[Federal Register: March 12, 1999 (Volume 64, Number 48)]
[Notices]
[Page 12344-12349]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr12mr99-80]

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains,
Associated Funerary Objects, and Unassociated Funerary Objects in the
Possession of the National Park Service, Chaco Culture National
Historical Park, Nageezi, NM

AGENCY: National Park Service

ACTION: Notice

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    Notice is hereby given in accordance with provisions of the Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 43 CFR 10.9,
of the completion of an inventory of human remains, associated funerary
objects, and unassociated funerary objects in the possession and
control of the National Park Service, Chaco Culture National Historical
Park, Nageezi, NM.
    A detailed assessment of the human remains, associated funerary
objects, and unassociated funerary objects was made by National Park
Service professional staff in consultation with representatives of the
Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Navajo Nation of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah;
Pueblo of Acoma; Pueblo of Cochiti, New Mexico; Pueblo of Isleta, New
Mexico; Pueblo of Jemez, New Mexico; Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico;
Pueblo of Nambe, New Mexico; Pueblo of Picuris, New Mexico; Pueblo of
Pojoaque, New Mexico; Pueblo of San Felipe, New Mexico; Pueblo of San
Juan, New Mexico; Pueblo of Sandia, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana,
New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque, New Mexico;
Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico; Southern Ute Indian Tribe of the Southern
Ute Reservation, Colorado; Ute Mountain Tribe of the Ute Mountain
Reservation, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah; and the Zuni Tribe of the
Zuni Reservation, New Mexico. The Jicarilla Apache Tribe of the
Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico; Pueblo of San
Ildefonso, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of
Santo Domingo, New Mexico; and Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of Texas were
invited to consult, but did not participate.
    In 1956, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service ruin stabilization
excavations at Kin Ya'a (29Mc 108), a site within park boundaries. No
known individual was identified. The eleven associated funerary objects
include four textile fragments, two wooden artifacts, four yucca cords,
and one pottery bowl.
    On the basis of archeological context, architecture, ceramics, and
dendrochronology, this site and the human remains are dated to Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100-1300).
    In 1967, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service ruin stabilization
excavations at Pueblo Pintado (29Mc 166), a site within park
boundaries. No known individual was identified. No funerary objects are
associated with this individual.
    On the basis of archeological context, diagnostic artifacts, and
dendrochronology samples, the major occupation of the site and these
human remains have been dated to Pueblo II-Pueblo III (A.D. 900-1300).
    In 1971, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from the surface during a legally authorized National Park Service
archeological survey of 29SJ 178, a site within park boundaries. This
site was not excavated. No known individual was identified. No
associated funerary objects were present.
    No field notes are associated with these human remains. There was
evidence of Archaic occupation, and Basketmaker III and Pueblo II
ceramics were present at the site. On this basis, these human remains
may date to any of these periods (pre A.D. 1; A.D. 500-700; 900-1100).
    In 1973, human remains representing 14 individuals were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service excavations at 29SJ
299, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. One individual was accompanied by eight small dog bones.
    The site and human remains are dated to Basketmaker III-Pueblo III
(A.D. 500-1300) on the basis of archeological context and ceramics.
    In 1972, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from the surface during a legally authorized National Park Service
archeological survey of 29SJ 352, a site within park boundaries. No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    Based on archeological context, architecture, and ceramics, this
site and human remains are dated to Pueblo III (A.D. 1100-1300).
    Between 1976 and 1979, human remains representing 21 individuals
were recovered during legally authorized National Park Service
excavations at Pueblo Alto (29SJ 389), a site within park boundaries.
No known individuals were identified. The four associated funerary
objects are chipped stone flakes.
    The site and the human remains date to A.D. 900-1300 on the basis
of archeological context, diagnostic artifacts, dendrochronology and
archaeomagnetic dating.
    In 1979, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during a legally authorized National Park Service archeological
investigation undertaken prior to the backfilling of Una Vida (29SJ
391), a site within park boundaries. No known individual was
identified. No associated funerary objects were present.
    Una Vida and these human remains are dated to Pueblo II-Early
Pueblo III (A.D. 900-1150) on the basis of archeological context and
dendrochronology.
    In 1983, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during a legally authorized National Park Service archeological
investigation undertaken as part of an historic structures report of
Kin Nahasbas (29SJ 392), a site within park boundaries. On the surface
of an anthill, a partial human tooth representing a single individual
was recovered from a collection of prehistoric chipped stone flakes. No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    On the basis of diagnostic artifacts recovered from the Kin
Nahasbas, the human remains may date to Late Pueblo II (A.D. 1000-
1100).
    In 1951, human remains representing eight individuals were
recovered during legally authorized National Park Service ruin
stabilization excavations at Kin Kletso (29SJ 393), a site within park
boundaries. No known individuals were identified. The six associated
funerary objects are pottery bowls.
    Kin Kletso and these human remains are dated by archeological
context, architecture, dendrochronology, and ceramics to Pueblo III
(A.D. 1100-1300).
    In 1950, human remains representing three individuals were
recovered during legally authorized National Park Service ruin
stabilization excavations at Bc 50 (29SJ 394), a site within park
boundaries. No known individuals were identified. No associated
funerary objects were present.
    On the basis of archeological context, architecture, and ceramics,
this site and the human remains date to Pueblo II-Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 900-1150).
    In 1940, human remains representing seven individuals were
recovered during legally authorized excavations

