Poland Spring Company (Hiram Ricker & Sons) 2
Whyte System Type: 0-6-0T Saddle tank
Builder: American Locomotive Company, Schenectady Works
Date Built: April 1927
Cylinders (diameter x stroke in inches): 16 x 24
Tractive Effort (in lbs.): 21,400 (also reported as 21,720)
Weight on Drivers (in lbs.): 107,000
Remarks: Locomotive has Stephenson valve gear, rigid wheel base of 10 feet, 2 inches.
E.J. Lavino and Company 0-6-0T Locomotive No. 3
History: Under specifications dated October 28, 1927, the American Locomotive Company outshopped an 0-6-0T industrial switching locomotive with the road number 2 on the sides of its cab, on the rear of the coal bunker, and on the front number plate. The engine featured the builder's standard striping, probably in white, for industrial locomotives, and on each side of its saddle tank appeared the words "Poland Spring." Behind those two words lay 173 years of Maine history.
On April 14, 1761, Jabez Ricker, then 19 years of age, descendent of a family in Saxony that spelled its name Riccar, married 18-year-old Molly Wentworth of Berwick, Maine. His father, Joseph Ricker, gave him roughly 50 acres of land near Great Falls, and after the father's death about 1771, Jabez inherited another 107 acres. In 1775 he sold all this land for $3,000, with which he purchased land in Alfred, Maine, that included a stream that he could harness. There he built a water-powered sawmill and a water-powered grist mill. In 1793, Jabez visited what was to become the Poland area in Maine, and became entranced with a particular hill owned by the religious sect known as the Shakers. In 1794 he traded his land and mills in Alfred to the Shakers for the 300 acres that included that hill and, incidentally, a spring.
When Jabez brought Mary and their 10 children to their new property, it had a single frame house with one chimney and no hearth. No roads reached the vicinity and Jabez had no neighbors. The family arrived at night and the daughters cried out of homesickness. The next morning two strangers appeared and sought to purchase breakfast; Molly served them a hot meal, initiating a Ricker hospitality which in the next century would blossom and become institutionalized.
In 1794, Jabez Ricker and his sons, Wentworth, Samuel, and Joseph, began construction of a large, two-story gable-roofed house with a large attic, two high chimneys laid up of brick made on the shore of a pond or lake a mile away. With two fireplaces per chimney per floor, those on the ground floor were so large they could burn logs six feet long. Completed in 1797, this house, named the "Wentworth Ricker, served as an inn on the stage line between Montreal and Portland, Maine. The Rickers built a 30-by-32-foot, five-stall stable near the house. Their property became a relay station for the stagecoach line and its fame grew. The men added a woodshed and cider house behind the inn. With profits Wentworth earned teaming supplies for the U.S. Army during the War of 1812, Samuel framed a large barn in 1813. In 1825 the Ricker sons erected a much larger stable, said to have been the best hotel stable in the state of Maine. Wentworth retired in 1834 and turned the business over to his 25-year-old son, Hiram. Wentworth died in 1837.
Construction of railroads in the 1840s diverted much patronage away from the inn and slowed its business. Hiram Ricker branched out into buying and selling sheep, making wool cloth, and handling lumber. By this time Hiram suffered from stomach trouble, possibly an ulcer, which physicians pronounced incurable. While haying in 1854, Hiram drank water from the mineral spring Wentworth had once used, which issued from a fissure in a ledge of rock near the summit of the Ricker hill. Usually people drank the water with molasses and ginger to make it more palatable, in view of its mineral content, but Hiram Ricker had no molasses or ginger with him while haying, so drank it pure and unadulterated. After a number of days, his stomach trouble diminished and cleared up, though he did not then associate his cure with the spring. Eventually Hiram remembered Wentworth being cured in 1827, and that even earlier, in 1800, Joseph Ricker had had a fever and asked for water, and the doctor, whose prognosis was that Ricker would be dead by morning, said he could have all he wanted. Of course, by morning, Joseph's fever had dropped, and he was to live another 52 years.
