[Federal Register: October 2, 1998 (Volume 63, Number 191)]
[Notices]
[Page 53098-53100]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr02oc98-123]

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

National Park Service

Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains
and Associated Funerary Objects in the Control of the Aztec Ruins
National Monument, National Park Service, Aztec, NM

AGENCY: National Park Service

ACTION: Notice

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    Notice is hereby given in accordance with provisions of the Native
American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 43 CFR 10.9,
of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated
funerary objects in the control of Aztec Ruins National Monument,
National Park Service, Aztec, NM.
    A detailed assessment of the human remains and associated funerary
objects was made by National Park Service professional staff in
consultation with representatives of the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, Fort
Sill Apache Tribe, Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Indian Community, Hopi
Tribe, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Navajo Nation, Pueblo of Acoma, Pueblo
of Jemez, Pueblo of Laguna, Pueblo of Nambe, Pueblo of Pojoaque, Pueblo
of San Ildefonso, Pueblo of Taos, Pueblo of Tesuque, Pueblo of Zuni,
Southern Ute Indian Tribe, Ute Mountain Tribe, White Mountain Apache
Tribe, and Yavapai-Apache Nation. Representatives of the Pueblo of
Cochiti, Pueblo of Isleta, Pueblo of Picuris, Pueblo of San Felipe,
Pueblo of San Juan, Pueblo of Sandia, Pueblo of Santa Ana, Pueblo of
Santa Clara, Pueblo of Santo Domingo, and Pueblo of Zia were invited to
consult with the park as well but did not attend consultation meetings.

[[Page 53099]]

