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Examples of Properties Listed in the National Register Under Criteria Considerations

Southeast SHPO/Historic Preservation Alliance of Arkansas Conference
October 13, 2000

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Buffalo Presbyterian Church and Cemeteries
Lee County, North Carolina

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criteria A and C for Social History, Architecture, and Funerary Art. Property consists of 1879 church, original church cemetery with markers dating from the mid-19th century, the Matthews family plot with markers dating from 1865 to the present, main cemetery with markers dating from 1870 to the present, and African-American cemetery with markers from the mid-19th century to the present, and the 1926 Manse.

The congregation was organized in 1797 by the Cape Fear Highland Scots. The church and cemeteries derive their primary significance from architectural and artistic distinction and historic importance because of their association with the Cape Fear Highland Scots and because they have functioned as a social and religious center of community life for over 200 years. The 1879 Gothic Revival style sanctuary is a well-preserved example of Lee County’s 19th century rural Presbyterian churches. The adjacent cemeteries contain several outstanding markers of locally quarried brownstone. The African American cemetery was first used for the burial of slaves that attended the church prior to the Civil War and was later acquired by several African American Presbyterian congregations for the burial of their members.

Criteria Considerations: A (Religious Properties) and D (Cemeteries). Resource was constructed by a religious organization and is presently used for religious purposes. Because there are three significant cemeteries associated with the church, Criteria Consideration D also applies. If a cemetery is nominated along with its associated church, but the church is the main resource, then Criteria Consideration D is not met.

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Joseph Green House
Clay County, Florida
Orange Park, Florida MPS

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criteria A and C for Ethnic Heritage/Black and Architecture. The property derives its primary significance from architectural distinction and historic importance as the oldest documented building associated with Orange Park, Florida’s African American community. It was constructed by and was the home of Joseph Green, a prominent carpenter in this area.

Criterion Consideration: A (Religious Properties). Even though the property is not used for religious purposes, it is owned by a church and used as a rental property. If a resource is presently owned by a religious institution or if a resource was owned by a religious institution during its Period of Significance, then Criterion Consideration A is met.

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Rothko Chapel
Harris County, Texas

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criteria B and C for Art and Social History. Constructed in 1971, the Rothko Chapel was designed under the direction of artist Mark Rothko with architects Eugene Aubry and Philip Johnson. The interior contains 14 large canvases painted and arranged by Rothko. It is the only permanent installation carried out to Rothko’s exacting specifications, in which the setting as well as the paintings were an integral part of the artist’s vision. Rothko was commissioned by Houston millionaires John and Dominique de Menil, who had a personal commitment to modernism, art, religious exchange and social justice, to design the chapel. It is used as a center of ecumenical exchange, religious dialogue, and a place to advocate justice and human rights for communities in struggle throughout the world.

Criterion Consideration: G (Less than Fifty Years), but not A (Religious Properties). The Register agreed with the SHPO that the chapel did not meet Criterion Consideration A because it is significant as the center of a cultural institution rather than a religious organization. The Rothko Chapel gains exceptional significance on a national level because of its fusion of art and social meaning in the context of late 20th century modernism. Exceptional significance is also ascribed on the local level for its association with local patrons Dominique and John de Menil, important advocates of social justice.

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Isaac Nettles Gravestones
Clarke County, Alabama
Clarke County MPS

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criteria A and C for Ethnic Heritage/Black and Art. The gravestones are located in a cemetery adjacent to Mt. Nebo Baptist Church. The property consists of four concrete markers by Isaac Nettles, Sr. and are death masks cast in concrete that memorialize the buried persons. Nettles had the subjects press their faces in a box of sand while still living and from this mold he cast "masks" of concrete, paper, and wire.

Criteria Considerations: A (Religious Purposes), C (Graves or Birthplaces), and D (Cemeteries). The gravestones derive their primary importance from artistic qualities and ethnic associations and represent a unique burial tradition in that community. The "frozen face" motif has been identified by folklorists as characteristic of African-derived symbolism in African American art. The boundaries of the property were drawn to only encompass the four Nettles’ gravestones in this church cemetery.

