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Process & Policy Issues | Outreach to Diverse Communities | Landscapes | Recent Past | Miscellaneous

From the Glass House to Stonewall: National Register Recognition of the Recent Past

Carol D. Shull
Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places and Chief, National Historic Landmarks Survey
National Park Service, National Register, History & Education
Washington, DC

Beth L. Savage
Architectural Historian, National Register of Historic Places
National Park Service, National Register, History & Education
Washington, DC

Our paper presented at the 1995 Preserving the Recent Past conference described trends in recognizing places for significance in the recent past through listings in the National Register of Historic Places. 1 At that time about three percent of total listings met the National Register criteria for evaluation’s requirement of exceptional importance for achieving significance within the past 50 years. This percentage remains constant.

Since that time, scholarship and changing public perceptions have resulted in the registration of a variety of interesting new cultural resources representing all areas of significance and criteria, and numerous themes. More than two hundred additional properties have been listed for exceptional significance: half of these new listings are recognized for their importance in community history, while approximately a quarter document importance statewide, and a quarter nationally. Public interest is growing as is the need to document contexts for evaluating resource types from the recent past. The National Register is working with partners in addressing some of the evaluation issues and making information from some National Register files available for public education purposes, and the National Historic Landmarks Survey has supported some outstanding recent resources for National Historic Landmark (NHL) designation. 2

Although almost as many listings represent historic associations with the broad patterns of history, the trend continues that most of the recent properties listed in the last five years possess architectural significance. Works of master 20th-century architects are some of the most visible. Philip Johnson’s Glass House, an icon in American architecture, and Walter Gropius’s house in Lincoln, Massachusetts were recently designated NHLs as the ultimate embodiments of their respective design philosophies. Numerous Usonian houses by Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe’s first high-rise, the 1949 Promontory Apartments in Chicago are additional examples. Another, the Mies van der Rohe Residential District and Lafayette Park constructed between 1956 and 1963 as the collaborative effort of Mies, planner Ludwig Hilberseimer, landscape architect Alfred Caldwell, and developer Herbert Greenwald includes three residential high-rise towers and a townhouse complex in downtown Detroit. Recent biographers of Mies have characterized the acclaimed project as "closer than anything Mies ever designed to a realization of his ideas of modern architecture in the service of modern American living." Caldwell’s Lafayette Park is assessed as one of the most spatially successful and socially significant statements in urban renewal.

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Figure 1. General Motors Technical Center, general aerial view. Photograph by Randy Shulz.

Caldwell is not the only landscape architect whose designs are beginning to be recognized along with the buildings. The General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan is significant in the areas of architecture, engineering, landscape architecture, and transportation for the period from 1949 to 1970. The Center is one of the earliest and most influential examples of the application of the International style to American suburban corporate architecture and an outstanding example of Eero Saarinen’s work. Working with Saarinen landscape architect Thomas Church designed a high-style modernist landscape with a well-defined rectilinear plan and the five staff facilities of the corporate campus situated around a rectilinear lake on the 326-acre site. In terms of its influence upon landscape architecture, historian Robert L. Miller called the Technical Center the "near-definitive" example of the mid-twentieth century corporate campus, "the example most historians would place in a time capsule." (Figure 1)

Other listed examples of exceptional corporate architectural expression include: the 1952 International style Simms Building, the first high-rise in downtown Albuquerque, New Mexico; the 1967 American Zinc, Lead and Smelting Company Building in downtown St. Louis, Missouri, a stainless steel-clad Vierendal truss building that blends aesthetics and engineering to provide company identity with a design solution that had only gained acceptance for building exteriors in the 1960s; and the Reynolds Metals Company International Headquarters in Richmond, Virginia designed by premier corporate architect Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore Owings & Merrill and landscape architect Charles F. Gillette in 1958.

Comparative contexts for evaluation are essential. The National Register’s multiple property submission (MPS) format, which is also used for NHL theme studies, includes sections to document historic context, property types and registration requirements for them, methodology and bibliography. Nominating authorities have used the MPS format extensively for nominations and are beginning to prepare them to provide the context for nominating cultural resources from the recent past, as Georgia and South Dakota have done with their MPS nominations for Lustron Houses. Approximately one-third of properties listed in the National Register have been nominated under the MPS format. A list of all MPS documents nationwide is available on the National Register’s web site, and researchers may order copies of the full text and sample nominations for any MPS, as other states may do to help them in preparing MPS documentation or in evaluating individual examples of property types. We are seeking the resources necessary to make all context documentation available via our web site.