[[Page 12345]]

conducted by the University of New Mexico at 29SJ 396 (Bc 53), a site
within park boundaries. No known individuals were identified. No
associated funerary objects were present.
    On the basis of archeological context, architecture, and ceramics,
this site and the human remains date to Late Pueblo II-Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1000-1150).
    In 1950, human remains representing 43 individuals were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service ruin stabilization
excavations at 29SJ 399 (Bc 59), a site within park boundaries. No
known individuals were identified. Chaco Culture NHP currently has in
its possession human remains representing 26 of the 43 individuals
originally recovered from Bc 59. Additionally, Chaco Culture NHP
possesses 52 of the 55 originally recovered associated funerary objects
from Bc 59, including 13 pottery bowls and bowl fragments, ten
pitchers, two jars, three ladle fragments, eleven sherds, seven mineral
artifacts, two stone artifacts, one bone artifact, one jet and shell
bead necklace, and two effigy vessel fragments. Three bowl fragments
are missing.
    On the basis of archeological context, ceramics, and architecture,
this site, and these human remains are dated to Pueblo II-Early Pueblo
III (A.D. 900-1150).
    In 1973, human remains representing six individuals were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service excavations at 29SJ
423, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. A single burial contained two associated funerary objects,
which included a black-on-white bowl and a slate bead.
    On the basis of archeological context and ceramics, the burial
containing associated funerary objects is dated to Pueblo III. The
human remains with no funerary objects have been dated to Basketmaker
III (A.D.500-700) on the basis of archeological context,
dendrochronology, ceramics, and architecture.
    In 1967, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service salvage excavations at
Gallo Cliff Dwelling (29SJ 540), a site within park boundaries. No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    Gallo Cliff Dwelling and the human remains are dated to Pueblo III
(A.D. 1100-1300) on the basis of archeological context, ceramics, and
architecture.
    In 1972, human remains representing two individuals were recovered
from the surface during a legally authorized National Park Service
archeological survey of 29SJ 563, a site within park boundaries. No
known individuals were identified. The 15 associated funerary objects
include three fragments of a basketry pillow, three textile fragments,
one sandal fragment, one sherd, three matting fragments, one cordage
segment, one corn cob and two pieces of unidentified vegetal material.
    Based on archeological context and ceramics, this site and these
human remains are dated to Pueblo I-Early Pueblo III (A.D. 700-1150).
    In 1958, human remains representing two individuals were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service ruin stabilization
excavations at 29SJ 589, a site within park boundaries. No known
individuals were identified. The two associated funerary objects
include one pottery bowl and one sherd.
    On the basis of archeological context, ceramics, and
archaeomagnetic samples, the site have been dated to Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1150-1300).
    In 1980-1982, human remains representing 13 individuals were
recovered during legally authorized National Park Service mitigation
trenching excavations prior to road construction at 29SJ 597, a site
within park boundaries. No known individuals were identified. The 47
funerary objects include one pottery corrugated jar, one botanical
