology for Interpreters of Natural and Cultural History. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, ca. 1992.
Regnier, Kathleen, Michael Gross, and Ron Zimmerman. Interpreter's Guidebook: Techniques for Programs and Presentations. Stephens Point, WI: UW-SP Foundation Press, ca. 1992.
Risk, Paul H., "Interpretation: A Road to Creative Enlightenment, CRM: Historic Transportation Corridors, Vol. 16, No. 11 (1993), pp. 47-49.
----, "Interpretation: A Road to Creative Enlightenment," CRM: Using the National Register of Historic Places, Vol. 17, No. 2 (1994), pp. 37, 40.
----, "A Public Historiography:
Review Essay." The Public Historian,
Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer 1992).
Sharpe, Grant. Interpreting the Environment. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976.
Colleges and universities teaching interpretation have been using this classic text for many years. Sharpe discusses the advantages of specific interpretive media in detail and provides help in defining and producing effective non-personal interpretive programs.
Tilden, Freeman. Interpreting Our Heritage, 3rd ed. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1977.
TELLING THE WHOLE STORY
Acosta-Belen, Edna. The Puerto Rican Woman. New York: Praeger, 1970.
Armitage, Susan and Elizabeth Jameson, eds. The Women's West. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
Bailyn, Bernard. The Peopling of British North America: An Introduction. New York: Knopf, 1985.
Baum, Willa K. Oral History for the Local Historical Society. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, ca. 1995.
Baxandall, Rosalyn, Linda Gordon, and Susan Reverby, eds. America's Working Women: A Documentary History. New York: Random House, 1976.
Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. Revised ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: Pantheon Books, 1974.
Bodnar, John, ed. The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1985.
Boyd, Alex, ed. Guide to Multicultural Resources: 1997/1998. Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith Press, ca. 1998.
Buhle, Paul and Alan Dawley, eds. Working for Democracy: American Workers from the Revolution to the Present. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1985.
Crow, Jeffrey J. "Interpreting Slavery in the Classroom and at Historic Sites," Perspectives (newsletter of the American Historical Association) Vol. 36, No. 3 (March 1998), pp. 23-26.
Diner, Hasia. Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.
Earle, Alice Morse. Colonial Dames and Goodwives. 1927; New York: Unger, 1962.
Etienne, Mona and Eleanor Leacock, eds. Women and Colonization: Anthropological Perspectives. New York: Praeger, 1979.
Flexner, Eleanor. Century of Struggle: The Women's Rights Movement in the United States. 1959; New York: Atheneum, 1970.
Foner, Eric. A Short History of Reconstruction. New York: Harper and Row, 1990.
Frisch, Michael and Daniel Walkowitz, eds. Working Class America. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, 1983.
Genovese, Eugene. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Pantheon Books, 1974.
Groneman, Carol, and Mary Beth Norton, eds. "To Toil the Livelong Day": America's Women at Work, 1780-1960. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.
Gutman, Herbert. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.
Harley, Sharon, and Rosalind Terborg-Penn, eds. The Afro-American Woman: Struggles and Images. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1978.
Hutchinson, Edward P. Legislative History of American Immigration Policy, 1798-1965. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981.
Jackson, Kenneth. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Jameson, John H., Jr. Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths. Walnut Grove, CA: AltaMira Press, 1997.
This book describes how archeological sites across the nation are telling their stories to the public.
Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work and the Family from Slavery to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
Kammen, Carol. On Doing Local History: Reflections on What Local Historians Do, Why, and What It Means. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 1995.
________. "When Not Being Wrong Is Not Good Enough." History News Vol. 51, No. 4 (Autumn 1996), pp. 3-4.
Kammen, Michael, ed. The Past Before Us: Contemporary Historical Writing in the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980.
Kerber, Jordan E. Cultural Resource Management: Archaeological Research, Preservation Planning, and Public Education in the Northeastern United States. Westport, CT: Green Publishing Group, ca. 1997
Kessler-Harris, Alice. Out to Work: A History of Wage-Earning Women in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
----. Women Have Always Worked: A Historical Overview. Old Westbury, NY: Feminist Press, 1981.
Kettner, James H. The Development of American Citizenship, 1608-1870. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1978.
Kyvig, David E., and Myron A. Marty. Nearby History: Exploring the Past Around You. Walnut Grove, CA: AltaMira Press, 1996.
First published by the AASLH in 1982, this useful book is the first in the "Nearby History" series, which now includes volumes on documenting local schools, houses and homes, public places, places of worship, and businesses.
Leon, Warren, and Roy Rosenzweig, ed. History Museums in the United States: A Critical Assessment. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
Meinig, D.W. The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History: Atlantic America, 1492-1800. Vol. I. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986.
Miller, Randall M. A., and Thomas D. Marzik, eds. Immigrants and Religion in Urban America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977.
Spruill, Julia Cherry. Women's Life and Work in the Southern Colonies. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1938.