Eventually recalling this earlier family experience with the spring, Hiram began talking about the Ricker' s mineral spring as a medicinal cure. Of course, many scoffed at his claims. In 1859, a skeptical neighbor, William Schellinger, turned a dying ox loose in the field; which included the spring. The poor animal had been failing for some months, and had become so weak that from time to time it would fall over while simply walking. After some time in the pasture, drinking water of the spring, the ox began to gain strength and weight and before summer ended, proved to be heavier and healthier than ever before. When eventually Schellinger slaughtered it, the butcher found evidence that it had had a kidney disease that had been cured.
Schellinger himself had little faith in Hiram Ricker's claims of the spring's medicinal properties until the episode of the ox, but himself suffered from kidney trouble, so he began drinking the mineral water, and soon began to recover.
That same year, 1859, Hiram Ricker built a crude log spring house over the water source, and made his first commercial sale of a container of the water, a 3-gallon demijohn he put on the Portland stage for 15 cents.
Subsequently a father brought his supposedly incurably ill daughter to drink from the spring. Twelve-year-old E.P. Ricker brought her a 3-quart pail of mineral water direct from the spring, and the following day she was well enough to return to Portland. Dr. Elephelet Clark continued having her drink water from the Poland Spring, and the girl was to live more than 40 years longer. The doctor became convinced of the mineral water's medicinal value. In 1860, Hiram set up resident sales agents in Boston, and as the fame of Poland Spring water spread, orders came from as far away as the South and the Pacific Coast.
In two years, sales increased to 1,000 barrels. Hiram turned the property over to his eldest son, Edward P. Ricker, then 22, in 1869, and the latter immediately began to develop it. Many people came to the spring itself for a cure, and in 1869-1870, the Rickers had to enlarge the old inn, adding another nine-room story to the building. In 1870, they shipped 5,000 barrels of Poland Water.
Originally the Rickers had dipped water from a 5- or 6-quart basin carved out of the rock. In 1872, they enlarged the stone basin to a 30-gallon capacity and bailed water out with a pail. In 1872, increasing patronage forced them to demolish the woodshed and cider house behind the old inn and build a seven-room addition to the building in their place. The inn came to be called the Mansion House.
Alvan Ricker, the second son, joined the firm in 1875, and in 1876 a man named Albert Young, of Auburn, became a partner. The firm built at the crest of the hill a large four-story frame hotel called the Poland Spring House, which featured a six-story tower at one corner. The building extended 200 feet wide across the front and had 100 rooms. It superseded the old Mansion House, but the latter continued to operate as an economy hotel compared with the elegant, first-class Poland House. Hiram Wentworth Ricker, a third son, joined the firm in 1880, and in 1881 the Rickers bought out Young, established the firm of Hiram Ricker and Sons, Inc., and spent $20,000 improving both the interior and the exterior of the posh Poland House. Within 3 more years receipts had doubled, and sale of spring water increased about a thousand barrels per year, grossing $3,000 in 1883. In 1883 and 1884 the Rickers enlarged the Poland House by 64 rooms and a music hall, and the Mansion House to a total of 66 rooms. ln 1887, they built an annex to the Poland Spring House featuring a billiard hall and another 24 rooms, made other miscellaneous improvements, and enlarged the stable built in 1825. In 1889 the company added yet another 50 guest rooms to the Poland House, again remodeled the rest of the building, and relandscaped the grounds.
The year 1893 proved a banner year for the Ricker firm--for Poland Water won the Grand Prize for mineral waters at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and in Poland, Maine, the firm added a south wing to the Poland House featuring 20 bathroom suites. In 1894, the firm built a southwest wing that included a photographic studio and darkrooms available to guests who were amateur photographers. More notable, that year the company purchased the Maine State Building from the Chicago Fair for $30,000 and paid $3,000 to have it disassembled, loaded, and moved by a 16-car train to Poland, Maine. There workmen reassembled it in front of an oak grove beside the hotel to serve as a library, museum, and art gallery, where it still stood in 1988.
On the debit side of the ledger, on August 21, 1894, the stable burned to the ground, killing 27 horses and destroying all the harness, robes, coach equipment, and other tack. The Ricker firm scraped together enough equipment to haul 70 people the next day, and in four days had replaced all the horses and equipment lost in the disastrous fire. In 1894 and 1895, the Rickers erected over the site of the burned stable a 152-foot-wide new stable with two wings, a steel roof, and a carriage house with sleeping rooms above.
