Berlin Mills Railway 7
Whyte System Type: 2-4-2T "Saddle tank"
Builder: Vulcan Iron Works, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
Cylinders (diameter x stroke in inches): 17 x 24
Weight on Drivers (in lbs.): 85,000
Remarks: Engine is a hand-fired coal burner in near-operable condition.
Berlin Mills Railway 2-4-2T Locomotive No. 7
History: Railroads played an important role in opening up to industry and development not only the Western frontier but also the more remote areas of long-established states. Berlin Falls, New Hampshire, is an example. Thomas Green had attempted to use this obvious source of water power on the Androscoggin River as early as 1826, but without success because his location was too far from market in an era of animal-powered transportation. Such development had to wait until groups of businessmen in Montreal, Canada, and Portland, Maine, organized to bring the new form of transportation to Berlin Falls.
After many trials and tribulations, Maine governor Hugh Anderson signed a charter of the Atlantic & St. Lawrence Railroad on February 10, 1845. Cooperating Montreal businessmen obtained a charter for the St. Lawrence & Atlantic Railroad on March 17, 1845. Together, the two companies proposed to construct a railroad between Montreal and Portland across the province of Quebec and the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. Of course, the companies now had to sell stock, send out surveyors and civil engineers, select routes, hire construction forces, arrange to have cross-ties cut, order and purchase rail, locomotives and cars, and perform all the other myriad tasks necessary to turn a railroad from a creation on paper to a functioning system of wood and iron, steel and steam.
Directors of the Atlantic & St. Lawrence Railroad broke ground in Portland on July 4, 1846. It took until July 22, 1851, for construction to allow the first train to enter Gorhan, New Hampshire--over 91 miles of track. Construction resumed and reached Northumberland (today's Groveton) on July 12, 1852, passing through Berlin Station en route. Meanwhile, the St. Lawrence & Atlantic built southeastward from Montreal, and the two companies had agreed on August 4, 1851, to join at the town of Island Pond, Vermont. The first regularly scheduled through train between Montreal and Portland operated on April 4, 1853. Meanwhile, the directors had negotiated the joining of the two railroads between Portland and Montreal into the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada, which they accomplished through a 999-year lease dated August 5, 1853, but retroactive to July 1, 1853, roughly three months after completion of the through railway. Thus Berlin, New Hampshire, took its place on the map of railroad stations in the United States, for the first several months as part of the Atlantic & St. Lawrence and thereafter as a stop on the Grand Trunk Railway.
While all this occurred, a group of Portland businessmen formed a partnership under the name H. Winslow & Company in 1852 to purchase land on the west bank of the Androscoggin River at Berlin, New Hampshire, where they built a dam and erected a saw mill containing a gang saw and two single saws with a total daily capacity of 25,000 board feet of lumber. In 1853 the company built a store and a large boarding house for loggers and mill workers. Most significant, in 1854, with business booming, the company extended a short rail branch from the Grand Trunk to the sawmill plant. Apparently the lumber firm relied on the Grand Trunk's locomotives to switch cars in and out of the new industrial spur, but when Grand Trunk engines were unavailable, the firm employed oxen to move empty and loaded cars on the spur to the Grand Trunk. Later the company built its own private railway around the plant consisting of wooden rails covered with iron straps, with timber cars powered by horses and mules. This primitive little plant railway proved dangerous to operate, regularly sending employees to the company hospital, until the company replaced it with an ordinary railroad.
Eventually Nathan and Hezekial Winslow, who had lent his name to the enterprise, sold their interests to J.B. Brown, and Josiah Little died, leaving of the original partners only J.B. Brown and Little's widow. They took in men named Clemens, Bingham, and Warren in 1866 to form a new partnership--the Berlin Mills Company. Whether formally or informally, the railroad spur came to be called the Berlin Mills Railway, and eventually the plant trackage also came under that name. In 1868, William Wentworth Brown and Lewis T. Brown bought out not only J.B. Brown but also Clemens, Bingham, and Warren, establishing a family-owned firm that would survive for over a century.
By 1875 the Berlin Mills Company alone was daily sending a special lumber train of 22 cars to Portland, Maine. In 1888 the firm added a kyanizing plant to treat spruce lumber. By that time, in March 1888, the partnership arrangement that operated the company could no longer keep up with its growth, and the partners found it necessary to incorporate the Berlin Mills Company under the laws of Maine. That year the company also built the Riverside Groundwood Mill, whose 18 grinders rapidly ground wood into pulp. In 1891, downriver and across the stream, the company built the Riverside Paper Mill equipped with two machines that could produce 42 tons of newsprint daily. At the same time the Brown-family-controlled Burgess Sulphite Fiber Company built a plant on the east bank of the river to turn out wood fiber. In 1892 the Berlin Mills Company produced its first newsprint from pulp from the pulp mill.