The NHL Survey supported the designation of the Irwin Union Bank and Trust, the Miller House, First Baptist Church and North Christian Church in Columbus, Indiana because the sponsors of the nominations developed an excellent theme study and MPS entitled Modernism in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Design and Art in Bartholomew County, Indiana, 1942-1965. The 1954 Irwin Union Bank, the 1957 Miller House and the 1964 North Christian Church, all designed by Eero Saarinen with landscapes by Dan Kiley, and the 1965 First Baptist Church by Harry Weese were designated by the Secretary of the Interior because the context documented the dramatic impact of the local patronage program and the awards and acclaim for these properties and their designers to prove that they are superb masterpieces of national significance.

Objectively evaluating modern architecture can be difficult. How much time needs to pass and how much popular acclaim and scholarly assessment are necessary to provide the perspective to determine with objectivity that a property is truly of historic significance? The nomination by the Arkansas State Historic Preservation Officer for The Arkansas Designs of E. Fay Jones, Architect 1956-1997 MPS raised these issues. According to the context in the submission, Jones maintained a practice in the mountains of northwest Arkansas concentrating on residential architecture for 25 years and only became well known with the completion of his Thorncrown Chapel in Eureka Springs in 1980, for which he received the American Institute of Architect’s (AIA) Honor Award in 1981. In 1990 the AIA recognized Jones’s full body of work with its highest tribute, the Gold Medal. In surveys conducted the next year, architects ranked Jones second among six "most admired" living architects and Thorncrown Chapel as the best work of American architecture during the 1980s. Though still living, Jones was forced to retire in 1997 by illness, and his remarkable body of work is complete. Based on a survey of 75 of his works in Arkansas (from his 200 total works), seven were selected as exceptional examples of his work to be nominated as part of the MPS, which provides the context and rationale for determining which of his buildings were eligible for listing. These seven buildings were selected for nomination because they were identified by Jones himself as particularly important to his design philosophy and based on the opinion of the State’s professional staff.

The 1956 E. Fay and Gus Jones House, his first built project which expressed the guiding principles of his personal organic design philosophy, was well received and effectively jump started his career as a residential designer in Arkansas, and the highly acclaimed Thorncrown Chapel were relatively easy to evaluate as eligible and were listed. The very recent dates of several of the other buildings (two others from the 1980s) and the lack of critical appraisal of these individual examples in relation to the body of his work resulted in a return of the other five to the State for additional consideration of the registration requirements and reassessment of whether sufficient time has passed and outside analysis has been done to evaluate these buildings.

Preservationists have been slower to document properties in the arts than in architecture. Who would doubt the exceptional importance of the Georgia O’Keefe Home and Studio in Abiquiu, New Mexico, designated a NHL in 1998, as the place where she lived for so long and did so much of her work almost until the time of her death. The weathered 19th-century Olson House in South Cushing, Maine was listed because Andrew Wyeth was inspired to use the house, its immediate environment and its occupants Christina and Alvaro Olson in a series of drawings, watercolors, and tempera paintings, including the widely recognized Christina’s World between 1939 and 1968. The Rothko Chapel in Houston, Texas was built by collectors Dominique and John de Menil in 1971 to house 14 large color field paintings, the final work of American Abstract Expressionist Mark Rothko. According to the nomination, it is the primary site for recognizing his convictions, intentions and working methods. Barnett Newman’s Broken Obelisk contributes to the site’s significance as an early work of monumental modern sculpture placed there as a memorial to Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

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Figure 2. Ed Galloway’s Totem Pole Park, Main and Arrowhead Totems. Photograph by Dianna Everett.