By the end of the century, the Rickers had added a nine-hole golf course, later extended to 18 holes. Devotees of tennis found a tennis court on which to play. The hotel added one of the first automatic sprinkler systems in a New England summer resort. Soon it featured telephones in every room. Some rooms had bathtubs with three faucets: hot water, cold water, and Poland Spring mineral water, for those who wished to bathe in it. A firing range accommodated guests who liked to shoot. A 500-acre farm and a 125-acre kitchen garden supplied produce to the hotel. Peas alone occupied 5 acres, and the farm and garden also had 3,000 tomato plants and grew cucumbers, cabbage, beets, lettuce, Swiss chard, and radishes by the ton. A hotel dairy farm kept 100 milk cows as well as other herds. Additionally, the hotel purchased produce from Shaker farms in the vicinity. The Shakers kept Rhode Island Red hens, which supplied eggs and poultry, and they also raised 250 hogs for the hotel. At the resort itself, meanwhile, Hiram Ricker and Sons further enlarged the Mansion House and added a bathhouse. In 1912, a stone All-Souls Chapel was erected near the Maine State Building. The resort continued to prosper in the Edwardian Age in America as it had in the Victorian.
Poland Spring and its bottling facilities had experienced a parallel development. In 1862, the Rickers demolished the original log springhouse built in 1859 and replaced it with a larger frame structure. That lasted until 1876 or 1877, when it was necessary to build a special building to house the filling of barrels. This new structure measured 30 by 60 feet and was designed so that water ran directly into the barrel being filled. Soon the firm had to add a cooperage to manufacture barrels, since by 1880 it was selling 5,000 barrels of Poland Water annually. In 1882, the firm enlarged both of the buildings at the spring. In 1883 the firm opened a New York City outlet. By 1885 demand for Poland Water had so increased and technology so advanced that bottling had largely taken the place of barreling, and the firm again enlarged the barreling house and added machinery for bottling and packaging.
A major overhaul of the process for packaging Poland Water took place in 1906 and 1907 when the firm erected a new springhouse and bottling plant. The springhouse, of Spanish design, featured interior walls and columns in Italian Pavonazzo marble and mosaic floors. The company encased the original spring itself in Carrara marble and plate glass with a solid bronze grille. Silver and glass pipes carried the water from the spring into highly polished granite tanks sealed with plate glass. The springhouse featured filtered air.
Near the springhouse was a large building that contained the bottling and labeling and packaging rooms, connected by a conveyor belt. The company bottled Poland Water in bottles reminiscent of those used for champagne, featuring mainly green labels, stopped with branded corks and sealed with a paper tape. Encased in boxes, the Poland Water went into a large storehouse.
Two railroads served the vicinity of Poland Spring by that time, the Maine Central at Danville Junction and the Grand Trunk at Lewiston Junction. Carriages from the hotel met guests, generally at Danville Junction, for the 5-mile ride to the Poland Spring House, or at Lewiston Junction if they came in on the Grand Trunk from northern Vermont or New Hampshire or Canada. Drayage wagons, meanwhile, hauled the barrels and later, boxes of bottles of Poland Water from the warehouse near the spring to Danville Junction for shipment to market. The one further step of modernization was to build a branch railroad from the bottling plant to one of the railroads, but in the majority of promotional literature on the history of the Poland Spring Resort and of Poland Water, this aspect of the operation has been largely ignored. Even the date of construction remains a puzzle. It seems likely that a railroad, whose unknown length has been speculated as ranging from 3 to perhaps 7 miles, was constructed as part of the 1906-1907 modernization of the bottling, packaging, and shipping plant at Poland Spring, in which case the company must have rented or leased a locomotive from the Maine Central or some other nearby railroad. Or the firm may have built the railroad as late as 1910, when the company purchased its first locomotive.