specimen inside the pitcher, 44 sherds, and one piece of matting.
    On the basis of archeological context and ceramics, this site and
these human remains are dated to Pueblo III (A.D. 1100-1300).
    In 1939, human remains representing 12 individuals were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service salvage excavations in
preparation for the construction of a Civil Conservation Corps camp at
29SJ 625 (Three-C Site), a site within park boundaries. No known
individuals were identified. Eight associated funerary objects were
present and include four pottery bowls, three jars, and one pitcher.
    The Three-C Site has been dated by archeological context, ceramics,
and architecture to mid-Pueblo I-Early Pueblo II (A.D. 800-1000).
    In 1982, human remains representing eight individuals were
recovered during legally authorized National Park Service excavations
at 29SJ 626, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. The 36 associated funerary objects include one pottery
bowl, one pitcher, one metate fragment, one effigy vessel, 30 sherds,
and three chipped stone.
    Based on archeological context, ceramics, and architecture, this
site and these human remains are dated to Pueblo II (A.D. 900-1100).
    In 1974 and 1975, human remains representing 25 individuals were
recovered during legally authorized National Park Service excavations
at 29SJ 627, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. The 186 associated funerary objects include five pottery
bowls, one pitcher, one miniature jar, one ladle fragment, 110 sherds,
eleven projectile points, 28 chipped stone, two lithic specimens, ten
mineral specimens, one turquoise piece, one bone artifact, six
concretions, four manos, one ground stone, two hammerstones, and two
burial matting fragments.
    On the basis of archeological context, ceramics, and
archaeomagnetic samples, these human remains and associated funerary
objects are dated to the Late Pueblo II period (A.D. 1000-1100).
    In 1973, human remains representing eight individuals were
recovered during legally authorized National Park Service excavations
at 29SJ 628, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. No funerary objects were present.
    On the basis of archeological context, architecture, and
archaeomagnetic samples, this site and these human remains have been
dated to Basketmaker III-Pueblo I (A.D. 500-900).
    In 1975 and 1976, human remains representing 14 individuals were
recovered during legally authorized National Park Service excavations
at 29SJ 629, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. The 38 associated funerary objects include one selenite
specimen, 19 chipped stone, and 18 sherds.
    Based on archeological context, ceramics, architecture, and a
variety of chronometric samples, this site and these human remains are
dated to Late Pueblo I-mid Pueblo III (A.D. 875-1200).
    In 1975, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service test excavations at
29SJ 630, a site within park boundaries. No known individual was
identified. No associated funerary objects were present.
    The site of 29SJ 630 and these human remains are dated to Late
Pueblo II-Pueblo III (A.D. 1000-1300) on the basis of archeological
context, ceramics, and architecture.
    In 1978, human remains representing 28 individuals were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service test excavations that
were conducted as part of an evaluation of remote sensing technique at
29SJ 633, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. The 51 associated funerary objects include four burial
slabs, one pottery bowl fragment, 28 sherds, three

[[Page 12346]]