More surprising are several folk art environments nominated by State Historic Preservation Officers. The Genaro P. and Carolina Briones House in the East Austin MPS was listed for both architecture and art as the largest and most prominent example of tinted concrete ornamentation on a building in the state of Texas and as the master achievement of bricklayer and plasterer, Genaro Briones. Known locally as Casa de Suenos ("House of Dreams"), the house Briones built between 1947 and the 1970s features brightly tinted sculpted stucco surfaces on both the exterior and interior and many other sculptural elements including reinforced concrete yard furniture, which imitate stone and wood. It is an excellent example of modern Texas folk architecture and an exceptional example of Mexican-American folk art. Built between 1956 and 1965, Grandma Prisbrey’s Bottle Village in Simi Valley, California was registered for its significance in art, architecture and landscape architecture. Bottle Village consists of various shrines, wishing wells, follies, connected walkways, cactus gardens with sculpture, a "fence" of T.V. tubes, two trailers in which Mrs. Prisbrey lived and 16 ornamental structures, 15 which house Mrs. Prisbrey’s various collections of lipstick cases, pine cones, horse shoes, shells, gourds, toothbrushes, books, shot glasses, golf tees, and over 600 dolls and 17,000 pencils. Most all Village materials were salvaged by Mrs. Prisbrey from her trips to the local dump and have been placed in mortar to create the contributing resources in the district. Grandma Prisbrey’s Bottle Village is recognized by folk art authorities as an exceptional example of 20th-century environmental folk art, as is Ed Galloway’s Totem Pole Park on Oklahoma State Highway 28A near Route 66, which was created by one of Oklahoma’s premier folk artists of the 1905-1961 period, Nathan Edward Galloway. The nomination cites a number of publications that persuasively demonstrate the widespread recognition by scholars and the public of Totem Pole Park’s importance. (Figure 2)

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Figure 3. John Coltrane House. Photograph by Ralph Lieberman.

In another area of significance for the arts, music, the John Coltrane House at 1511 North 33rd Street in Philadelphia was designated a NHL. African American saxophonist and composer John Coltrane, who lived in this house from 1952 until 1967, transformed the development of jazz in the 1950s and 60s and became one of its most influential performing artists. (Figure 3) Pivotal in the local jazz and blues music scene in East Austin, Texas during the 1940s, 50s and 60s, the Victory Grill was an important stop along what was known as the "Chitlin Circuit," which was the route that followed major highways from the North to the South encompassing the only venues where African American musicians could perform during the age of segregation. For more than three decades jazz greats and local legends alike performed at this community cultural institution, which continues today to work collaboratively with several organizations to revitalize the cultural life of the neighborhood.

In the area of community planning and development, preservation advocates know that some of the numerous post war suburbs are important, but we need to figure out which ones and why. National Register-listed Arapahoe Acres in Englewood, Colorado, built between 1949 and 1957, is recognized for its high quality architectural design and outstanding historic integrity. Developer Ernest Hawkins and designers Eugene Sternberg, Joseph Dion, and Stanley Yoshimura joined together to create a suburb that is representative of a period of expansive suburbanization in Denver after World War II and one of a small and finite number of subdivisions nationwide based on architect-developer collaboration and modernistic principles of design. It received national acclaim by architectural and housing magazines and commendation of the prestigious Southwest Research Institute, which espoused quality of design for low-cost, efficient housing using modern materials and methods of design.

Dr. David Ames of the University of Delaware is writing a nationwide context on the suburbanization of America from 1830-1860 with the National Register to encourage the development of contexts at local and metropolitan levels and to help evaluate suburbs for nomination. Dr. Ames is also working with us to complete a National Register Bulletin that focuses on the residential subdivision as a significant historic property type. The bulletin will provide a summary history of suburbanization and set forth guidelines for developing local contexts, implementing streamlined methods for survey, and making decisions about significance and integrity in neighborhoods.

The Raymond M. Hilliard Center Historic District in Chicago is another property noted for its historic role in community planning and development, as well as architecture. Bertrand Goldberg’s modern style, five-building public housing complex with 710 residential apartments opened in 1966. The nomination contains citations which attest to the acclaim received by the complex. The reference to the building in the AIA’s 1993 authoritative guide to Chicago architecture indicated the continuing high regard for the project by saying: "The revolutionary design theories that Goldberg developed for Marina City were applied here to the problem of public housing, creating what is still regarded as one of the city’s best examples of humane high-rise living for local low-income families." The nomination claims that even as public housing policy turned away from high-rise developments, the Hilliard Center has seemed largely immune from the problems of other high-rise projects. While the Department of Housing and Urban Development transferred funds to the National Park Service (NPS), which worked with the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers to develop a context document with registration requirements for public housing constructed between 1935 and 1949, it is still necessary to evaluate later examples such as this one on an individual basis.