Strasser, Susan. Never Done: A History of American Housework. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.
Uhl, Lauren, "The Kins House: Museum of the American Immigrant Experience." History News, Vol. 51, No. 2 (Spring 1996), pp. 6-9.
Thernstrom, Stephan, Ann Orlov, and Oscar Handlin, eds. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.
Delaware & Lehigh Canal Heritage Corridor, Interpretive and Educational Plan. Bethlehem, PA: Delaware & Lehigh National Heritage Corridor Commission, 1999.
Getting Started: How to Succeed in Heritage Tourism. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1993.
Harpers Ferry Center (US) Division of Interpretive Planning. Planning for Interpretation and Visitor Experience. Harpers Ferry, WV: [National Park Service], Harpers Ferry Center, 1998.
"Interpretive Planning: Interpretation and Visitor Guideline, NPS-6, Chapter III." Pamphlet. Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1996.
Paskowsky, Michael. Interpretive Planning Handbook. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1983.
Produced for use by National Park Service staff, this handbook describes both the planning process and the advantages and disadvantages of interpretive media.
Veverka, John. Interpretive Master Planning. Helena, MT: Falcon Press, 1994.
Based upon years of experience, Veverka's book provides step-by-step guidance in interpretive planning. It also discusses trails, auto tours, and interpretive exhibits.
Brewer, Ernest W., Charles M. Achilles, and Jay R. Fuhriman. Finding Funding: Grantwriting for the Financially Challenged Educator. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, ca. 1993.
Campobasso, Laura, Emille Mead, and Jeff Schwartz. A Guide to Designing Effective Proposals. MD: World Wildlife Fund Publications, 1991.
Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
The Chronicle of Philanthropy
Ferguson, Jacqueline, ed. The Grantseeker's Guide to Project Evaluation. Alexandria, VA: Capitol Publications, 1992.
The Foundation Center. The Foundation Directory
Grantsmanship Center, Nonprofit Catalog
Hall, Mary. Getting Funded: A Complete Guide to Proposal Writing. Portland, OR: Continuing Education Publications, 1988.
Public Management Institute. Corporate 500: The Directory of Corporate Philanthropy.
Reilly, Patti. "Grants-A New Way of Thinking." Interpretation (a publication of the National Park Service), Special Issue on Education, Summer 1995
The Taft Group, Taft Corporate Giving Directory.
Cody, Sue Ann. "Historical Museums on the World Wide Web: An Exploration and Critical Analysis." The Public Historian, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Fall 1997).
Conroy, Pete. Collection-Based Loan Programs and Their Development. Jacksonville, AL: Center for Social Design, c. 1997.
Ecroyd, Donald H. Living History. Philadelphia, PA: Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1992.
Hall, Eleanor J. "Putting It All Together: How to Produce a Traveling Trunk." Guidelines and Workbook. St. Louis, MO: [National Park Service] Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, 1991.
Helpful step-by-step guidelines for preparing a traveling trunk, from identifying the theme to selecting the artifacts.
Hughes, Catherine. Museum Theater: Communicating with Visitors Through Drama. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1998.
Serrell, Beverly. Exhibit Labels: An Interpretive Approach. Walnut Grove, CA: AltaMira Press, 1996.
Straus, Susan. The Passionate Fact-Storytelling in Natural History and Cultural Interpretation. Fulcrum Publishing
Thomson, Ron. "A Different Path for Historic Walking Tours." History News Technical Leaflet #194. Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local History, 1996
Zehr, Jeffrey, Michael Gross, and Ron Zimmerman. Creating Environmental Publications. Stevens Point, WI: UW-SP Foundation Press, Inc., ca. 1990.
Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994.
Bednarz, Sarah Witham, et al. Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1994.
Bigge, M. L., and S. S. Shermis. Learning Theories for Teachers, 5th ed. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.
Bloom, Benjamin S. Taxonomy of Education Objectives, The Classification of Education Goals, Handbook #1: The Cognitive and Affective Domain. David McKay, 1984.
Burden, Paul R. Classroom Management
and Discipline: Methods to Facilitate Cooperation and Instruction. New York: Longman, ca. 1995.
Cangelosi, James S. Classroom Management Strategies: Gaining and Maintaining Students' Cooperation,
2nd ed. New York: Longman, 1993.
Educational Leadership. Journal of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Elias, M. J., et al. Promoting Social and Emotional Learning: Guidelines for Educators. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1997
Gardner, Howard. The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books, ca. 1991.
Griswold, Robyn, and Audrey Rogers. Cooperative Learning Basics: Strategies and Lessons for U.S. History Teachers. Amawalk, NY: Golden Owl, ca. 1995.
Harmin, Merrill. Inspiring Active Learning: A Handbook for Teachers. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994.
This short book gives practical strategies for engaging students in learning and offers a wide variety of types of activities.
Harper, Marilyn M. "Including Historic Places in the Social Studies Curriculum." ERIC Digest EDO-SO-97-13. Bloomington, IN: Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, 1997.