ladle fragments, one corn cob fragment, four chipped stone, three
ground stone, one bone artifact, one mineral specimen, one turquoise
fragment, two twine fragments, one mushroom cap, and bones from one
hawk.
    This site and the human remains are dated to Late Pueblo II-Early
Pueblo III (A.D. 1000-1150) on the basis of archeological context,
archaeomagnetic samples, and ceramics.
    In 1973, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from a kiva during legally authorized National Park Service excavations
at 29SJ 721, a site within park boundaries. No known individual was
identified. No associated funerary objects were present.
    The kiva and the human remains are dated to Pueblo III (A.D. 1100-
1300) based on archeological context, ceramic, and architecture.
    In 1964, human remains representing two individuals were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service salvage excavations at
29SJ 827, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. The four associated funerary objects include two pottery
bowls, one pitcher, and one jar.
    On the basis of archeological context and ceramics, these human
remains are dated to Late Pueblo II-Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1000-1150).
    In 1976, human remains representing three individuals were
recovered from an Archaic midden during legally authorized National
Park Service excavations at Atlatl Cave (29SJ 1156), a site within park
boundaries. No known individuals were identified. No associated
funerary objects were present.
    On the basis of archeological context and radiocarbon dating, the
midden and these human remains are dated to the Archaic period (2900
B.C.-A.D. 1).
    In 1976, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service excavations at Sleeping
Dune (29SJ 1157), a site within park boundaries. No known individual
was identified. No associated funerary objects were present.
    Sleeping Dune consists of an extended hearth area and two dunes
with cultural material and is interpreted as an early campsite
contemporaneous with Atlatl Cave. The human remains cannot be directly
dated, but Sleeping Dune has been radiocarbon-dated to the Archaic and
Basketmaker periods (2900 B.C.-A.D. 500).
    In 1972, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during a legally authorized National Park Service archeological survey
of 29SJ 1242, a site within park boundaries. No known individual was
identified. No associated funerary objects were present.
    Based on surface ceramics, this site and the human remains are
dated to Pueblo I-Early Pueblo II (A.D. 700-1000).
    In 1972, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from the surface during a legally authorized National Park Service
archeological survey of 29SJ 1272, a site within park boundaries. No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    Based on surface ceramics and architecture, this site and the human
remains are dated to Pueblo II-Pueblo III (A.D. 900-1300).
    In 1974, human remains representing 12 individuals were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service excavations at 29SJ
1360, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals were
identified. The nine funerary objects include one bead necklace, one
matting fragment, two grinding slabs, two projectile points, one sherd,
one adobe impression, and the remains of one dog.
    On the basis of archeological context, diagnostic artifacts
recovered from the site, as well as architecture and archeomagnetic
dating, the site and human remains are dated to the Pueblo II period
(A.D. 900-1100).
    In 1972, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during a legally authorized National Park Service archeological survey
of 29SJ 1396, a site within park boundaries. No known individual was
identified. The 24 associated funerary objects include 23 sherds and
one shell bead.
    Based on the archeological context and ceramics, this site and the
human remains are dated to Pueblo II-Early Pueblo III (A.D. 900-1150).
    In 1966, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service ruin stabilization
excavations at Kin Bineola (29SJ 1580), a site within park boundaries.
No known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    On the basis of archeological context, ceramics, and architecture,
this site and the human remains are dated to Pueblo II-Pueblo III (A.D.
900-1300).
    In 1972, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from under a boulder overhang on the talus slope in front of a
rockshelter (site 29SJ 1629) during a legally authorized National Park
Service archeological survey within park boundaries. No known
individual was identified. The five associated funerary objects include
one pottery ladle fragment, one canteen, two cordage fragments, and one
matting fragment.
    Based on the archeological context and ceramics, this site and the
human remains are dated to Pueblo II (A.D. 900-1100).
    In 1967, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service salvage excavations of
the eastern segment of Half House (29SJ 1657), a site within park
boundaries. No known individual was identified. No associated funerary
objects were present.
    The eastern segment of Half House and the human remains have been
dated to Basketmaker III (A.D. 500-700), based on archeological
context, architecture, and ceramics.
    In 1960, human remains representing eight individuals were
recovered during legally authorized National Park Service ruin
stabilization excavations at Lizard House (29SJ 1912), a site within
park boundaries. No known individuals were identified. No associated
funerary objects were present.
    On the basis of archeological context, architecture, ceramics, and
dendrochronology this site and the eight individuals have been dated to
Late Pueblo II-Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1000-1150).
    In 1950, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized ruin stabilization excavations by the
National Park Service at Chetro Ketl (29SJ 1928), a site within park
boundaries. No known individual was identified. No associated funerary
objects were present.
    This site and these human remains are dated to Pueblo II-Pueblo III
(A.D. 900-1300) on the basis of ceramics, architecture, and
dendrochronology.
    In 1933, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized University of New Mexico excavations at Talus
Unit 1 (29SJ 1930), a site within park boundaries. No known individual
was identified. The ten associated funerary objects include eight
sherds, one pottery bowl fragment, and one faunal specimen.
    On the basis of archeological context, architecture, and
dendrochronology, Talus Unit 1 and these human remains are dated to
Late Pueblo II-Pueblo III (A.D. 1000-1300).
    In 1959, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service ruin stabilization
excavations at Talus Unit 1 (29SJ 1930), a site within park boundaries.
No known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.