The NPS is taking the lead in establishing contexts for evaluation in other areas of significance as well. This year the Service will publish a theme study entitled Racial Desegregation in Public Education in the MPS format with context documentation and several nominations prepared as part of the study. It will be presented to the NPS Advisory Board to be considered for NHL designation. Coordinated by the NHL Survey and completed in partnership with the Organization of American Historians and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, this study tells the multi-ethnic story of racial desegregation in the United States from the 1840s through the early 1970s. It identifies property types and registration requirements for NHL designation and National Register listing for properties associated with this theme. This study will provide the context necessary to recognize additional resources beyond already designated NHLs, such as the Robert Russa Moton School associated with the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision and the massive resistance to integration of public education in Prince Edward County, Virginia. The Service is also publishing a context document on NPS Mission 66 visitor centers as part of a multi-year study to provide the information necessary to evaluate the many visitor centers and other buildings and structures built during this massive NPS construction program of the 1950s and 1960s. 3

Beginning in 2000, the NPS is conducting a long-term research program to identify, evaluate and recognize sites associated with civil rights, a theme worthy of a nationwide study. In the meantime a few places, such as Brown Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church, headquarters for the Voting Rights Movement and starting place of the three Selma-to-Montgomery marches, have been designated NHLs. Other civil rights sites have been registered through such nominations as South Carolina’s Civil Rights Movement in Orangeburg County MPS. Orangeburg County, with its black majority and a large population of college students, was a hot bed of the civil rights movement, the scene of grass roots African American protests against segregation and massive white resistance. The South Carolina State College Historic District in Orangeburg is listed as part of the MPS. Students at this historically black college participated in the sit-in movement of 1960 aimed at the desegregation of lunch counters at Orangeburg stores, the Orangeburg Movement of 1963-64 to desegregate public accommodations and force local compliance with federal plans for desegregation, and the Orangeburg Massacre of 1968 in which three students were killed and 28 others wounded when a state highway patrolman fired into a group of students in a confrontation between angry students and local law enforcement. The All Star Bowling Lanes is also listed under the context, because student protests and a violent confrontation in the parking lot against segregation of the bowling alley precipitated the Orangeburg Massacre.

The NPS has partnered with the Federal Highway Administration (FHwA) to produce a National Register travel itinerary on the National Register’s section of the NPs web site that describes, illustrates and maps 41 registered historic places and the Selma-to-Montgomery Trail associated with the struggle of African Americans for civil rights. The FHwA is involved because the Department of Transportation has designated the Selma-to-Montgomery route an All American Road. The route has also been named an NPs-administered National Historic Trail. The National Register’s Discovery Our Shared Heritage travel itinerary series is one way the NPs makes information from the National Register files available to the public.

Historic places associated with other groups in American society forced to fight for civil rights are beginning to be documented, and more will be identified as part of the NPs’s civil rights study. Stonewall in Greenwich Village, the site of the 1969 raid and demonstrations regarded by many as the single-most important event that led to the modern gay and lesbian liberation movement, was documented by several local organizations and nominated to the National Register by the New York State Historic Preservation Officer. After its listing, Stonewall was designated a NHL for the exceptional role it has played in the Nation’s history.

In the area of recent military history, the Cold War continues to be an important focus. Several launch complex sites have been listed as part of the Titan ICBM Launch Complex Sites Associated with the 308th Strategic Missile Wing in Arkansas MPS, and Alaska and Indiana have nominated individual examples of missile launch sites. Nominated by the Department of Energy, the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado was the sole producer of triggers for nuclear weapons from 1964 to 1989. The General Services Administration has turned to civil defense by nominating Building 710, Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, Region 6 Operations Center, constructed in 1969 as one of eight permanent federal regional operations centers built to withstand nuclear attack and the Office of Civil Defense Emergency Operations Center at the Denver Federal Center, a bunker-like facility constructed in the early 1960s to provide shelter for state and local government officials in the event of attack. Also on the domestic front, the 1962 Abo Elementary School and Fallout Shelter in Artesia, New Mexico is listed as the first, and perhaps the only, building in the United States constructed specifically for use as both an educational facility and fallout shelter. The Cold War is also the subject of one of the National Register’s Teaching with Historic Places lesson plans featured on our web site entitled Thaw in the Cold War: Eisenhower and Khruschev at Gettysburg. Another lesson plan in the series dealing with the recent past and featuring Little Rock High School, a NHL and a new unit of the National Park System, is entitled From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans. These lesson plans, which use registered historic places to teach subjects in the core curriculum, are, with the travel itineraries, primary ways the National Register disseminates information about historic places for public education.

