[Federal Register Volume 76, Number 140 (Thursday, July 21, 2011)]
[Notices]
[Pages 43709-43710]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2011-18358]


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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

[2253-665]


Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & 
Science, Denver, CO

AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice.

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SUMMARY: The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has completed an 
inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in 
consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined 
that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and 
associated funerary objects and present-day Indian tribes. 
Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be 
culturally affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary 
objects may contact the Denver Museum of Nature & Science. Repatriation 
of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Indian 
tribes stated below may occur if no additional claimants come forward.

DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a 
cultural affiliation with the human remains and associated funerary 
objects should contact the Denver Museum of Nature & Science at the 
address below by August 22, 2011.

ADDRESSES: Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Denver Museum of Nature & 
Science, 2001 Colorado Blvd., Denver, CO 80204, telephone (303) 370-
6378.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the 
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 
U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and 
associated funerary objects in the possession of the Denver Museum of 
Nature & Science, Denver, CO. The human remains and associated funerary 
objects were removed from Lancaster County, PA.
    This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's 
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The 
determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the 
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native 
American human remains and associated funerary objects. The National 
Park Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice.

Consultation

    A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Denver 
Museum of Nature & Science professional staff in consultation with 
representatives of the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma; 
Cayuga Nation of New York; Delaware Nation, Oklahoma; Delaware Tribe of 
Indians, Oklahoma; Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma; Oneida Nation of 
New York; Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin; Onondaga Nation of New 
York; Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe, New York; Seneca Nation of New York; 
Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma; Shawnee Tribe, Oklahoma; Stockbridge 
Munsee Community, Wisconsin; Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians; 
Tuscarora Nation of New York; and the Haudenosaunee Standing Committee 
on Burial Rules and Regulations, a non-Federally recognized Indian 
organization for the purposes of NAGPRA.

History and Description of the Remains

    Between 1926 and 1932, human remains representing a minimum of two 
individuals were removed from a burial context at the Keller Site (a 
burial component of the Washington Boro Village Site), in Lancaster 
County, PA, by Gerald B. Fenstermaker. On December 15, 1965, Francis 
and Mary Crane purchased the human remains as a part of a larger 
collection from Mr. Fenstermaker. At the time of the purchase, the 
human remains were on loan to the Hershey Museum, in Hershey, PA, where 
they remained until they were collected by the Cranes on October 18, 
1966. In 1983, the Cranes donated the human remains to the Denver 
Museum of Natural History, as the museum was then called, and the 
remains were accessioned into the collections (DMNS catalogue numbers 
AC.9471 and AC.9542). The human remains are represented by one corked 
vial of cut hair and ten teeth. Through research and consultation, it 
was determined that the hair and teeth are human remains under NAGPRA. 
The human remains were originally determined to be culturally 
unidentifiable, but have been subsequently culturally affiliated. No 
known individuals were identified. The four associated funerary objects 
are one corked vial of white paint (AC.9472); one corked vial of red 
paint (AC.9473); a double-necked ceramic jar (AC.9474); and one 
necklace, which is made from red, white, blue, and black trade beads, 
four copper bells, two tubular copper beads, one bear tooth, and one 
scoop spoon made from a brass kettle (AC.9542).
    Between 1926 and 1935, human remains representing a minimum of one 
individual were removed from a burial context in Pennsylvania by Gerald 
B. Fenstermaker. Based on museum records, Mr. Fenstermaker's collection 
history, and the associated funerary objects, dating to the Contact 
period, it is likely that these human remains were removed from the 
Washington Boro Village Site, in Lancaster County, PA. On December 15, 
1965, the Cranes also purchased these human remains from Mr. 
Fenstermaker. In 1983, the Cranes donated the human remains to the 
museum and the remains were accessioned into the collections 
(AC.9812A). The human remains are represented by five teeth. Through 
research and consultation, it was determined that the teeth are human 
remains under NAGPRA. The human remains were originally determined to 
be culturally unidentifiable, but have been subsequently culturally 
affiliated.