[[Page 12347]]

    On the basis of archeological context, architecture, and
dendrochronology, Talus Unit 1 and these human remains are dated to
Late Pueblo II-Pueblo III (A.D. 1000-1300).
    In 1980, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service archeological testing
at Pueblo del Arroyo (29SJ 1947), a site within park boundaries. No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    These human remains have been dated to Early Pueblo III on the
basis of archeological context, architecture, dendrochronology, and
ceramics (A.D. 1100-1150).
    In 1950, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized National Park Service ruin stabilization
excavations at Pueblo del Arroyo (29SJ 1947), a site within park
boundaries. No known individual was identified. The five associated
funerary objects include the remains of two dogs, one turkey, and two
unidentified mammals.
    This site and these human remains have been dated to Late Pueblo
II-Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1000-1150) on the basis of archeological
context, architecture, dendrochronology, and ceramics.
    In 1978, human remains representing three individuals were
recovered during legally authorized excavations of a small site (SJC
265) near Kin Ya'a, a site within park boundaries. No known individuals
were identified. The 16 associated funerary objects include 15 sherds
and one chipped stone.
    Based on the archeological context and ceramics, this site and
these human remains are dated to Pueblo II-Pueblo III (A.D. 900-1300).
    In 1933, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during legally authorized NPS excavations of a cavity in the cliff wall
behind Kin Kletso, a site within park boundaries. No known individual
was identified. No associated funerary objects were present.
    On the basis of archeological context and ceramics, this site and
the human remains date to Pueblo II-Pueblo III (A.D. 900-1300).
    In 1966, human remains representing three individuals were
recovered from one or two unknown sites within park boundaries during
the legally authorized National Park Service Wilderness Study Site
Survey directed by National Park Service ranger George Buckingham. No
known individuals were identified. The 165 associated funerary objects
include two pottery bowls, 135 sherds, one ladle fragment, 18 chipped
stone, one turquoise piece, and eight mineral specimens. .
    The documentation for these human remains and associated funerary
objects is poor, and site locations and object associations cannot be
established. Based on the ceramic funerary objects, these human remains
are dated to Pueblo I-Pueblo III (A.D. 700-1300).
    At some point prior to 1958, human remains representing three
individuals were accessioned by Chaco Canyon National Monument. There
is no information regarding how the material in this accession was
collected or by whom. No known individuals were identified. One
individual was accompanied by five associated funerary objects, which
include one turquoise bead blank, two sherds, and two bark pieces.
    These human remains are believed to have come from burials in Chaco
Canyon, but there is no documentation on this. The examining
osteologist believes this individual dates to the Basketmaker period
(A.D. 1-700). There were no associated funerary objects with the other
two individuals, but based on cranial deformation, it is believed these
human remains date to the prehistoric occupation of Chaco Canyon (pre-
A.D. 1300).
    In 1966, human remains representing one individual were discovered
in the archaeological material on hand at Chaco Culture NHP. No known
individual was identified. There were no associated funerary objects.
    There is no information on this single human molar, but it is
believed to have come from Chaco Canyon. No date can be assigned to
these human remains, but the condition and wear of the molar indicate
it is prehistoric and most likely dates to the period of Chacoan
occupation (pre-A.D. 1300).
    In 1971, human remains representing one individual were recovered
during the legally authorized Chaco Canyon Water Control Project from
an unspecified location in Rinconada Canal, a site within park
boundaries. No known individual was identified. No associated funerary
objects were present.
    Although no date can be assigned to these human remains, the
archeological context supports the conclusion that these human remains
are prehistoric and most likely date to the Pueblo I-III periods (A.D.
700-1300).
    In 1978, human remains representing one individual were recovered
by a visitor from the Chaco Wash, near the east boundary fence. No
known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
present.
    No date can be assigned to these human remains, but the condition
and wear of the human remains indicate they are prehistoric and most
likely date to the period of Chacoan occupation (pre-A.D. 1300).
    Prior to 1980, human remains representing one individual were
recovered by NPS personnel at Chaco Culture NHP. No known individual
was identified. No associated funerary objects were present. Although
no date can be assigned to these human remains, their recovery from
Chaco Canyon and their fragile condition suggest they date to the
prehistoric occupation (pre-A.D. 1300).
    In 1982, human remains of one individual were discovered in a box
retrieved from the middle of the Mockingbird Road, a site within park
boundaries. No known individual was identified. No associated funerary
objects were present.
    The Mockingbird Road had been used by the National Park Service as
a temporary storage area for artifacts collected from sites in Chaco
Canyon. It is not known from which site these human remains were
originally recovered, but it is believed that the human remains are
from the prehistoric occupation of Chaco Canyon (pre- A.D. 1300).
    In 1985, human remains representing two individuals recovered from
an unknown location in Chaco Canyon were accessioned into the Chaco
Culture NHP collection. The history of the recovery of these human
remains is not known. No known individuals were identified. No
associated funerary objects were present.
    An examination of the records suggests these human remains are from
the Kin Kletso (29SJ 393), a site within park boundaries, excavated in
1951 during a legally authorized National Park Service ruin
stabilization project. The published report lists six burials. Chaco
Culture NHP has in its possessions the individuals from burials 1, 3,
4, 5, and 6. Based on the catalog information and the published
description, the two individuals in this accession may be from the
missing Kin Kletso burial 2. Although no date can be assigned to these
two individuals, they are believed to be from the prehistoric
occupation of Chaco Canyon (pre- A.D. 1300).
    In 1987, human remains representing three individuals were
accessioned into the Chaco Culture NHP collection. No known individuals
were identified. One individual is described as having been recovered
from the arroyo. No associated funerary objects were present with this
individual. The examining