Sometimes the unprepossessing character of utilitarian buildings belies their exceptional significance, as occurred in the disputed National Register determination of eligibility for Building One at the United State Geological Survey (USGS) Field Center in Flagstaff, Arizona. The USGS staff had never considered the building to be historic because, as was pointed out in their letter requesting a determination of eligibility, the 35-year-old building is younger than most of its occupants and an undistinguished and inexpensive construction. Building One was the first permanent headquarters and administrative center for the Branch of Astrogeology headed by Eugene Shoemaker during the time the program was involved in NASA’s lunar missions (1962-1972). It is exceptionally significant in science for the work of this branch and for its association with Eugene Shoemaker who, according to the USGS obituary at his death quoted in the documentation,‘‘was a legend of a man who almost single-handedly created planetary science as a discipline distinct from astronomy. He brought together geologic principles to the mapping of planets, resulting in more than three decades of discoveries about the planets and asteroids of the solar system." The obituary also notes that Mr. Shoemaker was a 1992 recipient of the National Medal of Science, the highest scientific honor bestowed by the President of the United States.

The post-World War II commercial landscape underwent dramatic changes as reflected in the design of two early department stores--Bullock’s Pasadena, an early suburban branch store and Wolf Wile in downtown Lexington, Kentucky. Wolf Wile, constructed in 1949-50 in the International style, was an attempt to bring Modernism into downtown retail as businesses there were waning and relocating in outlying suburban areas. Characterized as "futuristic," "modernistic" and "swanky" at its inception, this collaborative sophisticated design by local architectural firm Frankel & Davis and the nationally recognized retail design firm of Amos Parrish & Company is a regionally unparalleled expression of International style retail. The downtown store remained the headquarters for the family-owned business until its closing in 1992. On the other hand, the almost contemporary 1947 Bullock’s Pasadena is an outstanding integration of retail planning, architecture, and landscape design in the newly expanding suburbs. The Late Moderne style complex is an innovative and precedent-setting work by the important regional and national architects Walter Wurdeman and Welton Beckett, which inaugurated the firm’s prominent role in the design of stores, shopping centers, and malls in the post-World War II era.

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Figure 4. Historic interior photo of the Wilson House, c.1960, used in Ralph Wilson Plastics Company advertising, photographer unknown.

The domestic suburban landscape of the recent past is well represented in several individual residences. The Sunny and Ralph Wilson, Sr., House in Temple, Texas is an exemplary example of the ubiquitous suburban ranch house with an exceptionally important interior. Built as the home of Ralph Wilson, Sr., the founder of Ralph Wilson Plastics, one of the largest manufacturers of laminates in North America, it also served as a model for the products of his emerging company. Consequently, it was used during his residence from 1959 to 1966 to display products, demonstrate their diverse uses for the modern home, and test their durability in a domestic setting. The house is recognized for its architectural importance and its pivotal role in invention for promoting laminates as a prolific mid-20th-century building material. (Figure 4)

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Figure 5. The Kahiki. Photograph by Jen Copeland and Nathalie Wright.

Representing another facet of the rapidly changing, thus highly threatened, suburban commercial landscape, is The Kahiki, a 1961 Polynesian style restaurant in Columbus, Ohio. The nomination context documents this theme restaurant’s recent importance and fragility as a highly intact example of its type constructed during the heydey of the Polynesian restaurant craze. This exuberantly decorated and furnished building is a superb embodiment of the American post-World War II fascination with Polynesian culture that was manifested in a variety of entertainment and recreational activities from restaurants to music and movies. The property has been recently purchased by Walgreens, which is planning to demolish it by year’s end, apparently making an exception to a stated company policy not to demolish National Register-listed properties. 4 (Figure 5)

