FR Doc E8-12002[Federal Register: May 29, 2008 (Volume 73, Number 104)]
[Notices]               
[Page 30970-30972]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr29my08-111]                         

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service
 
Notice of Inventory Completion: Robert S. Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA

AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice.

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    Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves 
Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the 
completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary 
objects in the possession of the Robert S. Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology at Phillips Academy, Andover, MA. The human remains and 
associated funerary objects were removed from Maricopa County, AZ.
    This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's 
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 25

[[Page 30971]]

U.S.C. 3003 (d) (3). The determinations in this notice are the sole 
responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has 
control of the Native American human remains and associated funerary 
objects. The National Park Service is not responsible for the 
determinations in this notice.
    A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by Robert S. 
Peabody Museum of Archaeology professional staff in consultation with 
representatives of the Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak 
Chin) Indian Reservation, Arizona; Gila River Indian Community of the 
Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona; Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Navajo 
Nation of Arizona, New Mexico & Utah; Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian 
Community of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona; Tohono O'odham Nation 
of Arizona; and Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico.
    In 1898, human remains representing a minimum of three individuals 
were removed from Kalfus Ruins, Maricopa County, AZ, by Warren K. 
Moorehead for Robert S. Peabody, whose collection later became the 
basis for the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology at its founding 
in 1901. No known individuals were identified. The two associated 
funerary objects are one red and black slipped bowl and one black-on-
red cremation jar in which the human remains were found.
    Archeological evidence indicates Kalfus Ruins is a classic period 
Hohokam site in the center of what is commonly known as the heart of 
Hohokam occupation. Archeological evidence is supported by 
architectural forms, burial practices, and the associated funerary 
objects.
    In 1898, human remains representing a minimum of three individuals 
were removed from Ruins Five Miles South of Phoenix, Maricopa County, 
AZ, by Warren K. Moorehead for Robert S. Peabody. No known individuals 
were identified. The 109 associated funerary objects are 1 cremation 
jar, in which the human remains and the other associated funerary 
objects were found; 4 shark teeth; 1 lot of fragmentary faunal remains, 
some of which are calcined; 9 unmodified minerals; 1 possible slate 
palette fragment; 19 unmodified stones; 2 unmodified non-human teeth; 
63 modified and unmodified shell fragments; 1 brachiopid fossil; 2 
trilobite fossils; 2 crinoid stem fossils; 1 small ceramic cylinder; 1 
possible projectile point stem; and 2 chert flakes.
    The Ruins Five Miles South of Phoenix site is located in the center 
of what is commonly known as the heart of Hohokam occupation. 
Archeological evidence is supported by architectural forms, burial 
practices, and the associated funerary objects.
    In 1898, human remains representing a minimum of one individual 
were removed from Ruins near Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ, by Warren K. 
Moorehead for Robert S. Peabody. No known individual was identified. 
The 70 associated funerary objects are 8 fragmentary faunal remains, 3 
ceramic sherds, and 59 shell fragments some of which are possibly 
beads.
    On an unknown date, human remains representing a minimum of one 
individual were found in a drawer of material from Southern Arizona 
which also contained shell beads from the "Ruins about Phoenix" site. 
It is reasonably believed to be the same site as "Ruins near 
Phoenix," which was one of a number of adobe sites outside of Phoenix 
surveyed and excavated by Warren K. Moorehead in 1898 for Robert S. 
Peabody. The exact location of the site is unclear. The ledger notes do 
not mention any human remains found with shell beads. It is likely this 
tooth was separated from the other human remains from Ruins near 
Phoenix collected by Mr. Moorehead. No known individual was identified. 
No associated funerary objects are present.
    The Ruins near Phoenix site is located in the center of what is 
commonly known as the heart of Hohokam occupation. Archeological 
evidence is supported by architectural forms, burial practices, and the 
associated funerary objects.
    A relationship of shared group identity can be reasonably traced 
between Hohokam culture, which dates from about A.D. 300 to A.D. 1450, 
and the Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian 
Reservation, Arizona; Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River 
Indian Reservation, Arizona; Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 
of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona; and Tohono O'odham Nation of 
Arizona. These four Indian Tribes are one cultural group known as the 
O'odham (anthropologically known as the Pima and Papago.) The Piipaash 
(anthropologically known as the Maricopa) are a separate and distinct 
culture that is present in two of the four tribes. The four groups are 
separated by political boundaries designated through the 
adoption[sol]assignment of reservations by the Federal Government, not 
by any cultural differences.
    The O'odham people commonly refer to their ancestors as "the 
Huhugam." The term "Huhugam" refers to all of the ancestors from the 
first of the O'odham people to walk the earth to those who have 
perished during modern times. The term "Hohokam" is an English 
adaptation of the word Huhugam, and has become known in the larger 
society as an archeological culture. The term Huhugam is often mistaken 
for the word Hohokam, although the terms do not have the same meaning 
and are not interchangeable. The four O'odham Indian tribes claim 
cultural affiliation to the Hohokam archeological cultures, as well as 
to all others present in their aboriginal claims area during the time 
before European contact in what is known today as Arizona and Mexico. 
These affiliations include several other archeological cultures 
including (but not limited to) the Archaic, Paleo-Indian, Salado, 
Patayan, and Sinagua.
    A written report, "The Four Southern Tribes and the Hohokam of the 
Phoenix Basin," provided to the museum by the Salt River Pima-Maricopa 
Indian Community provides a preponderance of evidence for a 
relationship of shared group identity between the Hohokam culture and 
the present-day O'odham. The evidence in the report is archeological, 
linguistic, oral tradition, ethnography, kinship, and biological. 
Linguistic evidence indicates that all the O'odham speak different 
dialects of the same Uto-Aztecan language. O'odham communities were 
historically recorded as living in the Gila River area by Jesuit 
missionaries in A.D. 1687. In the 1700s, when written records about the 
O'odam began, they occupied at least seven rancherias. At the time of 
European contact, the O'odham, who occupied land previously inhabited 
by the Hohokam, mirrored the Hohokam in many ways. The Hohokam were 
desert agriculturalists who developed an elaborate system of irrigation 
canals to irrigate their crops. At European contact the O'odham were 
documented to also be desert agriculturalist who utilized irrigation 
canals and rivers. Based on scientific evidence, scholars view the 
complex irrigation systems of the O'odham and the Hohokam as evidence 
for a cultural continuity between the two that involved the ability to 
control mass labor in order to construct and maintain these canals. The 
Hohokam had a distinct settlement pattern that consisted of small 
farmsteads scattered throughout the landscape. The O'odham practiced 
this same type of settlement pattern. There was a general architectural 
style through the Hohokam Period to the historic O'odham Period that 
exhibited a trend from quadrangular to round structures through time.
    A relationship of shared group identity can also reasonably be 
traced between Hohokam culture and the Hopi

