2. Kenneth J. Baldwin, Enchanted Enclosure: The Army Engineers and Yellowstone National Park, A Documentary History (Washington: Historical Division, Office of the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, 1976), 1.
3. This document, Part I. of the Historic Resource Study, only addresses the construction of the planned road system within Yellowstone National Park. Another document, Part III. of the Historic Resource Study, The History of the Administration of Yellowstone National Park, will address the exploration of this area and the creation of the Park.
4. Nathanial P. Langford, Report of the Superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park for the year 1872, Annual Report of the Secretary of the interior for 1872 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1873), 2-3.
5. Nathanial P. Langford was a member of the famous 1870 Washburn Expedition which has been credited for suggesting that the wonders in this region be set aside as a national park. The nineteen men group spent 40 days exploring in the park and are responsible for naming more than 20 natural features.
6. Langford, "Report of the Superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park for the year 1872," Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior for 1872, 2-3 and 7. The proposed circuit would go from the Lower Geyser Basin eastward to Lake Yellowstone then northward at its outlet along the Yellowstone River to the Yellowstone Falls, past Mount Washburn to Tower Falls, then on to the Hot Springs on Gardner River and in as near a direct line as possible to the northern boundary of the park. From the Mammoth Hot Spring area the circuit should go south, then "a direct line across the park to the Lower Geyser Basin." He also planned a road from the lower approach to the Geyser Basin to a junction below the outlet at Lower Yellowstone.
11. Lorraine and Orrin Bonney, Battle Drums and Geysers: The Life and Journals of Lt. Gustavas Doane, Soldier and Explorer of the Yellowstone and Snake River Regions (Chicago: The Swallow Press, 1970), 464.
22. William Ludlow, Report of a Reconnaissance From Carroll, Montana, on the Upper Missouri to the Yellowstone National Park, and Return, Made in Summer of 1875 (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1875), 36-37.
26. Aubrey L. Haines, The Yellowstone Story, A History of Our First National Park, Vol. I (Boulder: Yellowstone Library and Museums Association in Cooperation with Colorado Associated University Press, 1977), 217.
43. Norris. Report Upon the Yellowstone National Park for The Year 1879, 3-4. The three existing routes were ". . . first a very rough and difficult one, over two dangerousnow bridgednear the forks, and past a cascade and two cataracts upon the east branch to the forks of the Yellowstonedistance, 20 miles, second, over my road of last year up the dry pass between the hot springs terraces down Sepulchre Mountain to the geysersdistance, 60 miles, and third, by the old road, over the mountain spurs and rugged canons [sic], 6 miles to the Yellowstone River, and through its second canon and Bozeman's Pass over the Gallatin Range to Fort Ellis and Bozeman - distance, 80 miles." 4.
46. Norris found evidence of Truman Evarts, Ferdinand Hayden, and others ". . . amid the dense snow covered, storm-twisted, knotted, and gnarled thickets of the continental divide . . ." He also found an odometer left by Captain Jones and Professor Comstock during their 1873 expedition, Norris 1879, 6.
57. The new west entrance route left the Madison River at Riverside, proceeded over the Madison Plateau, joining the Firehole River near Nez Perce Creek. The reference to Riverside is different to the Riverside found just inside of the West Entrance to the park. During the 1880s, the Riverside mentioned in the text was approximately four miles inside the park near the site of a later soldier station. Thus, the Norris road went south from that point, not near the West Entrance.
62. Ibid., 23. Norris said that the Natural Bridge ". . . was once the brink of a cataract nearly one hundred feet over a ledge of peculiarly hard, variegated trachyte up here to the vertical access the stream. Directly across this ledge, countless layers of erosion have formed first a shallow trough like channel; then, or simultaneously with this channel, a vertical orifice, several feet long by one foot wide, between the strata, some two feet from the brink. . . . The chasm is fully spanned by the bridge, which, by measurements, I found to be twenty-nine feet log, and including the above mentioned vertical orifice, ten feet height above the top of the arch, and forty-one feet to the bedrock of the chasm, which, at this point is a rapidly deepening cascade."
75. Ibid., 69-70. One bridge at the head of the Upper Falls of the east fork at the Gardner River; one bridge over the main Blacktrail Creek; one bridge over Elk Creek near the Dry Canyon; three bridges in the valley at the east fork of the Firehole; two bridges on Alum Creek; two bridges upon Sage Creek; two bridges upon Hot Spring Creek. (all on new route or the Shoshone bridlepath to Lake Yellowstone.)
Two footbridges crossed the Firehole Rivers near the forks and two crossed the Firehole in the Upper Geyser Basin.
81. P. H. Conger, Annual Report of the Superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park to the Secretary of the Interior by P.H. Conger, Superintendent, for the Year 1882 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office 1882), 4.
Last Updated: 01-Dec-2005