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Reaching Out, Reaching In:
A Guide for Creating Effective Public Participation in State Historic Preservation Planning
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The following are sources of information about the participation and involvement of citizens, community residents, stakeholders, and others ("the public") in public decision-making. This is not an exhaustive list, but it should provide a general familiarity with various techniques and approaches to public participation in planning. Most of these sources place the discussion of public participation in settings other than historic preservation planning -- this should not be a concern. The approaches and techniques described in these sources are useful and beneficial in historic preservation situations at all levels -- local, state, and federal. This list does not yet include sources on using the Internet as a technique for involving the public in planning. We welcome recommendations for additional sources on this and other topics to be included in future updates of this list (please contact

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Awakening Participation: Building Capacity for Public Participation in Environmental Decisionmaking, a Public Participation Training Model, The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Szentendre, Hungary, 1996. (available on-line in html and pdf format at

Building Citizen Involvement: Strategies for Local Government, by Mary L. Walsh, National League of Cities and the International City/County Management Association, Washington, D.C., 1997.

"Citizen Participation" by Arnold Cogan, Sumner Sharpe, and Joe Hertzeberg, Chapter 12 in The Practice of State and Regional Planning, edited by Frank S. So, Irving Hand, and Bruce D. McDowell, American Planning Association, Chicago, 1986.

"Citizen Participation -- Lessons from a Local United Way Planning Process" by David A Julian, Thomas M. Reischl, Richard V. Carrick, and Cathey Katrenich, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 63, No. 3, Summer 1997.

Citizen Participation Handbook for Public Officials and Other Professionals Serving the Public, by Hans and Annemarie Bleiker, 13th edition, The Institute for Participatory Management and Planning, Monterey, California, 2000. (Contact IPMP, P.O. Box 1937, Monterey, CA 93942; tel. 831-373-4292; e-mail

Citizen Surveys: How to Do Them, How to Use Them, What They Mean, by Thomas I. Miller and Michele Miller Kobayashi, 2nd edition, International City/County Management Association, Washington, D.C., 2000.

Community Participation Methods in Design and Planning, by Henry Sanoff, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000.

Conducting Successful Focus Groups, by Judith Sharken Simon, Amherst H. Wilder Foundation, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1999 (available from the American Planning Association).

Dealing With an Angry Public: The Mutual Gains Approach to Resolving Disputes, by Lawrence Susskind and Patrick T. Field, Free Press, New York, 1996.

Dealing With Difficult Participants, by Bob Pike and Dave Arch, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, California, 1997.

Designing and Conducting Workshops: A Practical Guide, by Devon M. Schneider and John R. Waxman, Planning Advisory Service Report No. 344, American Planning Association, Chicago, Illinois, 1979.

Facilitation: What It Is And When To Use It, by Francisco Enriquez, OCD Technote 4, Office of Community Development, Rural Development, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1996. (available on-line at

Facilitation at a Glance!: Your Pocket Guide to Facilitation, by Ingrid Bens, American Society for Quality, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1999. (available for order on-line at [click on "Books" and enter book title in the search box].)

"Getting Power by Giving It Away" by Otis White, Planning Commissioners Journal, Issue 18, Spring 1995.

Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In, by Roger Fisher and William Ury, Second Edition, Penguin Press, New York, 1991.

Guide on Consultation and Collaboration with Indian Tribal Governments and The Public Participation of Indigenous Groups and Tribal Members in Environmental Decision Making, by the Indigenous Peoples Subcommitte, National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, a Federal Advisory Committee to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (available on-line at

A Guide to Community Visioning: Hands-On Information for Local Communities, edited by Steven C. Ames, revised and updated, Oregon Visions Project, Oregon Chapter, American Planning Association, Portland, Oregon, 1998. [available from the American Planning Association]

A Guide to Effective Participation, by David Wilcox, Brighton, United Kingdom, 1994. (published on-line at

How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide, by Arlene Fink and Jacqueline Kosecoff, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, 1998. [this deals with public opinion surveys]

How to Conduct Your Own Survey, by Priscilla Salant and Don A. Dillman, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994. [this also deals with public opinion surveys]

How to Design a Public Participation Program, by James L. Creighton, Office of Intergovernmental Accountability, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. (available on-line at -- scroll down and click on publication title)

How to Make Meetings Work: The New Interaction Method, by Michael Doyle and David Strauss, Berkley Books, New York, 1993.

Innovations in Public Involvement for Transportation Planning, Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. January 1994. (available on-line at

Involving Citizens in Community Decision Making: A Guidebook, by James L. Creighton, Program for Community Problem Solving (now Community Services-Washington, a National Civic League program), Washington, D.C., 1993. (available from National Civic League, Attn: Publications Orders, 1445 Market St. #300, Denver, CO 80202; 303-571-4343)

The Model Plan for Public Participation, by The Public Participation and Accountability Subcommittee of the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, Office of Environmental Justice, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 2000. (available on-line at

"New Approaches to Citizen Participation: Building Consent" by William R. Potapchuk, National Civic Review, Vol. 80, No. 2, Spring 1991.