Sometime amid all this progress, the Berlin Mills Railway acquired its first small steam locomotive, a switcher the company referred to as a "shifter" locomotive. The exact identity of what must have been the Berlin Mills Railway's first Locomotive No. 1 has become lost in the slash piles of the past, but in October 1891, the railway purchased its Locomotive No. 2, a Baldwin 0-4-0T with 44-inch drivers. The company added No. 3, another Baldwin 0-4-0T, in June 1893, this one about half the size of No. 2.
The original lumber mill burned in 1897, but the company replaced it with a mill capable of turning out 200,000 board feet of lumber per day. In 1898 the Berlin Mills Company built an electrochemical plant, as well as the Cascade Mill with four 164-inch paper-rolling machines. In December 1899, its railway division replaced the mysterious Locomotive No. 1 with a second Locomotive No. 1, an 0-4-0T built by the Pittsburg Locomotive Works. Presumably the company retired its original Locomotive No. 1 to the scrap pile upon receiving the new engine of the same number.
The Berlin Mills Railway celebrated the new century by purchasing its Locomotive No. 4, another Baldwin 0-4-0T in 1901. This and the three other locomotives seemed adequate to handle the business until 1904, when the Berlin Mills Company erected a window frame mill capable of turning out 2,000 window frames per day, and enlarged the Cascade Mill in capacity by 200 tons of paper. As a consequence of this expansion, that same year the company purchased second-hand from the Hastings Lumber Company at Bethel, Maine, its first 2-4-2T locomotive, a Baldwin product of February 1900, that became Berlin Mills Railway Locomotive No. 5.
It should be noted that although the Berlin Mills Railway's first 2-4-2T was its sixth locomotive, that particular Whyte system type dominated the logging railroads of the White Mountains of New Hampshire and Maine. C. Francis Belcher, who wrote the history of those railroads, described the 2-4-2T type as "the most popular and durable engine used in the mountains . . ." but was wrong m assuming all were Baldwin products.
Second-hand 2-4-2T No. 5 must have impressed management and employees of the Berlin Mills Railway as a great improvement over the 0-4-0T type, for the company was destined to purchase four more of them. It purchased No. 6, its first newly built 2-4-2T, from the Baldwin Locomotive Works in January 1906. In March 1907 they bought another, the third to be designated No. 1. Upon its delivery the company probably scrapped the 0-4-0T that had been the second No. 1. But for reasons unknown, the Berlin Mills Railway purchased its final three 2-4-2T engines from the Vulcan Iron Works in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.
Berlin Mills Railway Locomotive No. 7 rolled out of the Vulcan Iron Works' erecting shop in January 1911 with builder's number 1679, featuring cylinders 17 inches in diameter with a 24-inch stroke and 44-inch-diameter drive wheels. (The Steamtown Foundation reported its builder's number was 1500, its cylinders 14 by 20, and its drivers 36 inches; Randolph Kean reported its builder's number to be either 1779 or 1500. All of these figures are believed to be in error.) Photographs made during the 1920s suggest that the company lettering on the sides of the saddle tank and below the cab windows on each side of the cab, which spelled out "BERLIN MILLS RAILWAY," may have been in gold leaf or in a mustard yellow imitating gold leaf. By that date, the locomotive bore no obvious trace of striping. Below the lettering, the sides of the cab also carried the locomotive's road number, apparently in the same color as the lettering.
In 1913, Locomotive No. 7 and its sisters were silent witnesses to the burning of the second sawmill plant at the Berlin Mills. The company chose this time to build as a replacement a "fireproof' plant of concrete with a slightly smaller capacity--150,000 board feet of lumber per day--milled by a single bandsaw instead of the previous pair. Apparently one reason for this retrenchment lay in the decline of the lumber industry, that, as far as the Berlin Mills Company was concerned, was far offset by growth of the paper business. The management of the Berlin Mills Company had gradually adopted a policy of producing itself the secondary raw materials the company needed. It produced not only lumber but the paper pulp needed to make paper. It eventually produced chemical byproducts, built its own plant at the Cascade Mill to produce aluminum sulphate used in sizing paper, built a press plant to make the steel ends for its fiber cores, and generally tried to be as self-sufficient as possible. By 1910 Scandinavian countries were producing kraft paper, and the Berlin Mills Company soon began producing it from pulp that came from a mill the company had built near La Tuque, Quebec, in 1909. In the process, the company gradually shifted away from its original emphasis on producing lumber to producing paper pulp from which it manufactured newsprint. Around 1917 it shifted away from newsprint production in favor of kraft papers and began also producing fine-quality bond papers.
