[Federal Register, Volume 78, Number 232 (Tuesday, December 3, 2013)]
[Notices]
[Pages 72711-72712]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2013-28918]


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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

[NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-14192; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000]


Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of 
the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, 
Anchorage, AK

AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice.

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SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management 
(BLM), Alaska State Office, in consultation with the appropriate Indian 
tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the items 
listed in this notice meet the definition of unassociated funerary 
objects. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or 
Native Hawaiian organization not identified in this notice that wish to 
claim these items should submit a written request to the BLM Alaska 
State

[[Page 72712]]

Office. If no additional claimants come forward, transfer of control of 
the items to the lineal descendants, Indian tribes, or Native Hawaiian 
organizations stated in this notice may proceed.

DATES: Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or 
Native Hawaiian organization not identified in this notice that wish to 
claim these items should submit a written request with information in 
support of the claim to the BLM Alaska State Office at the address in 
this notice by January 2, 2014.

ADDRESSES: Robert E. King, Alaska State NAGPRA Coordinator, Bureau of 
Land Management, 222 W. 7th Avenue, Box 13, Anchorage, AK 99513-7599, 
telephone (907) 271-5510.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the 
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 
U.S.C. 3005, of the intent to repatriate items under the control of the 
BLM Alaska State Office and in the physical custody of the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, that meet the definition of 
unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001.
    This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's 
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The 
determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the 
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native 
American items. The National Park Service is not responsible for the 
determinations in this notice.

History and Description of the Items

    On an unknown date in 1947 or prior to 1947, 89 polar bear skulls 
were collected by, or under the authority of, Dr. Otto Geist, whose 
affiliation was then reported as the University of Alaska at Fairbanks. 
These items were accessioned by the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, NY (AMNH), in 1947. AMNH catalog records indicate that these 
remains were collected from ``Cape Chibulak.'' An examination of 
records at the AMNH in 2011 led officials there to conclude that 
``most, if not all of the remains from Cape Chibulak came from the 
grave of Kowarin.'' Additional records at the AMNH indicate that these 
remains were removed from the surface of the grave of ``a hunter, 
Kowarin,'' which Geist reports was located ``on the sandspit just above 
the rim of the freshwater lake at Cape Chibulak,'' near the village of 
Gambell on St. Lawrence Island, AK. Dr. Geist also reported in his 
records that he collected ``polar bear, reindeer and dog skulls'' from 
this burial location. The AMNH does not have any of the reindeer 
remains. Geist's surviving correspondence at the AMNH reports that 
Kowarin was a ``Siberian Yuit, whose sons Booshy, Otiyohok, Koonuka and 
Okinilloo are quite old but still living [in 1947].'' Dr. Geist also 
reported that the grave of Kowarin had been ``ransacked'' for 
``souvenirs'' and that his remains had been removed. Dr. Geist recorded 
that ``after considerable consultation I was permitted to remove all of 
the specimens'' with the son Otiyohok helping him remove ``all of the 
skulls.'' Records at the AMNH indicate that at least one box of polar 
bear remains that were removed from this gravesite were received by the 
AMNH. Further, one polar bear skull has the name ``Kowarin'' written on 
the skull.
    Genealogical, historical, and oral history research conducted 
during 2011-2013 by the BLM, including with tribal members and lineal 
descendants of Quwaaren living on St. Lawrence Island, resulted in 
additional information on ``Kowarin'' and his family. Today, the 
recognized Siberian Yupik spelling of ``Kowarin'' is Quwaaren. A 
respected hunter and whaler, Quwaaren was born about 1844, probably in 
Siberia. By the second half of the 19th century, he was living on St. 
Lawrence Island, where his children were born. Both Quwaaren and his 
wife Avaltuk, whom he married about 1870, died on St. Lawrence Island 
in the 1910s and were buried there. They had a total of nine children 
of whom four appear to have died as children or young adults and 
without descendants. The five surviving children of Quwaaren and 
Avaltuk were five sons: Pusaa (also known as Bushu and Booshu) (1875-
1957); Ataayaghhaq (also known as Attiahok and Jimmy/Jimmie Otiyohok) 
(1877-1965); Kanuka (also known as Tommy Koonooka) (1879-1970); Aghnilu 
(also known as Peter Okinello) (1881-1971); and Tatuwi (also known as 
Morris Tatoowi) (1891-after 1940). In addition, Elders of St. Lawrence 
Island identified Qisgena (older spelling Kashunga and Qesgenga) (1862-
after 1930), the wife of Suluk (1860-ca. 1930), as a sister to 
Quwaaren's sons. Thus, Qisgena likely was the natural or adopted 
daughter of Quwaaren. Research by BLM has established that at least 
five of these six children of Quwaaren have living descendants on St. 
Lawrence Island and elsewhere today.

Determinations Made by the BLM Alaska State Office

    Officials of the BLM Alaska State Office have determined that:
     Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(B), the 89 items described 
above are reasonably believed to have been placed with or near the 
individual human remains of ``Kowarin'' (Quwaaren) at the time of his 
death in the 1910s or later as part of the death rite or ceremony; the 
remains of Quwaaren are not in the possession or control of the BLM 
Alaska State Office; and the items can be identified, by a 
preponderance of the evidence, as related to the human remains of 
Quwaaren, a Native American Individual.
     Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3005(a)(5)(A), known living 
descendants of Quwaaren on St. Lawrence Island and elsewhere are the 
direct lineal descendant of the individual who was buried with these 
objects.

Additional Requestors and Disposition

    Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or Native 
Hawaiian organization not identified in this notice that wish to claim 
these items should submit a written request with information in support 
of the claim to Robert E. King, Alaska State NAGPRA Coordinator, Bureau 
of Land Management, 222 W. 7th Avenue, Box 13, Anchorage, AK 99513-
7599, telephone (907) 271-5510, by January 2, 2014. After that date, if 
no additional claimants have come forward, transfer of control of the 
unassociated funerary objects to the known lineal descendants of 
Quwaaren may proceed.
    The BLM Alaska State Office is responsible for notifying the known 
descendants of Quwaaren, the Native Village of Gambell, and the Native 
Village of Savoonga that this notice has been published.

    Dated: September 26, 2013.
David Tarler,
Acting Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. 2013-28918 Filed 12-2-13; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4312-50-P

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