[[Page 30972]]

Tribe, as well as the Zuni Tribe. Based on O'odham oral tradition, some 
of the people occupying the Hohokam area migrated north and joined the 
Zuni and Hopi ("The Four Southern Tribes and the Hohokam of the 
Phoenix Basin"). On May 23, 1994, the Hopi Tribal Council issued 
Resolution H-70-94 declaring its formal cultural affinity and 
affiliation with the Hohokam cultural group. On June 26, 2006, official 
representatives of the Hopi Tribe restated Hopi's shared group identity 
with Hohokam culture. On July 11, 1995, the Zuni Tribe issued a 
"Statement of Cultural Affiliation with Prehistoric and Historic 
Cultures." In the statement, the Zuni Tribe stated a relationship of 
shared group identity with Hohokam culture based on oral teachings and 
traditions, ethnohistoric documentation, historic documentation, 
archeological documentation, and other evidence. On June 19, 2006, 
official representatives of the Zuni Tribe described migration routes 
which may cross the Hohokam occupation area.
    Officials of the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology have 
determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (9-10), the human remains 
described above represent the physical remains of eight individuals of 
Native American ancestry. Officials of the Robert S. Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology also have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 
(3)(A), the 181 objects described above are reasonably believed to have 
been placed with or near individual human remains at the time of death 
or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Lastly, officials of 
the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology also have determined that, 
pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001 (2), there is a relationship of shared group 
identity that can be reasonably traced between the Native American 
human remains and associated funerary objects and the Ak Chin Indian 
Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian Reservation, Arizona; Gila 
River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona; 
Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the 
Salt River Reservation, Arizona; Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona; and 
Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico.
    Representatives of any other Indian tribe that believes itself to 
be culturally affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary 
objects should contact Malinda Blustain, Director, Robert S. Peabody 
Museum of Archaeology, Phillips Academy, 175 Main Street, Andover, MA 
01810, telephone (978) 749-4493, before June 30, 2008. Repatriation of 
the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Ak Chin Indian 
Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian Reservation, Arizona; Gila 
River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona; 
Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the 
Salt River Reservation, Arizona; Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona; and 
Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico may proceed after that 
date if no additional claimants come forward.
    The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology is responsible for 
notifying the Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian 
Reservation, Arizona; Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River 
Indian Reservation, Arizona; Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Navajo Nation of 
Arizona, New Mexico & Utah; Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 
of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona; Tohono O'odham Nation of 
Arizona; and Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico that this 
notice has been published.

    Dated: April 24, 2008
Sherry Hutt,
Manager, National NAGPRA Program.
[FR Doc. E8-12002 Filed 5-28-08; 8:45 am]

BILLING CODE 4312-50-S

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