It was during this 1917 expansion that the company purchased its second new 2-4-2T locomotive, its third of the type. It became a second No. 3. At this time the company probably scrapped the original No. 3, an 0-4-0T. That same year, World War I, which had begun in 1914, finally involved the United States. American as well as certain foreign customers of the Berlin Mills Company became increasingly anti-German, and when the United States entered the war, a wave of anti-German hysteria swept the nation. In that frantic atmosphere, self-proclaimed super-patriots attacked anything that seemed Germanic in character. They began to associate the name of the company, Berlin Mills Company, with the capital of Imperial Germany, and began to turn their business away from the company because of the innocent coincidence of the names; after all, the company had taken its name from the railroad station, which in turn was named for the Berlin Falls of the Androscoggin River. In response to this hysteria over anything even remotely Germanic, the directors on November 30, 1917, changed the name of the firm from the Berlin Mills Company to the Brown Company from the name of the family that owned it. The Berlin Mills Railway operated thereafter as a department of the Brown Company but retained its distinctive original name (under which it still operated in 1991). After the war, the Brown Company continued under its new name.
Eventual postwar prosperity led to the Berlin Mills Railway's purchase of its third Vulcan locomotive, 2-4-2T No. 8, built in May 1920. By this time the company produced many chemical products. As a byproduct, the electrolytic plant that produced chlorine used in bleaching papers also produced caustic soda. In 1908 the company ceased dumping waste caustic soda into the river and instead began marketing it as White Mountain Brand Caustic Soda. As another use for chlorine, the company began producing chloroform, much in demand as an anaesthetic in military surgery during World War I, and chlorides used in making military poison gas; vulcanizing rubber by a cold process; making artificial rubber and beginning in 1918, making carbon tetrachloride. In 1921 the company began turning out liquid chlorine, used principally in water purification, bleaching, and sewage disposal. In 1924, it started producing calcium arsenate, used by cotton producers to kill the boll weevil. Until 1914 the company had allowed the byproduct hydrogen to bleed off into the air, but beginning that year the firm used it to hydrogenate vegetable oils into the consistency of lard for use as shortening or as a frying agent in domestic cooking. A competitor halted that marketing with a patent-infringement lawsuit. During the war the company had built a plant to manufacture fiber powder containers for 6-inch guns. After the war the Brown Company used this plant to produce fiber-conduit to wrap underground electric cables. The market for this product spread rapidly throughout the United States and to Europe, and the company soon had to ship a full trainload of fiber conduit to Spain.
The list of new products being introduced seemed endless, and it was these that Berlin Mills Railway Locomotive No. 7 and her sisters switched around the plant trackage and down the spur line for shipment out over the Grand Trunk Railway. The Berlin Mills Railway's roster of motive power reached its peak during the 1920s--Moody's Manual of Investments for 1926 reported nine locomotives on the property to operate 3.75 miles of "main line" track (the spur to the Grand Trunk) and 13.75 miles of plant trackage, for a total track mileage of 17.50. The track consisted of a mixture of 65- and 70-pound (per yard) rail.
By 1929, the Brown Company had so expanded production that the railway division needed more motive power. The 2-4-2T type such as No. 7 finally had outlived its usefulness--the type was simply too small for the work now demanded of a locomotive, and the company sought heavier motive power from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. Locomotive No. 9, purchased in June 1929, and No. 10, bought after the beginning of the Great Depression in July 1930, featured the 2-6-2T wheel arrangement. They were, in effect, saddle tank "Prairie" locomotives. These engines apparently proved too heavy for the track of the Berlin Mills Railway, which as a consequence by 1932 had installed 72-pound rail and by 1933 had replaced it with 80-pound rail. Otherwise the 1930s were a decade of decline: The number of freight cars owned by the line dropped steadily from the 250 in 1932 throughout the rest of the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s; yard trackage peaked at 16.11 miles in 1932, 1933, and 1934 (for a total mileage of 19.86), but dropped steadily thereafter until the mid-1950s. As a separate division of the Brown Company, the Berlin Mills Railway generally employed between 62 and 77 people during those decades.