On April 12, 1910, the company purchased a small, coal-burning 0-4-0 locomotive with a sloped tender from the Maine Central Railroad. It was not a new engine, having been outshopped by the Manchester Locomotive Works on May 29, 1893, as Locomotive No. 6 of the Portland and Rumford Falls Railroad. It had become the Maine Central's second No. 12 on April 26, 1907. Almost as soon as the Poland Water company acquired it, the firm converted the locomotive to bum oil on May 25, 1910. A painter lettered its tender "Poland Spring R.R." Thereafter, the little locomotive trundled boxcar loads of shipments of Poland Water from the bottling plant down to a junction with the Maine Central known as Riccars, after the original spelling of the Ricker family name, and brought back empty boxcars to be filled. No evidence has been found that the Poland Spring Railroad ever carried passengers to the resort, though on occasion a child or two managed to wangle a ride in the locomotive cab with an obliging engineer. Evidence as to whether the company owned any of its own cars is conflicting. One man recalled that the company owned some of its own boxcars. Examination of several issues of the Official Railway Equipment Register of different dates revealed no listing of cars owned either by a Poland Spring Railroad or Hiram Ricker and Sons, but the question has not been settled conclusively. A man named Ralph Clark served as engineer on the Poland Spring Railroad for many years.
In 1927, the firm of Hiram Ricker and Sons ordered from the American Locomotive Company a second locomotive for the Poland Spring Railroad, for by that time No. 1 was 34 years old and probably needed work. It is also possible that in the Roaring Twenties, sales of Poland Water had so increased that at times the railroad needed two locomotives to handle switching at both ends of the line and traffic between.
The American Locomotive Company reportedly outshopped Poland Spring Railroad No. 2 from its works at Schenectady, New York, in August 1927, though the builder's specification sheet No. A-12412 carried the date of October 28, 1927. The new locomotive featured 16-by-24-inch cylinders (16 inches in diameter with a 24-inch stroke) and 44-inch-diameter drive wheels, six coupled. It was, in other words, an 0-6-0T, a switch engine with a saddle tank over the boiler for 1,500 gallons of water and a bunker behind the cab for 1 ton of soft coal. Its firebox measured 62-1/8 inches long by 42-1/4 inches wide. The boiler carried an operating pressure of 180 pounds per square inch and contained 157 seamless steel tubes or flues, each 2 inches in diameter 11 feet long. It had a rigid wheelbase of
10 feet 2 inches. The firebox grate area was 18.2 square feet, and the engine provided a maximum tractive effort of 21,400 pounds. The locomotive weighed 107,000 pounds. It had a straight top boiler and a steel plate cab, and featured Richardson balanced steam chest valves and Stephenson valve motion. A modem triple-feed bullseye lubricator fed oil to its moving parts. Westinghouse-American combined automatic air brakes applied on all driving wheels, and the system served train connections at both ends of the engine; it featured M.C.B. (Master Car Builder's standard) automatic couplers that met Interstate Commerce Commission height requirements. The locomotive's bumpers were painted red and stenciled "Safety First."
After Hiram Ricker and Sons, Inc., ordered this locomotive, there is some doubt that the company ever used it. Whether it ever left the Schenectady Works, whether the firm took delivery in Maine and simply stored it unused for unknown reasons, or whether the firm used it for some years is unclear. Similarly, when either they or the American Locomotive Company sold it to a second owner is unknown at present. What is known is that the second owner of the locomotive was the firm of E.J. Lavino and Company, which operated a manganese blast furnace at Sheridan, Pennsylvania, and needed a locomotive to switch plant trackage.
Edward J. Lavino founded the company named after him in 1887. A native of Holland, he had served in the 1870s and probably early 1880s as Dutch consul in Turkey (and had a brother who served concurrently as Dutch consul in Singapore). While in Turkey, Lavino founded an exporting business that shipped licorice root that was used in the processing of tobacco, and opium that was used in manufacturing pharmaceuticals. Much of this business was with firms in the United States, and after experience in dealing with American firms, he decided to move his family to the United States to take advantage of the economic opportunity he perceived there. He settled in Philadelphia. From being an exporter of licorice root from Turkey, he became an importer of licorice root to the United States.