    In 1927, human remains representing three individuals were loaned
(later donated) to Aztec Ruins National Monument as part of a larger
collection belonging to Sherman S. Howe. This collection was made over
a period of many years beginning in 1881 from the Animas Valley
adjacent to Aztec Ruins. No known individuals were identified. No
associated funerary objects are present.
    Most, if not all, of the artifacts in Mr. Howe's collection date to
the Pueblo III period (ca. AD 1100-1300) and it is very likely that
these human remains date to that period as well
    Between 1927 and 1928, human remains representing four individuals
were collected by Aztec Ruins National Monument Custodian George
Boundey as a result of clearing rooms in the northwest corner of the
West Ruin. No known individuals were identified. No associated funerary
objects were recovered.
    These human remains were removed from a part of the West Ruin that
has been dated, using dendrochronology (tree ring data), to the Pueblo
II-Pueblo III period (ca. AD 900-1300).
    In 1949, human remains representing two individuals were
incidentally recovered from the East Ruin site, located within park
boundaries, during legally authorized stabilization efforts conducted
by Richard Gordon Vivian. No known individual was identified. No
associated funerary objects were recovered.
    Based on dendrochronology of the East Ruin, these human remains are
dated to the Pueblo III period (ca. AD 1100-1300).
    In 1953, human remains representing 21 individuals were recovered
from the Hubbard Mound site, located within park boundaries, during
legally authorized excavations conducted by Richard Gordon Vivian. No
known individuals were identified. The 82 associated funerary objects
include 57 ceramic sherds, 18 faunal skeletal fragments representing
varying animal species, three projectile points, one Mancos Black-on-
White bowl, one Mesa Verde Whiteware bowl, one Mesa Verde corrugated
jar, and one flake tool.
    Based on the associated funerary objects, these human remains are
dated to the Pueblo II-Pueblo III period (ca. AD 900-1300).
    In 1960, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from the Haymie Ranch, private land located a half-mile from the park,
and donated to the park's collections by Esais Haymie, the land owner.
No known individual was identified. The seven associated funerary
objects include four Mesa Verde Black-on-White bowls, Kone Mesa Verde
Black-on-White mug, one fragment of a McElmo Black-on-White jar, and
one small corrugated culinary jar.
    Based on the associated funerary objects, the human remains are
dated to the Pueblo II-Pueblo III period (ca. AD 900-1300).
    In 1987, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from site LA60016 during a legally authorized excavation in conjunction
to the archeological response portion of the General Management Plan
for the monument. No known individual was identified. No associated
funerary objects were recovered.
    Based on evidence of heavy occupation during the Pueblo II-Pueblo
III period (ca. AD 900 -1300) at other sites located in the area,
ceramic analysis, and cross dating to the major Aztec Ruins complex,
these remains most likely date to the Pueblo II-Pueblo III time period
as well.
    In 1987, human remains representing one individual were recovered
from midden Mound E near East Ruin during the Aztec Mounds Testing
Project. No known individual was identified. No associated funerary
objects were recovered.
    Testing on fill samples taken from the midden date the remains to
approximately 800 years ago, or the Pueblo III period (ca. AD 1100-
1300).
    Between 1927 and 1987, human remains representing 44 individuals
(including two wrapped mummies in fragmented burial costumes) were
recovered from the West Ruin site, located within park boundaries,
during legally authorized excavations. No known individuals were
identified. The 86 associated funerary objects include 67 ceramic
sherds, seven pieces of cordage, four bone awls, two sets of fragmented
burial costume and wrapping, one Mancos Black-on-White bowl, one Mesa
Verde Black-on-White bowl, one feather-wrapped cordage burial bag, one
bird effigy, one corrugated jar, and one Black-on-White seed jar.
    Based on the associated funerary objects, 16 of these individuals
have been determined to be from the Pueblo II-Pueblo III period (ca. AD
900-1300). The human remains representing the remaining 28 individuals
from this site are dated to the Pueblo III period (ca. AD 1100-1300) on
the basis of diagnostic utilitarian objects found in proximity of the
human remains.
    Between 1929 and 1990, human remains representing 38 individuals,
including one mat-wrapped mummy, were recovered under unknown
circumstances and accessioned into the park collections. No known
individuals were identified. The single funerary object consists of one
burial wrapping.
    Although accession records do not indicate the exact provenience
information for the various remains, they most likely came from sites
within and surrounding park boundaries as none of the other collections
in the park's holdings originated in a distant location. The physical
state of all of these remains indicates a pre-contact time of
disposition. Based on evidence of heavy occupation during the Pueblo
II-Pueblo III period (ca. AD 900 --1300) at other sites located in the
area, these remains most likely date to that time period as well.
    Prior to 1990, human remains representing a minimum of one
individual were recovered from the <gr-thn-eq>U<gr-thn-eq>
House site, reported on in 1990 by Peter McKenna. No known individual
was identified. No associated funerary objects were recovered. A box of
objects labeled as <gr-thn-eq>Anasazi<gr-thn-eq> was located
in storage at the monument and are believed to have come from this site
as well and date the remains to approximately 845 years ago, or the
Pueblo III period (ca. AD 1100-1300).
    Prior to 1990, human remains representing a minimum of nine
individuals were recovered from an area known as Oliver's Farm, located
just outside of park boundaries, under unknown circumstances. No known
individuals were identified. No associated funerary objects are
present.
    The physical state of the remains indicates a pre-contact time of
disposition. Based on the fact that the area around the Monument, as
well as the Monument itself, were heavily populated during the Pueblo
II-Pueblo III periods (ca. AD 900-1300), it is likely that these
remains date to that time period as well
    All except one set of these human remains are currently curated at
the National Park Service's Western Archeological and Conservation
Center in Tucson, AZ and Intermountain Cultural Resource Center in
Santa Fe, NM. In 1992, three associated funerary objects and the one
set of human remains mentioned above were reburied, but not
repatriated, by National Park Service staff and representatives of the
Hopi Tribe. All other associated funerary objects are curated at Aztec
Ruins National Monument or the Western Archeological and Conservation
Center.
    The major occupation in and around the Monument has been well
documented since the beginning of the 20th century in archeological
sources as

[[Page 53100]]