Some of the earlier 2-4-2T engines continued to work alongside the heavier 2-6-2Ts, but one by one the company retired or sold them. From a total of nine locomotives on hand in 1926, the number had dropped to seven by 1929, six by 1936, to five in 1942. The time came for Locomotive No. 7 during World War II, for in November 1944, the Brown Company sold this locomotive to the Groveton Papers Company at nearby Groveton, New Hampshire.
The Groveton Papers Company originated as the Odell Manufacturing Company, which built a pulp mill with two digesters in Groveton, New Hampshire, in 1891. The company installed its first paper machine in 1893 (destined to be replaced in 1912), and a second in 1895 (destined to remain in production, incredibly, until 1975).
By 1901 the Groveton plant had sufficient yard trackage connecting with the Grand Trunk Railway to require a company locomotive, so to switch that yard trackage the Odell Manufacturing Company purchased from the Boston and Maine Railroad, on March 30, 1901, a third-hand 0-4-0 switch engine built in March 1884 as Eastern Railroad No. 15, which in 1890 had become Boston and Maine Railroad No. 115, named Binney. In November 1904, the Odell firm bought two more engines, second hand Boston & Maine No. 83, the Somerville, which became its No. 2; and on November 30, Boston & Maine No. 279, a genuine antique built by Hinkley & Drury in 1847 as Northern Railroad 4-4-0 No. 6, the Shaker, rebuilt in 1880 to an 0-4-0, sold to the Boston & Lowell Railroad in 1884 as No. 124, then sold back to the Northern Railroad in 1887 as No. 6, and later that year to the Boston & Maine as No. 279. This ancient piece of metal became Odell Manufacturing Company Locomotive No. 3.
In 1907 and 1908 Odell added a third paper machine, two more pulp digesters, and Hynie boilers. Paper machine No. 3 ranked at the time as one of the largest in the world. Business expanded accordingly, and in March 1912 the company, having scrapped engines No. 2 and 3 in 1910, purchased thirdhand its first 2-4-2T, a Baldwin product outshopped in January 1893 as Concord & Montreal second No. 25, which in 1895 had become Boston & Maine No. 725. This became Odell No. 4.
In 1913, the company built a bleach plant in order to enter the highly competitive market for white paper and bleached sulphite pulp.
In 1916, Odell company employees went out on a strike against the firm, and by the time the strike ended the company had been crippled and the town had lost most of its labor force; neither were to recover for nearly a quarter of a century. At the end of World War I the company did buy its only new engine, 0-4-0T No. 5, produced by American Locomotive Company at its Cooke Works in August 1918. Apparently management envisioned a postwar recovery which, as events turned out, failed to occur.
Beginning in 1919, the Brompton Pulp and Paper Company managed the Groveton plant, continuing to operate it at a minimal level until 1928. During that period, in 1921, the company scrapped its first locomotive, leaving it with only Nos. 4 and 5.
In 1928, the mill reverted to management of the Odell company, now owned by the Monroe family of Lewiston, Maine. The Monroes reorganized the Groveton plant as the Groveton Papers Company that same year. But the Great Depression began during the following year, and it became difficult to find enough business to keep paper machine No. 3 in service. After a decade of struggle, in 1939 the Monroes sold out to a family named Wemyss. Whether the new owners were merely lucky or prescient is unknown, but they put the long idle paper machine No. 3 back on line in 1940 and began turning out tons of paper products for which no market existed, storing the output in every available building in the town of Groveton. Of course, on December 7, 1941, the United States suddenly entered World War II, which created an instant market for the Groveton Paper Company's stored tons of paper products. Not only did military and government bureaucracy expand geometrically, but wartime priorities shut down much paper production or turned it to other military-related products. In November 1944, the Groveton Papers Company, in need of another 2-4-2T locomotive to replace its worn-out No. 4, built in 1893, purchased the Berlin Mills Railway's 2-4-2T No. 7. The company scrapped No. 4 in 945, which left it with Nos. 5 and 7. Groveton Papers Company did not renumber the No. 7 as its No. 6, so it apparently never had a locomotive No. 6.
After World War II, the Groveton mill experienced a short labor strike in 1946, but soon went back into production. During the early 1950s, while war raged in Korea, the company built a Semi-Chemical Plant that enabled the mill to use hardwood in the manufacture of pulp, which greatly boosted the economy of the area. A fourth paper machine installed in 1948 produced paper that the company converted to facial tissue and toilet tissue, as well as, eventually, napkins and towels. The paper business continued to change and evolve.