Soon Lavino had branched out into the importing of manganese ore from Imperial Russia. The young but rapidly growing steel industry in the United States needed raw materials from which to make steel, and Russians had pioneered a process using manganese in the production of steel. The ore first had to be reduced and combined with iron and carbon in a blast furnace to manufacture an alloy called ferromanganese, which was about 85 percent manganese, 15 percent iron, and 5 percent carbon. On the eve of World War I, Lavino acquired four small blast furnaces that his company converted from the manufacture of pig iron to the manufacture of ferromanganese. These operated at Sheridan and Marietta, Pennsylvania; Reusens, near Lynchburg, Virginia; and near Buffalo, New York. The company disposed of the plants at Marietta and near Buffalo after World War I, but continued to operate the Sheridan and Reusens furnaces, both of which had small steam locomotives. Acquired by E.J. Lavino and Company about 1914, the Sheridan, Pennsylvania, plant continued to operate until about 1970, when due to its obsolescence, the company shut it down and sold it for scrap.
Just when the Lavino company acquired the Poland Spring Railroad engine that became their No. 3 at the Sheridan, Pennsylvania, plant, is unknown. It may have been as early as 1927 or 1928 or as late as 1949, but by the latter date it clearly was at work at the Sheridan plant. At this time a Lavino inspector remarked that "the above locomotive is in good operating condition."
The Lavino company had other locomotives, but a complete roster of its motive power remains to be researched. By the 1950s it had an 0-6-0T side-tank switcher used to switch and dump cars of incandescent molten waste slag at its plant at Reusens, Virginia. The Lavino company painted that locomotive royal blue with yellow trim, and it carried the number 34. The Sheridan plant is known to have had another 0-6-0T with a saddle tank, No. 10, one that had only a single sand dome rather than the two on Lavino No. 3, and with wider spacing between the first two sets of drivers than between the second and third axles. The two surviving Sheridan plant locomotives featured black paint with white lettering and symbol, and today Lavino No. 3 at Steamtown may have the same paint and lettering it had when acquired by Steamtown in May 1966, though the lettering on Locomotive No. 10 was in yellow, not white. Lavino Locomotives Nos. 3 and 34 carried a script "L" in a circle supposedly inspired by the similar symbol used by Lionel, the manufacturer of electric toy trains that reached the height of their popularity in the 1940s and 1950s. Indeed, the symbol is remarkably similar, though not absolutely identical, to two slightly different versions of the Lionel symbol found in toy train catalogs published by that firm.
With the phasing down of its ferromanganese furnaces, the Lavino company shipped its Locomotive No. 3 to Bellows Falls, Vermont, on May 18, 1966. At that time, from its offices at Three Penn Center Plaza in Philadelphia, the Lavino company still constituted a family-owned concern dealing in ores, minerals, and ferroalloys, and presided over subsidiaries as far flung as London, England, and Johannesburg, South Africa, and an affiliate in Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
With the decline of the steel industry, the Lavino firm began to diversify into other areas of enterprise. As already mentioned, the firm dismantled and scrapped the Sheridan plant about 1970, and the Reusens plant at about the same time. During the 1970s the firm acquired the old Baldwin Lima-Hamilton Corporation, the locomotive firm that had grown out of the old Baldwin Locomotive Works and out of the Lima Locomotive Works when the two major locomotive builders merged. By the 1970s, Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton participated only in the locomotive replacement parts business. Still later, the Lavino company disposed of its interest in Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton to the firm's employees in a leveraged buy-out, after which Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton acquired Joy Manufacturing, a huge enterprise that manufactured underground coal-mining machinery. It reorganized as Joy Technologies of Pittsburgh, which today has the remnant of Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton's replacement part business.
As for E.J. Lavino and Company, it remained a family-owned business that celebrated its centennial in 1987 under the management of Edward J. Lavino, II. In 1988 the firm controlled Geothermal Resources, International, which operated the geothermal wells that produced steam power in Sonoma County, California. The firm also had investments in an equipment leasing firm and in a fiber optic telecommunication system in Philadelphia.