[[Page 12348]]

osteologist identified the human remains from the arroyo as prehistoric
Chacoan (pre-A.D. 1300). The other two sets of human remains were
described as being from Chaco Canyon. One of these individuals was
accompanied by 13 associated funerary objects, which include 12 sherds
and one corncob fragment. Based on the ceramics, these individuals are
dated to the Pueblo I-III period (A.D. 700-1300).
    Prior to 1988, human remains representing one individual were
recovered from an unknown location in Chaco Canyon by a Chaco Culture
NHP park employee or visitor. No known individual was identified. No
associated funerary objects were present. Although no date can be
assigned to these human remains, their recovery from Chaco Canyon and
their fragile condition suggest they date to the prehistoric occupation
(pre-A.D. 1300).
    In 1993, human remains representing one individual were transferred
to Chaco Culture NHP from the Florida Bureau of Archeological Research
in Tallahassee, Florida. No known individual was identified. No
associated funerary objects were present.
    These human remains were originally donated to the St. Petersburg
Historical Museum in the 1950s. The accompanying tag stated they were
from Chaco Canyon, but there is no information as to a specific
location. Although no date can be assigned to these human remains, the
examining paleo-osteologist in Florida concluded that the human remains
were consistent with prehistoric occupants of Chaco Canyon (pre-A.D.
1300).
    In 1950, Chaco Culture NHP received a gift of two unassociated
funerary objects, recovered during legally authorized excavations in
1934 by the University of New Mexico, from 29SJ 1930 (Talus Unit 1) a
site within park boundaries. The two cultural items include two ceramic
bowl fragments, which were described as being from a single burial. No
human remains were present. Although not recorded with any specific
burials, these cultural items are consistent with the cultural items
associated with human remains.
    In 1950, 16 unassociated funerary objects were recovered from
burials in three different rooms during legally authorized park
stabilization excavations at 29SJ 395 (Bc 51), a site within park
boundaries. The 16 cultural items include nine complete or partial
ceramic vessels, three fragments of matting, and four mineral
specimens. No human remains were present. Although not recorded with
any specific burials, these cultural items are consistent with the
cultural items associated with human remains.
    In 1966, three unassociated funerary objects were recovered during
legally authorized excavations at 29SJ 1912 (Lizard House), a site
within park boundaries. The three cultural items include one bowl
fragment, one axe head, and one projectile point. No human remains were
present. Although not recorded with any specific burials, these
cultural items are consistent with the cultural items associated with
human remains.
    Evidence provided by anthropological, archeological, biological,
expert opinion, geographical, historical, kinship, linguistic, and oral
tradition sources were considered in determining the cultural
affiliation of the above listed human remains and associated funerary
objects.
    Anthropological literature supports the view of many Puebloan
communities that the San Juan region, which includes Chaco Culture NHP,
belongs to their common ancestral cultural heritage. Archeological
evidence indicates that Puebloan people were in Chaco Canyon since at
least the Basketmaker period (ca. A.D. 1) and, therefore, supports the
affiliation of the above mentioned human remains and associated
funerary objects with many modern Puebloan communities. Continuities in
architecture, ceramics, agricultural practices, food-processing