The history and architecture of the American road and its commercial roadside landscape is reflected variously by several additional listings including highway segments, automobile showrooms, parking garages, gas stations, motels and diners. Recently, 11 diners have been added to the Register under statewide diner MPS contexts for Virginia and Massachusetts, bringing the total number of registered diners to 19. The 1961-62 Snow Flake Motel, located south of St. Joseph, Michigan along the Red Arrow Highway, is recognized for its modernistic snow crystal shape plan and its provision of luxurious room appointments at the time, such as color television and individual icemakers. The Wrightian design of William Wesley Peters, Frank Lloyd Wright’s son-in-law and quintessential apprentice, the building was being rehabilitated under new ownership at the time of its nomination after a period of some decline. The Arkansas Highway History and Architecture MPS documents historic contexts and a range of related property types for the period from 1910 through 1965, although properties from the later period have yet to be nominated. A statewide MPS nomination for Drive-In Theaters in South Dakota is currently under development. In addition, this year the National Park Service is conducting a Congressionally mandated initial study of the historic and cultural significance of the Lincoln Highway, one of the earliest paved transcontinental highways in the United States, and its associated cultural resources.

When one thinks of exploration and settlement as a theme, one probably rarely thinks of the recent past, except, perhaps, for associations with space exploration or if you visit Bettles Field, Alaska, where the town’s sign welcomes you to a location 35 miles north of the Arctic Circle, population 63. While there you could stay at the listed Bettles Lodge, which consists of the first two permanent buildings built in 1948 and 1951 in this isolated northern Alaska community that are an excellent illustration of the earliest commercial transportation development in the interior of the State after World War II. In the area of oil exploration, the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field Discovery Well Site in North Slope, Alaska, marks the location of the initial efforts at unleashing the United States’ largest natural oil reserve. Its 1967-68 discovery has influenced regional, national and international economic development in the industry.

As demonstrated by the examples in this paper, the National Register criteria for evaluation are relatively broad and can be flexibly applied to a wide variety of resources to convincingly argue for their exceptional importance. The NPs and our preservation partners are addressing many of the difficult issues with evaluating the historical impact of properties from the recent past, but there remains much yet to be done. In partnerships with the preservation community, the Service must strive to recognize and foster scholarship on topics in recent history, facilitate the development of more comparative historic contexts concerning evaluating and nominating properties from the period, and disseminate documentation and update technical guidance regarding the evaluation of properties registered for their exceptional importance. We owe it to the public to provide leadership in these areas to meet this critical preservation challenge of the 21st century.

Notes

1. Carol D. Shull and Beth L. Savage, "Trends in Recognizing Places for Significance in the Recent Past," in Preserving the Recent Past, eds. Deborah Slaton and Rebecca A. Shiffer (Washington, DC: Historic Preservation Education Foundation, 1995), pp. II-3-II-14.

2. Unless otherwise noted, the information presented in this paper on individual properties is derived from the National Register or National Historic Landmark files, which are cited in the sources section.

3. Sarah Allaback, PhD., Mission 66 Visitor Centers: The History of a Building Type, (Washington, DC: US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resources Stewardship and Partnerships, Park Historic Structures and Cultural Landscapes Program, 2000).

4. "Walgreens Sinks Kahiki: Doors Close August 25th," Society for Commercial Archeology News, vol.8, no.1, (Spring 2000): 1.

Sources

For further information on any of these properties, please contact the National Register reference desk at 202/343-9559 or at nr_reference@nps.gov. These references are arranged in order of the appearance of the properties in the paper.

Philip Johnson’s Glass House, New Canaan, Fairfield County, CT; prepared by Bruce Clouette and Hoang Tinh. NHL

Walter Gropius House, Lincoln, Middlesex County, MA; prepared by Anne Grady. NHL

Promontory Apartments, Chicago, Cook County, IL; prepared by Anthony P. Amarose, Pao-Chi Chang and Alfred Swenson. NR

Mies van der Rohe Residential District and Lafayette Park, Detroit, Wayne County, MI: prepared by Sarah Evans. NR

General Motors Technical Center, Warren, Macomb County, MI; prepared by Claudia Kavenagh, Nicole Stull and Michael Kelleher. NR

Simms Building, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM; prepared by Krista Lee Armstrong. NR