In Maine, the Poland Spring Resort fell on hard times during the Depression. In 1938, Hiram Ricker and Sons, Inc., sold the hotel business to a consortium that included a man named Lane associated with American Firearms, a Daniel Needham of Boston, and the Babbitt Steam Supply Company of New Bedford. The resort struggled on. In 1962 a man named Sol Feldman of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, bought the hotels. He donated the Maine State Building and the All Souls Chapel to the Poland Preservation Society in 1976. In 1966 he leased the Poland Spring House and some of the other buildings to the federal government, which contracted with the Avco Corporation to rehabilitate them for use as a Job Corps training center. On July 4, 1975, the Poland Spring House caught fire and burned to the ground. The Mansion House was gutted by fire in 1978, and the ruins then demolished.
Poland Water continued to be a popular mineral water, especially in the eastern part of the United States, and Hiram Ricker and Sons continued to bottle and ship it. The author of this study found it for sale in a small-town grocery in Colorado about 1970. He tried a bottle of it because it had once been carried in the narrow gauge buffet diners of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, which at that time he was studying. In 1973, the Perrier Company bought the spring and the bottling plant and in 1977 sold it to a son-in-law of the firm's owner, Paul de Haeue. As of 1988, the bottling plant still bottled and shipped Poland Water, which at that time ranked fifth in mineral water sales in the United States. The firm no longer shipped by its own railroad; however, when it tore out the tracks is unknown.
It is a commentary on the nature of American business that neither the Poland Water firm nor E.J. Lavino and Company seemed to retain records documenting much of their history. As family-owned firms, they did not receive the regular attention of the investment manuals published under the names Poor's and Moody's, which usually provide a rich source of information on American corporate and business history, and in whose annual volumes a historian can trace a company's history from one year to another and obtain year-by-year history of a firm's corporate development, growth, decline, and profits.
Fortunately Edward J. Lavino, II, could recall some of the history of his family's firm, even though the company today cannot provide a roster of all the locomotives it had owned at one time or another. Scattered descendants of Hiram Ricker could recall 20th-century aspects of that firm's history, though no one now associated with the company bottling Poland Water seems to know any of the history of their firm or even to be aware that it once operated its own small railroad. Similarly, no one associated with the Vulcan Iron Works in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, knows any of that firm's long history of locomotive building. It professes to retain no records of that activity, and the same was true for employees of the H.K. Porter Company, who knew nothing of their firm's locomotive-building past. One may suspect that present-day employees of Joy Technologies have little awareness that their company grew, in part, out of two of the greatest locomotive-building firms in the western hemisphere.
As for E.J. Lavino & Company Locomotive No. 3, it is one of about 19 0-6-0T locomotives that survive in the United States in museums, parks, or fairgrounds, including E.J. Lavino & Company 0-6-0T No. 10 (which the company shipped to the Orange Empire Railroad Museum in Perris, California, but which later moved to a railroad museum at Campo, California, in San Diego County) and E.J. Lavino No. 34, the 0-6-0 side-tank engine from Reusens, Virginia, now in a railroad museum at Roanoke, Virginia.
Condition: E.J. Lavino and Company Locomotive No. 3 is in reasonably good condition on the exterior, probably with the same paint and lettering it had when it left the Sheridan plant in 1966. Its mechanical condition is unknown.