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Port Orange Florida East Coast Railway Freight Depot
Volusia County, Florida
Port Orange MPS

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criteria A and C for Architecture and Transportation; period of significance is 1894-1946. The depot derives its significance from architectural value as a good example of vernacular railroad architecture of how railroad companies altered existing buildings over time to reflect changing economic forces and the needs of the community. The building is the city’s only historic transportation-related building , and the county’s only remaining resource from the FEC Railway, the major transportation entity on Florida’s east coast from the late 19th century to the mid 20th century. To avoid demolition, the depot was removed from its original location in 1966, and moved 500 feet to the north.

Criterion Considerations: B (Moved Properties). Criterion Consideration B is met because it was moved after its period of significance (B is also met if the property was moved during its period of significance. If moved before the period of significance, B does not have to be met). The depot retains enough historic features to convey its architectural values and retains integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling and association. It is the single surviving local property associated with the FEC Railway. The building remains on the same side of the tracks as the original location. The setback is a little greater than the original location, but it otherwise assumes its original association to the tracks.

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Hoverhome and Hover Farmstead
Boulder County, Colorado

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criteria A, B, and C for Agriculture and Architecture. The property consists of two sites on four acres, both associated with Charles Lewis Hover, a leader in the agricultural development of the St. Vrain Valley. The first site is a farm purchased by Hover in 1902, consisting of a 1893 farm house and c. 1910 collection of farm-related buildings and structures. The other site is a large Tudor Revival style residence that Hover constructed in 1913 after his initial success in farming. The St. Vrain Historical Society owns and operates both as a museum. In 1995, the original barn on the Farmstead site was destroyed by fire. Following the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards, the barn was reconstructed on its original foundation in 1997. Reconstruction drawings were developed by the Center for Stabilization and Re-use of Important Structures at Colorado State University using photographic documentation, measurements taken immediately after the fire, and architectural patterns developed from salvaged items such as doors, windows, and hardware. The reconstruction is part of a master plan for maintaining the Hover farmstead and is interpreted as a reconstruction.

Criterion Consideration: E (Reconstructed Properties). Criteria Consideration E is met because none of the fabric is original and the reconstruction is an important resource to this district. The reconstruction was based on sound data concerning the historic construction and appearance of the barn. The barn is located at its original location and is situated in its original grouping of buildings. This restoration is part of a master plan and is interpreted as a reconstruction. Furthermore, the barn is an important component of this district.

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Benjamin Mays Birthplace
Greenwood County, South Carolina

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criterion B for Ethnic Heritage/Black and Education. Birthplace of Benjamin Mays (b. 1894), educator, Civil Rights advocate, and mentor to Martin Luther King, Jr. In his autobiography, Born to Rebel, Mays said he was greatly influenced by his early years in this house. While living here as a child, Mays witnessed the violence of the 1898 Phoenix Riots when a mob passed by this house and forced his father to salute and bow at gun point. Also while living here, Mays started school at a nearby schoolhouse. These experiences encouraged Mays to pursue his education and to advocate and facilitate the education of young African Americans. He later became President of Morehouse College where he mentored Martin Luther King, Jr.

Criteria Considerations: Criteria Consideration C (Birthplace or Grave). Criteria Consideration C is met because Mays lived elsewhere during his Period of Significance. The house is the birthplace of an individual of outstanding national importance.

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Hoo-Hoo Monument
Gurdon, Arkansas
Clark County

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criteria A and C for Social History and Art. Located in Gurdon, Arkansas, the Hoo-Hoo Monument was erected in 1909 by the International Order of the Hoo-Hoo, an international lumberman’s fraternity. The Hoo-Hoo were founded in 1892 in Gurdon, a lumbering town, at the Hotel Hall. This unique Egyptian Revival monument was designed by noted Hungarian sculptor George T. Zolnay. The names of every Hoo-Hoo president has been added to the monument since 1909. In 1927, the monument was moved across the street from its original location. It was re-dedicated that year with much fanfare with the then Arkansas governor, John E. Martineau, in attendance.

Criteria Considerations: F (Commemorative Properties) and B (Moved Properties). The monument represents a distinctive statewide example of high-quality outdoor art and has acquired a significance of its own through its traditional and symbolic value to members of the Hoo-Hoo organization. The property was moved during its period of significance and therefore meets Criteria Consideration B. The monument retains those historic features that convey its artistic values and retains integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling and association. It is the single surviving property most directly associated with the Hoo-Hoo organization. It’s orientation, setting, and general environment are comparable to those of the historic location.