technology, and rituals from Chaco Canyon's prehistoric settlements,
present-day Pueblos, and Hopi Tribe bolster claims of cultural
affiliation by these communities. Furthermore, anthropological research
indicates that many Puebloan peoples have additional bases for claiming
cultural affiliation with the ancient residents of Chaco Canyon due to
clan migrations, intermarriage, and the regrouping of communities over
time. Linguistic evidence also suggests that modern Keresan speakers
(Pueblos of Acoma, Cochiti, Laguna, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Santo
Domingo, and Zia) originally occupied Chaco Canyon. Additionally, oral
traditions specifically link the Pueblos of Acoma, Laguna, Zia, and
Zuni, as well as the Hopi Tribe, to Chaco Canyon. Furthermore, the
Pueblos of Cochiti, Isleta, San Felipe, Santa Ana, and Santo Domingo
have oral traditions that refer to ``White House'' as an ancestral
place. Some anthropologists maintain that White House was located in
Chaco Canyon. Tribal cultural specialists offered expert opinion to
support the cultural affiliation of the Pueblos of Acoma, Cochiti,
Isleta, Laguna, Nambe, Picturis, Poaque, San Felipe, San Juan, Sandia,
Santa Ana, Taos, Tesuque, Zia and Zuni, and the Hopi the Tribe, to
Chaco Canyon. Similar expert testimony provided by the Jicarilla Apache
Tribe, Pueblo of Jemez, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo indicated that
these three communities are not culturally affiliated with Chaco
Canyon.
    In addition to the above listed Pueblos and the Hopi Tribe, the
Navajo Nation was found to be culturally affiliated with the ancient
residents of Chaco Canyon based upon similar sources of evidence.
Anthropological sources indicate extensive intermarriage between Navajo
and Puebloan peoples occurred, and that the Navajo have traditional
ties to the natural and cultural resources of Chaco Canyon.
Additionally, Pueblo cultural traits have been incorporated into Navajo
cosmogony, ritual, and secular practices. Historical evidence places
the Navajo occupation of Chaco Canyon to at least the early 1700s until
1947. It is also known that after the Pueblo revolt of 1680, refugees
from the Pueblos of Jemez, Santa Clara, San Felipe, San Ildefonso,
Cochiti, and Zuni joined the Navajo and were incorporated into their
clan system. During the same period, the Hopi of Awatovi joined the
Navajo in the Chinle area. Geographically, Chaco Canyon is within the
four sacred mountains that define Dinetah territory, and within the
area of Navajo aboriginal use lands established by the Indian Claims
Commission. Oral traditions also link the Navajo to sites within Chaco
Canyon such as Fajada Butte, Pueblo Alto, Pueblo Bonito, and Wijiji, as
well as to the Chacoan sites of Kin Ya'a and Aztec. Finally, Navajo
cultural specialists have also provided expert opinion affirming their
cultural ties to Chaco Canyon. Navajo oral traditions link the Navajo
people to sites within Chaco Canyon, and stories describe their
ancestors interacting with the ``Great Gambler'' in Chaco Canyon when
Puebloan people occupied the area.
    Based on the above mentioned information, officials of the National
Park Service have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(1), the
human remains listed above represent the physical remains of at least
265 individuals of Native American ancestry. National Park Service
officials have also determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(2),
the 722 items listed above are reasonably believed to have been placed
with or near individual human remains at the time of death or later as
part of the death rite or ceremony. Chaco Culture NHP possesses 265
individual human remains out of the 282 originally cataloged into the
collection. Of the 725

