[Federal Register: August 29, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 168)]
[Notices]
[Page 55426-55428]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr29au02-109]

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains
and Associated Funerary Objects in the Possession of the U.S.
Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Fort Benning, GA

AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice.

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    Notice is hereby given in accordance with provisions of the Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 43 CFR 10.9,
of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated
funerary objects in the possession of the U.S. Department of Defense,
Department of the Army, Fort Benning, GA.
    This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's
administrative responsibilities under NAGPRA, 43 CFR 10.2 (c). The
determinations within this notice are the sole responsibility of the
museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of these Native
American human remains and associated funerary objects. The National
Park Service is not responsible for the determinations within this
notice.
    A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by U.S. Army
installation staff, U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis, Mandatory
Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archaeological
Collections in consultation with representatives of the Alabama-
Coushatta Tribes of Texas; Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Oklahoma;
Chickasaw Nation, Oklahoma; Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana; Kialegee
Tribal Town, Oklahoma; Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida; Muskogee
(Creek) Nation of Oklahoma; Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama;
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma; Seminole Tribe of Florida; and
Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, Oklahoma.
    In 1938, human remains representing one individual were removed
from Lawson Field (site 9Ce1), also known as Kashita Town,
Chattahoochee County, GA, by Gordon Willey of the National Park
Service. No known individual was identified. The 165 associated
funerary objects are 4 copper bells, 4 iron bell parts, 11 copper
buttons and button backs, 30 ceramic sherds, 8 copper coil fragments, 1
fragment of rust-stained fabric, 2 shell bead necklaces, 1 glass bead
necklace, 56 additional glass beads, 1 iron adze, 1 iron hammer head, 2
iron files, 9 iron knife fragments, 1 iron nail and 3 iron nail
fragments, 2 iron spikes, 1 iron spike fragment, 1 iron bullet mold
fragment, 2 iron gun hammers, 1 unidentified L-shaped iron object, 18
additional iron fragments, 1 quartzite knife, 1 lump of clay, 1 shell
pin fragment, 1 wood fragment, and 2 water-worn pebbles. The human
remains and associated funerary objects were housed at the Columbus
Museum of Arts and Sciences, Columbus, GA, until 1999, when they were
transferred to the Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and
Management of Archaeological Collections, St. Louis, MO, for
rehabilitation. In July 2001, these human remains and associated
funerary objects were transferred to Fort Benning, GA.
    Charles H. Fairbanks, in his 1940 report entitled ``Archaeological
Site Report on the Lawson Field,'' identified site 9Ce1 as Kasihta, one
of the principal towns of the Lower Creeks in the 18th century. He
attributed the burial to the late 18th century or early 19th century.
    In 1958, human remains representing one individual were removed
from the Quartermaster site (9Ce42), Chattahoochee County, GA, by Mr.
Ed McMichael and Sergeant David Chase. No known individual was
identified. The one associated funerary object is a small piece of
green-tinted fabric. Mr. McMichael and Sergeant Chase found the burial
while investigating prehistoric features encountered by construction
workers at this site. The human remains were housed at the Riverbend
Research Laboratory, University of Georgia, Columbus, GA, until 1999,
when they were transferred to the Mandatory Center of Expertise for the
Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections, St. Louis, MO,
for rehabilitation. In July 2001, these human remains were transferred
to Fort Benning, GA.
    The site has been dated as Late Woodland (A.D. 100-900) to historic
(late 17th-early 18th century) by numerous features encountered during
further excavation. In 1971, human remains representing two individuals
were removed from the Oswichee Creek site (9Ce66), Chattahoochee
County, GA, by Sergeant Chase and two Columbus College students, who
had seen the burial eroding at the site. No known individuals were
identified. The 194 associated funerary objects include 3 shell disks,
62 shell beads and bead fragments, 58 ceramic sherds, 16 charcoal
fragments, 6 fired clay fragments, 39 faunal fragments, 6 chert flakes,
1 quartz flake, 1 chert drill fragment, 1 chert projectile point
fragment, and 1 sandstone fragment. Part of the human remains and most
of the associated funerary objects were housed by the Columbus Museum
of Arts and Sciences, Columbus, GA, and the rest of the human remains
and three associated funerary objects were housed by the Riverbend
Research Laboratory, University of Georgia, in Columbus, GA. In 1999,
the remains and funerary objects from both institutions were
transferred to the Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and
Management of Archaeological Collections, St. Louis, MO, for
rehabilitation. In July 2001, these human remains and funerary objects
were transferred to Fort Benning, GA.
    The burial has been tentatively attributed to the earliest
Mississippian component of the site, or about A.D. 900.
    In the late 1970s, human remains representing a minimum of three
individuals were removed from Auburn's site A (9Ce125),