taking place during the Pueblo II-Pueblo III period (ca. AD 900-1300).
Information gleaned from consulting Indian tribes during a cultural
affiliation study conducted for the park indicates that all puebloan
peoples, except for the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo, view the San Juan
region, which includes Aztec Ruins National Monument, as their
ancestral homeland.
    Archeological evidence provided by dendrochronology, ceramic
analysis, and cross dating of diagnostic artifacts indicate that it was
common for people of the southwest to occupy an area for a generation
or two, then migrate. Multiple occupations of an area by people
exhibiting different cultural traits over time also occurred. Oral
traditions of puebloan peoples support a history of migrations and
intermingling of southwestern peoples. Archeological evidence provided
by ceramics, masonry styles, burial practices, and other artifacts
indicate frequent mixing of and contact with groups of peoples
prehistorically. Movements of people from one community to another
often resulted in adaptation and acculturation to the practices of the
recipient population. Migrations and regroupings of communities
indicate all pueblo peoples are related to one another, supporting a
basis for affiliation of all puebloan groups with the Monument.-GI11The
Navajo Nation asserted a cultural affiliation with the inhabitants of
Aztec both in the consultations for the cultural affiliation study and
in independent NPS-sponsored consultation meetings on the basis of oral
tradition that specifically links the inhabitants of Aztec to the
origins of particular Navajo clans. According to Navajo oral traditions
and ethnographic evidence, Aztec Ruins also figures prominently in
Navajo ceremonies. These oral traditions are widely documented in
ethnographic literature and in correspondence provided to NPS by the
Navajo Nation.
    Based on the above-mentioned information, officials of the National
Park Service have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10 (d)(1), the
human remains listed above represent the physical remains of 125
individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of the National Park
Service have also determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (d)(2), the
176 objects listed above are reasonably believed to have been placed
with or near individual human remains at the time of death or later as
part of the death rite or ceremony. Lastly, officials of the National
Park Service have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (e), there
is a relationship of shared group identity which can be reasonably
traced between these Native American human remains and associated
funerary objects and the Hopi Tribe, Navajo Nation, Pueblo of Acoma,
Pueblo of Cochiti, Pueblo of Isleta, Pueblo of Jemez, Pueblo of Laguna,
Pueblo of Nambe, Pueblo of Picuris, Pueblo of Pojoaque, Pueblo of San
Felipe, Pueblo of San Ildefonso, Pueblo of San Juan, Pueblo of Sandia,
Pueblo of Santa Ana, Pueblo of Santa Clara, Pueblo of Santo Domingo,
Pueblo of Tesuque, Pueblo of Taos, Pueblo of Zia, and Pueblo of Zuni.
    In 1955, human remains representing one individual were recovered
by Harry Treadway under unknown circumstances from an area near
Gobernador, NM. The remains were donated to the park later that year.
No known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects were
recovered.
    Gobernador is located approximately 25 miles southeast of the
monument. The remains were located between two rock walls and were
placed in an apparent prone position, with face pointed up. Navajo
occupation in the area of the Gobernador drainage is dated by
dendrochronological methods to between ca. AD 1540 and the mid-1700s.
Based on consultation with the Navajo Nation, the Pueblo of Zuni, and
the local archeologist, this burial style is consistent with Navajo
burials occurring during that time period. These human remains are
currently curated at the National Park Service's Western Archeological
and Conservation Center in Tucson, AZ.
    In addition, the Gobernador area is one extensively referenced in
Navajo oral history. The method of burial of this individual is
consistent with a Navajo method of burial that is well documented in
anthropological literature. Expert opinion offered by both puebloan and
Navajo consultants indicate a Navajo affiliation with the human remains
discussed above.
    Based on the above-mentioned information, officials of the National
Park Service have determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10 (d)(1), the
human remains listed above represent the physical remains of one
individual of Native American ancestry. Officials of the National Park
Service have also determined that, pursuant to 43 CFR 10.2 (e), there
is a relationship of shared group identity which can be reasonably
traced between these Native American human remains and the Navajo
Nation.
    This notice has been sent to officials of the Apache Tribe of
Oklahoma, Fort Sill Apache Tribe, Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Indian
Community, Hopi Tribe, Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Navajo Nation, Pueblo of
Acoma, Pueblo of Cochiti, Pueblo of Isleta, Pueblo of Jemez, Pueblo of
Laguna, Pueblo of Nambe, Pueblo of Picuris, Pueblo of Pojoaque, Pueblo
of San Felipe, Pueblo of San Ildefonso, Pueblo of San Juan, Pueblo of
Sandia, Pueblo of Santa Ana, Pueblo of Santa Clara, Pueblo of Santo
Domingo, Pueblo of Taos, Pueblo of Tesuque, Pueblo of Zia, Pueblo of
Zuni, Southern Ute Tribe, Ute Mountain Tribe, White Mountain Apache
Tribe, and Yavapai-Apache Nation. Representatives of any other Indian
tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with these human
remains and associated funerary objects should contact Charles B.
Cooper, Superintendent, Aztec Ruins National Monument, P.O. Box 640,
Aztec, NM 87410; telephone: (505) 334-6174, before November 2, 1998.
Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects from
all sites except the Gobernador site to the Hopi Tribe, Navajo Nation,
Pueblo of Acoma, Pueblo of Cochiti, Pueblo of Isleta, Pueblo of Jemez,
Pueblo of Laguna, Pueblo of Nambe, Pueblo of Picuris, Pueblo of
Pojoaque, Pueblo of San Felipe, Pueblo of San Ildefonso, Pueblo of San
Juan, Pueblo of Sandia, Pueblo of Santa Ana, Pueblo of Santa Clara,
Pueblo of Santo Domingo, Pueblo of Taos, Pueblo of Tesuque, Pueblo of
Zia, and Pueblo of Zuni and repatriation of the human remains and
associated funerary objects from the Gobernador site to the Navajo
Nation may begin after that date if no additional claimants come
forward.
Dated: September 25, 1998.
Francis P. McManamon,
Departmental Consulting Archeologist,
Manager, Archeology and Ethnography Program
[FR Doc. 98-26418 Filed 10-1-98; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-70-F

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