Labinowicz, Ed. The Piaget Primer: Thinking, Learning, Teaching. Menlo Park, CA: Addison Wesley, 1980.
McCarthy, Bernice. "A Tale of Four
Learners: 4MAT's Learning Styles."
Educational Leadership, Vol. 54, No. 6 (March 1997), pp. 46-52.
Metcalf, Fay, and Matthew Downey. Using Local History in the Classroom. Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local History, 1982.
National Center for History in the
Schools. National Standards for
History. Basic edition. Los Angeles:
National Center for History in the Schools, 1996.
National Council for the Social Studies. Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, Bulletin 89. Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies, 1994.
Orlich, Donald C, et al. Teaching Strategies: A Guide to Better Instruction, 3rd. Ed. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1994.
Patrick, John J. Heritage Education in the School Curriculum: Defining and Avoiding the Pitfalls. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation Heritage Education Monograph, 1992.
"Programming For School Groups: An Interpreter's Guide." Boston, MA: Division of Interpretation, North Atlantic Region, National Park Service, 1991.
Schubert, William H. Curriculum: Perspectives, Paradigm, and Possibility. New York: Macmillan, 1986.
Social Education and Social Studies and the Young Learner. Journals of the National Council for the Social Studies, 3501 Newark Street, NW, Washington, DC 20016-3167.
Voris, Helen H., ed. Teach the Mind, Touch the Spirit: A Guide to Focused Field Trips. Chicago, IL: Field Museum of Natural History, 1986.
White, Charles D., and Kathleen Hunter. Teaching with Historic Places: A Curriculum Framework. Washington, DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1995.
Medlin, Nancy C. and Gary Machlis. "Focus Groups: A Tool for Evaluating Interpretive Services" (training manual and video tape). Cooperative Park Studies Unit, University of Idaho, 1991.
REFERENCE WORKS (available in many local libraries):
American Association for State and Local History, The Directory of Historical Societies and Agencies.
American Association of Museums, The Official Museum Directory.
Gale Research, Inc., The Gale Directory of Publication and Broadcast Media
----, The Encyclopedia of Associations.
Many organizations can provide assistance in developing interpretive programs. Often they conduct training sessions or hold conferences. They publish newsletters or even books that can be useful in developing interpretation. Some of the most active are listed below. Others can be located through the Encyclopedia of Associations (see above).
of Museums (AAM)
for State and Local History (AASLH)
Association for Living Historical Farms & Agricultural Museums (ALHFAM)
Council for the Interpretation of Native Peoples
Preservation Officers (FPOs)
History Teaching Alliance (HTA)
Alliance of Preservation Commissions (NAPC)
NAI is emerging as the most active national organization of interpreters. It publishes a magazine, Legacy, holds an annual conference with published proceedings, and offers employment assistance. Regional NAI organizations also publish newsletters and sponsor training and annual conferences. Both advertisers and members can provide information on interpretive products and services.
Council on Public History (NCPH)
for the Humanities (NEH)
National History Day
National History Education Network (NHEN)
National Park Service
The National Park Service is dedicated to conserving unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the National Park System for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. All of the more than 370 units of the System provide some form of interpretation to park visitors; 221 tell stories that are primarily historical. Your local library or ParkNet, the Park Service Web site listed above, can provide information on any of the parks in the System or help you identify parks that are close to you or that address similar themes.
The National Register of Historic Places is also part of the National Park Service. See entry for the National Register (above) for more detailed information.
Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER) was established before the Second World War to record historic buildings in narrative descriptions, measured drawings, and photographs. A number of buildings listed in the National Register are also documented through very high quality photographs and measured drawings in the HABS/HAER collections, which are maintained at the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Further information on the programs can be obtained from HABS/HAER (202-343-1024) or the Prints and Photographs Division (202-707-6394).
The Interpretation Division of the Park Service has developed extensive training materials that cover interpretive planning, media, and evaluation, among other subjects. These materials can be accessed through the National Park Service Web site. Some are listed individually under the appropriate topic (above).
for Historic Preservation
Oral History Association
Preservation Officers (SHPOs)
State/County/City Park Systems
Preservation Officers (TPOs)
Local organizations and historical societies
To find the right consultant, look first for someone who has experience with historic properties. Just as you might find a plumber or auto mechanic, contact others who have developed interpretive programs and ask for recommendations. Visit the public library and find The Official Museum Directory published by the American Association of Museums, discussed above. Look up other historic properties in your area, properties that deal with similar resources and themes, or turn directly to the section that lists product and service suppliers. Most consultants are members of organizations that address interpretation (see above) and some organizations maintain consultant registers.
When you have located one or more possible contractors, ask to see samples of their work and, of course, talk to references. It is important that you and the consultant see eye to eye on the nature of the project. It is always useful to get more than one bid, if you can. Ask for as detailed a proposal as possible, one that includes both products and costs.
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