9. Midwest Archaeological
The 40th Annual Meeting of the Midwest Archaeological
Conference was held in Beloit, Wisconsin on October
25-28, 1995. The Conference was organized by Dr.
Robert Salzer, and hosted by the Department of
Anthropology and the Logan Museum of Anthropology.
The Conference included a reception at the Logan
Museum of Anthropology, where participants had
the opportunity to view the innovative, new, open
storage facility for the collections.
The Midwest Archaeological Conference program
included a Late Woodland roundtable discussion
and 108 papers. The papers included a number
of interesting and contemporary papers on Hopewell
Robert F. Bozhardt (Mississippi Valley Archaeology
Center) presented a paper on "ceremonial" bifaces
found in association with Hopewell tombs in
the Trempleau/La Crosse area of western Wisconsin.
Many of these artifacts are made from non-local
raw materials, including Knife River Flint,
obsidian, Hartville Uplift Chert and Morrison
Orthoquartzite. Bozhardt's research suggests
that these northwesternmost Hopewellian groups
were either travelling west to collect raw
materials, or trading with northern Plains
people to acquire these lithics materials.
Further research is needed to determine if
these western lithic materials were being imported
for use in the Trempleau/La Crosse area, or
if some of the material was being sent east
to other Hopewell groups in Illinois, Indiana
Mark Schurr (Notre Dame University) presented
a paper on his current research on the Goodall
Focus of northwest Indiana and southwest Michigan.
The Goodall Focus was defined by George I. Quimby
in 1941, and represents one of the first formally
defined Hopewell complexes outside of Ohio. Little
research has been subsequently conducted on Hopewell
in northwest Indiana, and Schurr's research at
the Bellinger site provides exciting new data.
After three seasons of field research that included
geophysical surveys and excavations, Schurr has
documented that habitation adjacent to the Bellinger
mound was limited. This is in strong contrast
to Havana Hopewell sites in Illinois, where substantial
villages were often located near mortuary mounds.
James A. Marshall presented a paper
on his interpretation of aerial photographs and
maps of major Hopewellian earthwork sites in
southern Ohio. Marshall noted that many of the
geometric earthworks and parallel walls seem
to have a non-random orientation. For example,
Marshall notes that if the parallel walls at
the Dunlap Works were extended, they would intersect
the square and circle at the Hopeton Earthworks,
and an extension of the parallel walls at the
Dunlap Works and Hopeton Earthworks intersect
at right angles. Marshall proposed that the orientation
of these features indicates that the builders
of these sites were aware of the location and
orientation of other nearby earthworks, and designed
and built the earthworks with that in mind.
Janet Brashler (Grand Valley State University) described
an extensive surface collection from the Prison
Farm site in southcentral Lower Michigan. The
collection was acquired by an avocational archaeologists
during 35 years of regular collecting. The majority
of artifacts from the site are attributable to
the Middle Woodland substage, and indicate Havana
Duane Esarey (Dickson Mounds, Illinois State
Museum) presented a paper on the wealth
of Hopewellian sites in the lower Illinois
River valley near the modern towns of Havana
and Beardstown. Esarey noted that although
much has been written about Havana Hopewell,
basic research to document and map Hopewell
sites in this region still needs to be done.