Outreach and Involvement Handbook, City of Portland Office of Neighborhood Involvement, Portland, Oregon, 1998. (contact ONI at (503) 823-4519 or, or visit the website at

Participation Tools for Better Land-Use Planning: Techniques & Case Studies, by C. Nicholas Moore and Dave Davis, 2nd Edition, Center for Livable Communities, Local Government Commission, Sacramento, California, 1997. (available from the American Planning Association)

"Preservation Planning: Ensuring a Future for Our Past" edited by Susan L. Henry Renaud, CRM magazine, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, vol. 23, no. 7, 2000. (available on-line at

Public Involvement Techniques for Transportation Decision-making, by Howard/Stein-Hudson Associates, Inc. and Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1996. (available on-line at

Public Participation in Public Decisions: New Skills and Strategies for Public Managers, by John Clayton Thomas. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, California, 1995.

"Public Involvement as Planning Communication" by Katharine P. Warner, Chapter 6 in The Planner's Use of Information, edited by Hemalata C. Dandekar, Planners Press, American Planning Association, Chicago, 1988.

Public Participation Strategies sections of Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Profiles on the National Park Service's Historic Preservation Planning Program web site outline techniques used in each state in developing its statewide historic preservation plan (

RCRA Public Participation Manual, Office of Solid Waste, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 2001. (available on-line at

Reaching Out, Reaching In: A Guide to Creating Effective Public Participation for State Historic Preservation Programs, by Barry R. Lawson, Ellen P. Ryan, and Rebecca Bartlett Hutchison, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division, 1993; also on the web at

"The Sacred Structure in Small Towns: A Return to Manteo, North Carolina" by Randolph T. Hester, Jr., Small Town, January-February 1990.

Strategic Planning: Threats and Opportunities for Planners, edited by John M. Bryson and Robert C. Einsweiler, Planners Press, American Planning Association, Chicago,1988.

Successful Public Meetings: A Practical Guide, by Elaine Cogan, 2nd edition, Planners Press, American Planning Association, Chicago, 2000.

"Talking Things Over: The Subtle Art of Environmental Negotiation Can Solve Preservation Disputes" by Elizabeth B. Waters, Historic Preservation, May/April 1982.

"Using Master Planning Expert Panels to Achieve Planning Objectives," by Richard Peiser and Arthur C. Nelson, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 63, No. 4, Autumn 1997.

"When They Speak, Do You Listen?" by Elaine Cogan, Planning Commissioners Journal Issue 2, January/February 1992.

"Where Do We Want To Go? Involving Citizens in Making a Plan" Chapter 5 in Community Planning: An Introduction to the Comprehensive Plan, by Eric Damian Kelly and Barbara Becker, Island Press, Washington, D.C. and Covelo, California, 2000.

"Win/Win Public Meetings" by Elaine Cogan, in Proceedings of the American Planning Association 2001 National Planning Conference, published on-line at

"Working With Small Groups" by Peter Ash, Chapter 5 in The Planner's Use of Information, edited by Hemalata C. Dandekar, Planners Press, American Planning Association, Chicago, 1988.



American Planning Association
     122 S. Michigan Avenue, Suite 1600
     Chicago, Illinois 60603
     (312) 431-9100

The American Planning Association is the national membership organization for planners, and provides leadership in the development of vital communities, advocates excellence in community planning, promotes education and citizen empowerment, and provides tools and support necessary to effect positive change. The APA publishes a quarterly scholarly journal, a monthly magazine, and numerous books and videos on planning subjects, as well as offering an annual planning conference and continuing education training opportunities.

Community Services (previously known as the Program for Community Problem Solving), a National Civic League Program
     National Civic League
     Attn: Community Services
     1319 F Street, NW, #204
     Washington, D.C. 2004
     (202) 783-2961

Community Services provides extensive training opportunities and resource materials, case studies of community issue resolutions, on-line articles, and several other informative technical documents.

International Association for Public Participation (IAP2)
     11166 Huron Street, Suite 27
     Denver, Colorado 80234
     1-(800) 644-4273

IAP2 is a non-profit international membership organization for public participation professionals, with members in 23 countries and 16 chapters throughout the world. IAP2's mission is to improve the practice of public participation through technical assistance, serve the learning needs of members, advocate for public participation, and to promote results-oriented research. IAP2 publishes a quarterly newsletter and semi-annual journal, holds an annual conference, and offers training courses. On the IAP2 web site, click on the "Tool Box" and check out the IAP2 Spectrum and IAP2 Tool Box for useful information. Also investigate other areas of the web site.

International Association of Facilitators
     7630 West 145th Street, Suite 202
     St. Paul, Minnesota 55124
     (952) 891-3541

The IAF is an international membership organization formed to support networking, exchange of information, and professional development for facilitators. Members work with public, private, and non-profit organizations to manage organizational and social change.

International City/County Management Association
     777 North Capitol Street, NE, Suite 500
     Washington, DC 20002
     (202) 289-4262

ICMA is an international membership organization for local government managers and administrators. ICMA provides publications, holds an annual meeting, convenes conferences and symposia on special topics, conducts research, provides professional development opportunities, and provides a wide range of other services to strengthen the skills and professionalism of local government managers.

On-Line Course -- Partnerships and Participation in Planning

A free, self-directed on-line course sponsored by the American Planning Association, the American Institute of Certified Planners, and the Department of Urban Affairs and Planning, Virginia Tech, 201 Architecture Annex, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060; (540) 231-5485. Access the course by going to

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