[[Page 55427]]

Chattahoochee County, GA, by Sergeant Chase and Dr. John Cottier of
Auburn University, Auburn, AL. No known individuals were identified.
The 139 associated funerary objects are 1 ceramic bird head, 1 ceramic
bead, 50 ceramic sherds, 74 shell fragments, 9 faunal fragments, 2
copper strip fragments, 1 quartz rock fragment, and 1 water-worn pebble
fragment. The burials were uncovered during an expansion of Lawson
Field. The human remains were held at Auburn University until 1999,
when they were transferred to the Mandatory Center of Expertise for the
Curation and Management of Archaeological Collections, St. Louis, MO,
for rehabilitation. In July 2001, these human remains and associated
funerary objects were transferred to Fort Benning, GA.
    Site 9CE125 consists of four components. Dates for these components
include Middle Woodland (300 B.C.-A.D. 100), Early Mississippian (A.D.
900-1250), Late Mississippian (A.D. 1400-1550), and historic.
    In 1959, human remains representing two individuals were removed
from Upatoi Bridge, Opossum Creek (9Me41), Muscogee County, GA, by
Sergeant Chase, after they had been uncovered during landscaping work.
No known individuals were identified. The 118 associated funerary
objects recovered from burial fill are 55 ceramic sherds, 48 chert
flakes, 2 quartz flakes, 4 unidentified lithic flakes, 1 chert biface,
1 chert projectile point, and 7 charcoal fragments. These human remains
and associated funerary objects were housed at the Riverbend Research
Laboratory, University of Georgia, Columbus, GA, until 1999, when they
were transferred to the Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation
and Management of Archaeological Collections, St. Louis, MO, for
rehabilitation. In July 2001, these human remains were transferred to
Fort Benning, GA.
    The burial has been dated to the Late Woodland (A.D. 100-900)
component of the site.In 1958 and 1959, human remains representing
three individuals were removed from Yuchi Town (site 1RU63), Russell
County, AL, by Sgt. David Chase after the burials were discovered
during the Smithsonian Institution's River Basin Survey work on the
Chattahoochee River. No known individuals were identified. The one
associated funerary object is a shallow reconstructed ceramic bowl.
These human remains and associated funerary object were housed at
Southeastern Archeological Services, Athens, GA, until 1999, when they
were transferred to the Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation
and Management of Archaeological Collections, St. Louis, MO, for
rehabilitation. In July 2001, these human remains and associated
funerary object were transferred to Fort Benning, GA.
    In 1962 and 1963, additional human remains representing a minimum
of 13 individuals were removed from the Yuchi Town site (1RU63) and
given to the Columbus Museum of Arts and Sciences by Harold Huscher of
the Smithsonian Institution. No known individuals were identified. The
933 associated funerary objects present are 558 ceramic sherds and
fragments, 2 reconstructed ceramic objects, 1 antler fragment, 2 belt
buckle fragments, 4 brass button fragments, 6 brick fragments, 4
charcoal fragments, 16 chert flakes, 1 chert biface fragment, 1 chert
projectile point, 4 clumps of potters clay, 1 copper aglet, 36 daub
fragments, 199 faunal remains and fragments, 1 glass bead fragment, 4
glass bottle fragments, 4 glass fragments, 2 gunflint fragments, 1 lead
fragment, 1 leaf fragment, 37 lithic flakes and fragments, 47 shell
fragments, and 1 wood fragment. The human remains and associated
funerary objects were housed at the Columbus Museum of Arts and
Sciences, Columbus, GA, until 1999, when they were transferred to the
Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of
Archaeological Collections, St. Louis, MO, for rehabilitation. In July
2001, these human remains and associated funerary objects were
transferred to Fort Benning, GA. Additional remains and associated
funerary objects were noted in the original field notes, but these
materials were removed by Mr. Huscher to the Smithsonian Institute.
These materials were unavailable for review by the Mandatory Center of
Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archaeological
Collections.
    The Yuchi Town site is believed to represent the remains of a well-
populated Yuchi (or Uchee) settlement that was documented by European-
Americans who visited the area in the late 18th century. It has been
described as the mother town of the Yuchi east of
the Mississippi during the 18th and early 19th centuries (Schnell,
Frank T. 1982. Cultural Resources Investigations of Site 1Ru63 and
9Ce66 Fort Benning, Alabama and Georgia. Submitted to U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers, Savannah District, p. 4-7; Elliott, Daniel T., Jeffrey L.
Holland, Phil Thomason, Michael Emric, and Richard W. Stoops, Jr. 1995.
Historic Preservation Plan for the Cultural Resources on U.S. Army
Installations at Fort Benning Military Reservation, Chattahoochee and
Muscogee Counties, Georgia, and Russell County, Alabama. Garrow and
Associates, Atlanta, p. 82). There also appears to have been an
unidentified 17th century Creek town at the same location (Elliott and
others, 1995:147). Human remains from the site are believed to
primarily represent Yuchi individuals; however some burials may
represent individuals from earlier occupations of the site.
    An inventory of the human remains and associated funerary objects
and review of the accompanying documentation indicates that the area
encompassing Fort Benning was probably occupied or used aboriginally
and/or historically by the Yuchi and Muscogee-speaking people generally
identified as Creek by English colonists and subsequent settlers. Fort
Benning is located in part on land adjudicated to the Creek by the
Indian Claims Commission. Creek groups occupied the Fort Benning
vicinity from the late 17th century through the early 19th century; the
Yuchi entered the area in the 18th century. The Seminole are
descendants of a combination of Florida tribes identified by Spanish
explorers and colonists, Creek groups who migrated to Florida in the
18th century, and escaped African-American slaves. The Yuchi are not
currently Federally recognized as a separate tribe, but are a distinct
cultural entity within the Federally recognized Muscogee (Creek) Nation
of Oklahoma. They are currently seeking Federal recognition.
    Based on the above-mentioned information, officials at Fort Benning
and the U.S. Army installation staff, U.S. Army Engineer District, St.
Louis, Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of
Archaeological Collections have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR
10.2 (d)(1), the human remains listed above represent the physical
remains of 25 individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials at
Fort Benning and the U.S. Army installation staff, U.S. Army Engineer
District, St. Louis, Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and
Management of Archaeological Collections have also determined that,
pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(2), the 1551 funerary objects listed above
are reasonably believed to have been placed with or near individual
human remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite
or ceremony. Lastly, officials at Fort Benning and the U.S. Army
installation staff, the U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis,
Mandatory Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of
Archaeological Collections have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR
10.2 (e), there is a relationship of shared

