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Historic Lighthouse Preservation Handbook - Table of Contents
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Please Note: These links to sections of the Handbook may be viewed or printed using AcrobatReader.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Contributors
Program Managers
Acknowledgements
Note to Readers
I. Why Preserve Lighthouses?
What is a Lighthouse?
Lighthouses and Our National Heritage
What Makes a Lighthouse "Historic"?
Federal Agency Responsibilities: the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966

II. History of the Lighthouse Service and Lighthouse Construction Types
History of the Lighthouse Service
Lighthouse Construction Types
III. Standards, Guidelines, and the Preservation Process
Levels of Treatment: The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties General Guidelines for the Preservation Planning Process

Historical Research
Identification of Character-Defining Features
Documentation of Existing Conditions
• SIDEBAR: Documenting Historic Lighthouses by the Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER)
Condition Assessment and Analysis
Strategy for Maintenance
• SIDEBAR: Quantities Tracking, Tallying, and Cost Estimating
Special Requirements
Preparation of Record of Treatment

IV. Historic Lighthouse Preservation

Introduction

Preserving Historic Lighthouses
How to Use Part IV of the Handbook

A. Masonry

Part 1

Inspecting for Masonry Problems

Part 2

Preservation Treatments

Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing)
Weatherization
Stabilization
Ventilation
Fire Protection
Repair
Cleaning
External Coating Systems
Repointing
Damaged Masonry Repairs
Stucco
Limited Replacement In Kind
• SIDEBAR: Brick Replacement and Coating of Cape Florida Lighthouse
• SIDEBAR: The Building of Minots Ledge Light Station

B. Iron

Part 1

Iron Alloys Found in Historic Lighthouses
Inspecting for Possible Problems

Part 2

Preservation Treatments

Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing)
Weatherization
Stabilization
Ventilation
Fire Protection
Repair
Cleaning
Paint Removal
• SIDEBAR: Paint Removal Tools
External Coating Systems
Surface Preparation
Selection of Paints and Coatings
• SIDEBAR: Masonry and Iron Interaction in Lighthouse Construction
Application Methods
Caulking, Patching, and Mechanical Repairs
Flashing
Dismantling and Assembly of Iron Components
Limited Replacement In Kind
• SIDEBAR: Lighthouse Designer/Builder George Meade

C. Wood

Part 1

Inspecting for Problems Associated with Wooden Lighthouses

Part 2

Preservation Treatments

Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing)
Weatherization
Stabilization
Ventilation
Fire protection
Repair
Cleaning
Failing Paint
Paint Removal: Selecting the Appropriate/Safest Method
Methods for Removing Paint
Painting
Repair of Damaged/Deteriorated Wooden Components
Structural Stabilization
Limited Replacement In Kind

D. Concrete

Historical Overview
Types of Concrete
Causes of Concrete Deterioration
Major Signs of Concrete Deterioration
Inspecting for Concrete Problems
Preservation Treatments

Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing)
Weatherization
Stabilization
Ventilation
Fire Protection
Planning for Concrete Repair
Repair
Cleaning
Coatings
Damaged Concrete Repair
Limited Replacement In Kind

E. Windows

Window Types
Inspection and Evaluation
Preservation Treatments

Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing)
Repair
Removing Paint from Wood Windows
Removing Paint from Metal Windows
Repainting
Caulking and Glazing
Repairing Damaged or Deteriorated Windows
Epoxy, Fillers, and Consolidants
Limited Replacement In Kind

F. Doors

Door Types
Inspection and Evaluation
Preservation Treatments

Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing)
Security
Repair
Door Hardware
Limited Replacement In Kind

G. Lanterns

Part 1

Lantern Construction
Special Conditions Associated with Historic Lantern Systems

Galvanic Corrosion
Rust-Jacking
Ventilation
Lantern Glass
Inspecting for Lantern Problems

Part 2

Preservation Treatments

Protection and Stabilization (Mothballing)
Weatherization
Stabilization
Ventilation
Fire Protection
Repair
Galvanic Corrosion
Rust-Jacking
Ventilation
Lantern Glass
• SIDEBAR: Use of Lexan in Lantern Glass Replacement
Lantern Roof
Gallery Decks
Removal and Application of Protective Coatings
Limited Replacement In Kind
Installation of Modern Utilities and Equipment
• SIDEBAR: Maintenance of Classical Lenses

H. Interiors

Deterioration of Historic Lighthouse Interiors during the Mothballing Period
Preservation Treatment: Minimizing Condensation Buildup

I. Grounds

General Site Recommendations
Archeological Recommendations
Landscape Features
Security
Limited Replacement In Kind

V. Beyond Basic Preservation

A. Rehabilitation

Part 1

• CASE STUDY: Design for Missing Historic Windows
• CASE STUDY: Design for Missing Historic Doors
• CASE STUDY: St. Simons Island Lighthouse Lantern Glass Replacement

Part 2

• CASE STUDY: Rehabilitation of Anacapa Island Lighthouse


Part 3

• CASE STUDY: Rehabilitation of Point Bonita Light Station
• CASE STUDY: Rehabilitation of Point Conception Light Station

B. Restoration

• CASE STUDY: Restoration of Cape May Lighthouse
• CASE STUDY: Restoration of Cape Hatteras Lighthouse

C. Related Activities

Examples of Adaptive Use/Rehabilitation
• SIDEBAR: To Relight or not to Relight?
Interpretation and Public Outreach
• CASE STUDY: Interpretation at Split Rock Light Station
Fundraising Ideas
Funding Sources
Use of Volunteers/Community Involvement
• CASE STUDY: Point San Luis Lighthouse Keepers
Relocating Lighthouses
• CASE STUDY: Relocation of the Block Island Southeast Lighthouse
Safety Management Issues
Fire Prevention and Protection Objectives

VI. Resources

Glossary
Organizations
Preparing a National Register Nomination
Choosing an Appropriate Treatment for a Historic Lighthouse Project
Bibliography/References
National Archives Historical Resources
Summary of Historic and Cultural Preservation Laws, Regulations, Orders, and Directives




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