Photo -- See Caption Below

Hoes and Hatchet
When the 1855 Treaty was ratified by the US Senate, the Government and its agencies were required to provide a number of services to the Nez Perce. This included the establishment of a blacksmith shop to make and repair farm implements. While the treaty reserved the right for Nez Perce to hunt, gather, and fish in their usual and accustomed sites, one of the assumptions of the treaty process was to begin the process of assimilation. For many, farming was seen as the path to assimilation. Some Nez Perce took up farming. This flat hoe (left), Hudson Bay hoe (center), and hatchet (right) represent that movement toward agriculture.
Iron. Left: L 19, W 12; center: L 19.9, W 12; right: L 16 cm
Nez Perce National Historical Park, NEPE 786, 778, 780