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Historical Context

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Painting 1
Photo 1
Photo 2

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Visual Evidence


Drawing 1: The battles of Apache Canyon and Glorieta Pass. [Drawing 1] with link to larger version of DRAWING.
(National Park Service)

Map Key:
Battle of Apache Canyon--March 26, 1862:
A. Upper Battlefield--2:30 to 3:00pm
Union troops under Chivington encounter Confederate vanguard under Pyron. Confederates retreat. Union forces pursue the Confederates.
B. Lower Battlefield--3:30 to 4:30pm
Chivington continues flanking strategy. Fierce fighting erupts. Pyron's forces retreat to Johnson's Ranch. Chivington withdraws to Kozlowski's Stage Stop.

Battle of Glorieta Pass (Pigeon's Ranch Action)--March 28, 1862:
1. 8:00am--Union forces advance toward Confederates in Apache Canyon.
2. Confederates advance through Glorieta Pass.
3. Opening Action--10:00am to 11:00am
Confederates under Scurry, Union under Slough engage.
4. Main Battle--Noon to 4:00pm
Slough establishes strong defense. Scurry attacks. Slough pulls back to third position.
5. Third Position--4:00 to 5:00pm
Union holding action repulses Confederate's final charge. Slough pulls troops back to Kozlowski's Stage Stop.

Battle of Glorieta Pass (Canoncito Action)--March 28, 1862:
I. Chivington's flanking movement.
II. Chivington reaches the edge of the mesa overlooking Johnson's Ranch.
III. Union troops attack up canyon. Union forces burn wagons and supplies.
IV. Remaining Confederates escape towards Santa Fe.

Kozlowski's Ranch, Pigeon's Ranch, and Johnson's Ranch all served as stage stops on the Santa Fe Trail.

Questions for Drawing 1

1. List and describe in general terms the three actions depicted on Drawing 1.

2. Locate Kozlowski's Ranch, Pigeon's Ranch, and Johnson's Ranch. What role did each of these stage stops play in the battles? Why do you think they were utilized by the armies?

3. Both the Union and Confederate soldiers involved in this battle had marched long distances to get to Glorieta Pass. What physical effect might the distances involved in this battle have had on the soldiers?

* The drawing on this screen has a resolution of 72 dots per inch (dpi), and therefore will print poorly. You can obtain a larger version of Drawing 1, but be aware that the file will take as much as 15 seconds to load with a 28.8K modem.

 

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