[[Page 12349]]

associated funerary objects cataloged into the park's collection, Chaco
Culture NHP currently possesses 722. National Park Service officials
further determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(2)(ii), 21 of the
objects listed above are reasonably believed to have been placed with
or near individual human remains at the time of death or later as part
of the death rite or ceremony and are believed, by a preponderance of
the evidence, to have been removed from a specific burial site of a
Native American individual. Lastly, officials of the National Park
Service have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (e), there is a
relationship of shared group identity which can be reasonably traced
between these Native American human remains, associated funerary
objects, and unassociated funerary objects and the Hopi Tribe of
Arizona; Navajo Nation of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah; Pueblo of
Acoma, New Mexico; Pueblo of Cochiti, New Mexico; Pueblo of Isleta, New
Mexico; Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico; Pueblo of Nambe, New Mexico;
Pueblo of Picuris, New Mexico; Pueblo of Pojoaque, New Mexico; Pueblo
of San Felipe, New Mexico; Pueblo of San Ildefonso, New Mexico; Pueblo
of San Juan, New Mexico; Pueblo of Sandia, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa
Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santo
Domingo, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque, New
Mexico; Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico; and the Zuni Tribe of Zuni
Reservation, New Mexico.
    This notice has been sent to officials of the Hopi Tribe of
Arizona; Jicarilla Apache Tribe of the Jicarilla Apache Indian
Reservation, New Mexico; Navajo Nation of Arizona, New Mexico, and
Utah; Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico; Pueblo of Cochiti, New Mexico;
Pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico; Pueblo of Jemez, New Mexico; Pueblo of
Laguna, New Mexico; Pueblo of Nambe, New Mexico; Pueblo of Picuris, New
Mexico; Pueblo of Pojoaque, New Mexico; Pueblo of San Felipe, New
Mexico; Pueblo of San Ildefonso, New Mexico; Pueblo of San Juan, New
Mexico; Pueblo of Sandia, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico;
Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santo Domingo, New Mexico;
Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque, New Mexico; Pueblo of
Zia; Southern Ute Indian Tribe of the Southern Ute Reservation,
Colorado; Ute Mountain Tribe of the Ute Mountain Reservation, Colorado,
New Mexico, and Utah; Ysleta del Sur Pueblo of Texas; and the Zuni
Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico. Representatives of any other
Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with
these human remains, associated funerary objects, and unassociated
funerary objects should contact Mr. C.T. Wilson, Superintendent, Chaco
Culture National Historical Park, P.O. Box 220, Nageezi, NM 87037-0220;
telephone: (505) 786-7014, before April 12, 1999. Repatriation of the
human remains, associated funerary objects, and unassociated funerary
objects to the Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Navajo Nation of Arizona, New
Mexico, and Utah; Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico; Pueblo of Cochiti, New
Mexico; Pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico; Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico;
Pueblo of Nambe, New Mexico; Pueblo of Picuris, New Mexico; Pueblo of
Pojoaque, New Mexico; Pueblo of San Felipe, New Mexico; Pueblo of San
Ildefonso, New Mexico; Pueblo of San Juan, New Mexico; Pueblo of
Sandia, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa
Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santo Domingo, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos,
New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque, New Mexico; Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico;
and the Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico may begin after
that date if no additional claimants come forward.
Dated: March 8, 1999.
Francis P. McManamon,
Departmental Consulting Archeologist,
Manager, Archeology and Ethnography Program.
[FR Doc. 99-6111 Filed 3-11-99; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-70-F

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