[[Page 55428]]

group identity that can reasonably be traced between these Native
American human remains and associated funerary objects and the
Muscogee-speaking people who inhabited the region prior to their
removal to Oklahoma and elsewhere in 1836, namely the Alabama-Coushatta
Tribes of Texas; the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Oklahoma; the
Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana; the Kialegee Tribal Town, Oklahoma; the
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida; the Muscogee (Creek) Nation,
Oklahoma; the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama; the Seminole
Nation of Oklahoma; the Seminole Tribe of Florida; and the Thlopthlocco
Tribal Town, Oklahoma.
    This notice has been sent to officials of the Alabama-Coushatta
Tribes of Texas; the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Oklahoma; the
Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana; the Kialegee Tribal Town, Oklahoma; the
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida; the Muscogee (Creek) Nation,
Oklahoma; the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama; the Seminole
Nation of Oklahoma; the Seminole Tribe of Florida; and the Thlopthlocco
Tribal Town, Oklahoma. Representatives of any other Indian tribe that
believes itself to be culturally affiliated with these human remains
and associated funerary objects should contact Dr. Christopher E.
Hamilton, Cultural Resource Manager, Fort Benning, GA 31905-5000,
telephone (706) 545-2377, before September 30, 2002. Repatriation of
the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Alabama-
Coushatta Tribes of Texas; the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Oklahoma;
the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana; the Kialegee Tribal Town, Oklahoma;
the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida; the Muscogee (Creek)
Nation, Oklahoma; the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama; the
Seminole Nation of Oklahoma; the Seminole Tribe of Florida; and the
Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, Oklahoma, may begin after that date if no
additional claimants come forward.

    Dated: July 19, 2002.
C. Timothy McKeown,
Acting Manager, National NAGPRA Program
[FR Doc. 02-22000 Filed 8-28-02; 8:45 am]
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