Recommendation: As a technological representative of the 0-6-0T type and because of its historical associations, E.J. Lavino and Company Locomotive No. 3 should be preserved by the National Park Service. Its historical associations with firms established by emigrants from Saxony and Holland (via Turkey) or their descendants provide a tie with the interpretation of the history of immigrants in America. Not all immigrants were Irish or Greek section hands or Chinese or Irish track builders or Japanese railroad laborers. Some, indeed, founded and presided over major companies, as did Hiram Ricker and his sons of Saxon extraction, though it was Hiram's great-great-grandfather who had emigrated from Saxony. Each of these families came to own industrial or plant railroads. The National Park Service should commission a report comparable to a historic structure report on the subject of this engine, with effort directed especially toward obtaining photographs and reminiscences of the locomotive's service at Sheridan, Pennsylvania, and more information regarding the Poland Spring Railroad and whether or not this locomotive ever actually operated on that line. The report should include the results of a thorough mechanical inspection and evaluation of the locomotive; should recommend which period it should be restored to represent; should document various color and lettering schemes the locomotive had; and should recommend whether or not to restore the locomotive to operable condition and whether or not to operate it for interpretive purposes on occasion. If in fact the locomotive never operated on the Poland Spring Railroad, it should probably be preserved as E.J. Lavino No. 3. Furthermore, because the locomotive appears to have its last paint and lettering scheme for E.J. Lavino and Company preserved intact, this study leans toward carefully cleaning the locomotive and stripping any rust, but otherwise not repainting the locomotive unless that is required for preservation, and instead preserving its existing paint scheme. However, companion Locomotive No. 10 had yellow rather than white lettering, and research is needed to determine which color is correct for No. 3. It is not desirable that every locomotive in the Steamtown collection appear to have been freshly painted and outshopped. This locomotive may offer an opportunity to preserve a locomotive as it was at the time it left the railroad industry rather than applying fresh new paint and lettering, however accurately. In other words, it may be possible to preserve its historic paint job rather than to repaint it, if in fact the white lettering is a historic lettering.
Barley, Bob, Poland Spring Water Company. Telephone communication with author, June 14, 1988.
Bennett, Mary E. Poland, Past & Present, 1795-1970. Poland, Me.: 175th Anniversary Committee, 1970: 45, 71-75.
Facts About Poland Water. South Poland, Me.: Hiram Ricker & Sons, n.d.
Frye, Harry. Letter to author, 1988. [Supplied roster data on the Poland Spring Railroad.]
Guide to the Steamtown Collection. Bellows Falls, Vt.: Steamtown Foundation, n.d. (ca. 1973). [See item No. 3 and roster entry.]
Johns, Neils S. Letter to author, April 21, 1988.Johnson, Ron. The Best of Maine Railroads. South Portland, Me.: Author, 1985.
Kean, Randolph. The Railfan's Guide to Museum & Park Displays. Forty Fort: Harold E. Cox, 1973:173.
Krause, John, with H. Reid. Rails Through Dixie. San Marino, Calif.: Golden West Books, 1965: 12.
Lavino, Edward J., II. Telephone communication with author, Mar. 16, 1988.
__________. Letter to author, Apr. 12, 1988. [Supplied two color photographs and a photocopy of a news clipping from San Diego, California.]
Lennihan, Francis. Letter to author, July 5, 1988.Poland Spring Centennial: A Souvenir. South Poland, Me.: Hiram Ricker & Sons, 1895.
Poland Spring, Maine. America's Leading Spa. South Poland, Me.: Hiram Ricker & Sons, 1904.
Poland Spring, Poland Water. n.p. [South Poland: Hiram Ricker & Sons], n.d. (ca. 1918).
Poland Water.Ricker, George, and Rose Ricker, eds. Poland Spring Remembered: Recollections of Catharine Lewis Lennihan. Poland Spring, Me.: Poland Spring Preservation Society, 1988.
Ricker, Rose. Letters to author, June 11, June 23, July 15, 1988.
Souvenir, Poland Spring. South Poland, Me.: Hiram Ricker & Sons, 1890.
"Specification No. A 12412 for Hiram Ricker & Sons, 16" x 24" 0-6-0T-107 Saddle Tank Locomotive, Oct. 28, 1927." New York: American Locomotive Company, 1927.
"Steam News Photos." Trains, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Dec. 1964): 13. [Builder's photograph of Poland Spring No. 2, caption regarding its acquisition by Steamtown, though it was not shipped until 1966.]
"Steam News Photos." Trains, Vol. 27, No. 10 (Aug. 1967): 9. [Photo of E.J.L. & Co. No. 10 at Orange Empire Trolley Museum, Perris, Calif.]
"Steamtown Engine Roster, September 1967." Bulletin of the National Railway Historical Society, Vol. 33, No. 1 (1968): 8.
File on E.J. Lavino & Company Locomotive No. 3, Steamtown Foundation files, Scranton, Pa. [Files include correspondence regarding shipment of the locomotive in 1966 and shipping notice.]
Last Updated: 14-Feb-2002