[[Page 43710]]

No known individual was identified. The 31 associated funerary objects 
are 19 arrow points, 1 musket ball, 7 elk teeth, 1 bag of copper and 
iron fragments, 1 bag of animal bone fragments, 1 shell disk bead, and 
1 red trade bead (AC.9812B).
    Based on physical analysis and catalogue records, the human remains 
are determined to be Native American. Archeological evidence suggests 
that the Washington Boro Village Site and burial components, including 
the Keller Site, date to approximately A.D. 1600-1625. Archeological 
evidence and historical documentation show that the Washington Boro 
Village Site was occupied by the Susquehannock.
    While the biological record is neutral regarding cultural 
affiliation, the Susquehannock likely shared a geographical affinity 
with the Haudenosaunee, as evidenced by shared ancestral lands in New 
York, common land use during the 1600s, and, starting in the 1700s, 
Haudenosaunee claims to the former territory of the Susquehannock. 
Furthermore, the Susquehannock shared kinship with the Haudenosaunee 
through similar clan systems, adoption, intermarriage, and burial 
practices. Current archeological evidence suggests that the 
Susquehannock and Haudenosaunee were descended from the same proto-
Iroquoian culture. Around A.D. 1300, the Susquehannock split off from 
that culture. Settling in Lancaster County, PA, the Susquehannock had 
become a distinct group by A.D. 1580. Archeological evidence also 
demonstrates that the Susquehannock and Haudenosaunee shared a very 
similar material culture tradition across multiple artifact categories.
    For more than a century, anthropologists have consistently referred 
to the Susquehannock as an Iroquoian people, and anthropological 
theories of diaspora and assimilation reasonably explain the 
incorporation of Susquehannock into the Haudenosuanee Confederacy in 
the late 1600s and 1700s. Although folkloric evidence is not abundant, 
nevertheless it is consistent with a conclusion of cultural 
affiliation. Scholars have conclusively shown that the Susquehannock 
language was very closely related to the other extant Iroquoian 
languages, which demonstrates a robust interrelationship among these 
peoples. Haudenosaunee oral tradition consistently and unambiguously 
expresses a strong cultural and historical affinity for the 
Susquehannock. Historical evidence indicates a complex relationship 
between the Susquehannock and Haudenosaunee, but convincingly suggests 
that by the late 1600s, the Susquehannock freely allowed themselves to 
be adopted into the Haudenosaunee. Expert opinion, as constituted by 
the NAGPRA Review Committee, further supports a determination that the 
Haudenosaunee and Susquehannock are culturally affiliated under NAGPRA. 
In summary, six lines of evidence support cultural affiliation 
(geographical, archaeological, anthropological, oral tradition, 
historical evidence, and expert opinion) and two lines strongly support 
cultural affiliation (kinship and linguistics). One line of evidence is 
indeterminate (biology), and one line of evidence is consistent with 
cultural affiliation (folklore). Therefore, the museum reasonably 
believes that there is a shared group identity between the 
Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the Susquehannock people who occupied 
Lancaster County, PA, at the Washington Boro Village Site.

Determinations Made by the Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Officials of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science have determined 
that:
     Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(9), the human remains described 
above represent the physical remains of three individuals of Native 
American ancestry.
     Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(A), the 35 objects described 
above are reasonably believed to have been placed with or near 
individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of the 
death rite or ceremony.
     Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of 
shared group identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native 
American human remains and associated funerary objects and the Cayuga 
Nation of New York; Oneida Nation of New York; Oneida Tribe of Indians 
of Wisconsin; Onondaga Nation of New York; Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe, 
New York; Seneca Nation of New York; Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma; 
Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians; and the Tuscarora Nation of New York.

Additional Requestors and Disposition

    Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to 
be culturally affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary 
objects should contact Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Denver Museum of 
Nature & Science, 2001 Colorado Blvd., Denver, CO 80204, telephone 
(303) 370-6378, before August 22, 2011. Repatriation of the human 
remains and associated funerary objects to the Cayuga Nation of New 
York; Oneida Nation of New York; Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin; 
Onondaga Nation; Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe, New York; Seneca Nation of 
New York; Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma; Tonawanda Band of Seneca 
Indians; and the Tuscarora Nation of New York, may proceed after that 
date if no additional claimants come forward.
    The Denver Museum of Nature & Science is responsible for notifying 
the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma; Cayuga Nation of New 
York; Delaware Nation, Oklahoma; Delaware Tribe of Indians, Oklahoma; 
Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma; Oneida Nation of New York; Oneida 
Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin; Onondaga Nation of New York; Saint Regis 
Mohawk Tribe, New York; Seneca Nation of New York; Seneca-Cayuga Tribe 
of Oklahoma; Shawnee Tribe, Oklahoma; Stockbridge Munsee Community, 
Wisconsin; Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians; Tuscarora Nation of New 
York; and the Haudenosaunee Standing Committee on Burial Rules and 
Regulations, a non-Federally recognized Indian organization for the 
purposes of NAGPRA, that this notice has been published.

    Dated: July 14, 2011.
Sherry Hutt,
Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. 2011-18358 Filed 7-20-11; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4312-50-P







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