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Emek Sholom Holocaust Memorial
Richmond, Virginia
Henrico County

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criterion A for Social History. Erected in 1955 by the New American Jewish Club of Richmond, the Emek Sholom (Valley of Peace) Holocaust Memorial is located in the 200 acre Forest Lawn Cemetery. The simple tripartite light gray granite monument, which bears the names of victims of the Holocaust whose families fled to Virginia from Europe, is the centerpiece of the burial ground. It is the earliest and sole monument of its type and size in Virginia to honor the victims of the Holocaust.

Criteria Considerations: D (Cemeteries), F (Commemorative Properties), and G (Less than Fifty). The monument is an important resource associated with one of the most significant events of the 20th century. It stands as Virginia’s first and most visible tangible reminder of the Holocaust and is testament to the families who fled Hitler’s Europe and the horrors of anti-Semitism. The symbolic value of the monument has invested it with its own historical significance and is exceptionally significant as the earliest and sole monument of its type and size in Virginia to honor the victims of the Holocaust.

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Ralph and Sunny Wilson House
Bell County, Texas

Eligibility Summary: Listed under Criteria A and C for Invention and Architecture. This house was constructed in 1959 for Ralph Wilson, Sr., founder of Ralph Wilson Plastics, one of the largest manufacturers of laminates in North America. In addition to serving as his home, the building was designed to serve as a model home for his emerging company and a place where its products could be tested. The home was consequently used during Wilson’s residence from 1959 to 1966 to display the company’s products, demonstrate their diverse uses for the modern home, and test their durability in a domestic setting. Photographs of the home’s interior were featured in advertisements and consumer and trade editorials of the period.

Criterion Consideration: G (Less than Fifty). The Wilson House is exceptionally significant as an exemplary representation of the modern ranch house in Temple, Texas, and the earliest uses of plastic laminate building technology for domestic interior design. The house is, furthermore, significant for its role in the experimentation of this important 20th century building material and its application for a variety of functional and decorative purposes in the mid-20th century.

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Arkansas Designs of E. Fay Jones MPS

Eligibility Summary: E. Fay Jones started his career as a regionally-based residential architect in northwest Arkansas. He became world known with the design of the Thorncrown Chapel in 1980. In 1990, AIA awarded Jones with its highest honor, the Gold Medal. The next year a survey of architects ranked Jones as second among six "most admired" living architects and Thorncrown Chapel as the best work of American architecture in the 1980s. Due to his health, Jones was forced to retire in 1997. Two buildings designed by Jones, the 1956 E. Fay and Gus Jones House, and the 1980 Thorncrown Chapel, are listed in the National Register under the MPS Arkansas Designs of E. Fay Jones.

Criterion Consideration: G (Less than Fifty). E. Fay and Gus Jones House is exceptionally significant because with this house Jones expressed the guiding principles of his personal organic design philosophy, including sensitivity to natural setting, honest use of materials, and an appreciation for the interplay of light and space. The construction of this house jumpstarted Jones’ career.

The Thorncrown Chapel is exceptionally significant as an extraordinary illustration of modern ecclesiastical design. It was widely praised in contemporary publications and recent textbooks and architectural anthologies. The Chapel marked an important turning point in Jones’ career, transforming him from a well-respected Arkansas architect into an international figure in modern design.

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Civil Rights Movement in Orangeburg County, South Carolina 1955-1971 MPS

Eligibility Summary: Orangeburg County is the location of South Carolina State University and, with the large number of African American college students in the area, became a hot bed of the Civil Rights Movement and the scene of protests against segregation and massive white resistance. The All Star Bowling Alley, segregated even after the 1964 Desegregation Act, was the site of a violent confrontation on February 6, 1968 between protesters and police in the bowling alley’s parking lot. This incident led to the campus shooting deaths of three students by state highway patrolmen two nights later, known as the Orangeburg Massacre. Under this multiple, the South Carolina State College Historic District and the All Star Bowling Alley were listed in the National Register.

Criterion Consideration: G (Less than Fifty). The South Carolina State College Historic District and the All Star Bowling Alley are exceptionally significant for the role they played in the Civil Rights Movement in Orangeburg County and the state of South Carolina.

 

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