American Zinc, Lead and Smelting Company Building, St. Louis (independent city), MO; prepared by Esley Hamilton, Doris A. Danna and Steven E. Mitchell. NR

Reynolds Metals Company International Headquarters, Richmond, Henrico County, VA; prepared by Mary Harding Sadler and Peter McDearmon Witt. NR

Lustron Houses in Georgia MPS; prepared by Lisa Raflo. NR

Lustron Houses in South Dakota MPS, prepared by Nora B. Frederick. NR

Irwin Union Bank, Miller House, North Christian Church and First Baptist Church are individual components of Modernism in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Design and Art in Bartholomew County, Indiana, 1942-1965 MPS; prepared by Laura Thayer, Louis Joyner and Malcolm Cairns. NHL

Thorncrown Chapel and the E. Fay and Gus Jones House are individual components of The Arkansas Designs of E. Fay Jones, Architect, 1956-1997 MPS; prepared by Helen A. Barry and Cheryl Griffith Nichols. NR

Georgia O’Keefe Home and Studio, Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County, NM: prepared by Sarah L. Burt. NHL

Olson House, South Cushing, Knox County, ME; prepared by Kirk F. Mohney. NR

Rothko Chapel, Houston, Harris County, TX; prepared by Marta McBride Galicki, Stephen Fox and Gregory Smith. NR

Genaro P. and Carolina Briones House in the East Austin MRA; prepared by Gregory Smith. NR

Grandma Prisbrey’s Bottle Village, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA; prepared by Daniel Dereck Paul. NR

Ed Galloway’s Totem Pole Park, Foyil, Rogers County, OK; prepared by Dianna Everett. NR

John Coltrane House, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA; prepared by Michael J. Lewis. NHL

Victory Grill, Austin, Travis County, TX; prepared by Karen D. Riles. NR

Arapahoe Acres, Englewood, Arapahoe County, CO; prepared by Diane Wray. NR

Raymond M. Hilliard Center Historic District, Chicago, Cook County, IL; prepared by Daniel Bluestone. NR

Robert Russa Moton High School, Farmville, Prince Edward County, VA; prepared by Jarl K. Jackson and Julie L. Vosmik. NHL

Brown Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Selma, Dallas County, AL; prepared by Cecil N. McKithan. NHL

South Carolina State College Historic District and the All Star Bowling Lanes are individual components of the Civil Rights Movement in Orangeburg County, South Carolina MPS; prepared by Steven A. Davis. NR

Stonewall, New York, New York County, NY; prepared by David Carter, Andrew Scott Dolkart, Gale Harris and Jay Shockly. NR/NHL

Titan ICBM Launch Complex Sites Associated with the 308th Strategic Missile Wing in Arkansas MPS; prepared by Mark Christ and David Stumpf. NR

Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO; prepared by Patricia Powell and Jayne Aaron. NR

Building 710, Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, Region 6 Operations Center and the Office of Civil Defense Emergency Operations Center, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO; prepared by Karen Waddell. NR

Abo Elementary School and Fallout Shelter, Artesia, Eddy County, NM; prepared by Nancy Dunn and James Hewat. NR

Building One, USGS Campus, Flagstaff, Prescott County, AZ; prepared by L. Sue Beard. NRDOE

Bullock’s Pasadena, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA; prepared by Alan Hess, Leslie Heumann and Maggie Valentine. NR

Wolf Wile Department Store Building, Lexington, Fayette County, KY; prepared by Patrick Lucas. NR

Sunny and Ralph Wilson, Sr., House, Temple, Bell County, TX; prepared by Grace Jeffers. NR

The Kahiki, Columbus, Franklin County, OH; prepared by Nathalie L. Wright. NR

Diners of Virginia MPS; prepared by Marc C. Wagner. NR

Diners of Massachusetts MPS; prepared by Kathleen Kelly Broomer and Betsy Friedberg. NR

Snow Flake Motel, Lincoln Township, Berrien County, MI; prepared by Glory-June Greiff. NR

Bettles Lodge, Bettles, Yukon-Koyukuk Borough-Census Area, AK; prepared by Dan and Lynda Klaes. NR

Prudhoe Bay Oil Field Discovery Well Site, North Slope, AK; prepared by Christopher B. Wooley. NR

 

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