Groveton Papers Company retired Locomotive No. 4 on February 19, 1953, which left only No. 7 to switch the yard, and the latter clearly was nearing the end of its useful career. The company finally retired No. 7 on January 25, 1956, replacing it on April 17, with a secondhand 300-horsepower 45-ton General Electric diesel-electric locomotive built in September 1941.
The two surviving engines did not experience the burn of a scrapper's cutting torch. Eventually the company donated No. 5 to the town of Groveton, where it rests today in a small park.
In the summer of 1961, Francis Lamotte of West Lebanon, New Hampshire, organized a small steam tourist railroad called the Woodsville, Blackmount and Haverhill Steam Railroad. With Randolph Perkins and Donald McDonald, he spent two years planning the enterprise and on August 24, 1961, received permission of the New Hampshire State Public Utilities Commission to incorporate. The company issued stock to the amount of $100,000. It acquired abandoned right-of-way from the Boston and Maine Railroad extending from the end of the latter's operation in Blackmount to a place called Haverhill Station. This consisted of a stretch of about three miles of the old Woodsville-to-Plymouth main line of the Boston and Maine, in the heart of the White Mountains.
The Woodsville, Blackmount & Haverhill Steam Railroad then leased Groveton Papers Company No. 7, and by the spring of 1962 the new company had invested $2,000 in overhauling the engine. A retired railroader of Woodsville, Clyde O'Malley, became her engineer. The company also acquired a combination car from the Delaware & Hudson Railroad at Albany, New York, and a caboose from the Rutland Railroad, but due to a labor strike on the latter line, apparently never moved the caboose to the new trackage.
The new railroad was dedicated on Memorial Day, 1962, the featured speaker being F. Nelson Blount from Steamtown USA. That summer the Woodsville, Blackmount and Haverhill Steam Railroad operated its single locomotive and single car in round trips over three-quarters of a mile of track on Saturdays and Sundays during the summer months. The railroad operated again during the summer of 1963, but apparently that was the end of it.
The arched-roof Delaware & Hudson coach ended up on the Conway Scenic Railroad. Locomotive No. 7 remained idle for a number of years, though its owner did not move it back to Groveton. Then in 1969, the Groveton Papers Company delivered Locomotive No. 7 to the Steamtown Foundation at Bellows Falls, Vermont, as a donation to the foundation.
The two major corporations that once owned this locomotive went on to prosper after each had disposed of it. The Brown Company eventually was acquired by the James River Corporation, which continues to operate the paper mills at Berlin, New Hampshire, as of 1988; as one of its departments, the Berlin Mills Railway still functions. In fact, the railway took over additional trackage and acquired a large fleet of freight cars, as well as a number of diesel-electric locomotives. With this equipment, the Berlin Mills Railway reached its centennial year in 1990 (unless one considers 1954 to have been its true centennial).
The Groveton Papers Company also continued to produce paper. In 1968, Diamond International acquired the company and in turn was acquired by Sir James Goldsmith and associates, who sold out to the James River Corporation in 1983. This successor of the Odell Manufacturing Company also approached its centennial year, 1991.
The old 2-4-2T Locomotive No. 7, which served these corporations so well, survives as one of only four standard gauge 2-4-2T locomotives in the United States, a type once common on logging railroads. The National Railway Historical Society chapter in Atlanta, Georgia, owned one such engine that had belonged to a brick manufacturing company; a marine museum at Pensacola, Florida, exhibited another, and East Branch & Lincoln Railroad No. 5 rested in retirement at a ski area at Loon Mountain, New Hampshire.
Condition: Mechanical condition of this locomotive is unknown, but it is believed restorable to operating condition. A group of Steamtown Foundation volunteers cleaned and painted the locomotive in 1987.
Recommendation: Berlin Mills Railway Locomotive No. 7 is a fairly rare survivor of a once common type of locomotive used on logging railroads and industrial plant trackage, and it represents two New Hampshire paper manufacturing companies. The Berlin Mills Railway, still active nearly a hundred years after acquiring its first steam locomotive, and 134 years after its first rail was laid, has a long and unusual history for an industrial plant railroad. Researchers should prepare a report on the locomotive and should thoroughly investigate sources of Brown Company photographs of the engine in service, as well as other steam engines on the railroad. Researchers seek local sources of history to develop a more thorough understanding of the Berlin Mills Railway's history and of the Berlin Mills paper plant's history. The report should include the results of a thorough physical investigation of the engine, as well as of its various layers of paint, striping, lettering, numbers, and other decorations (unless it was stripped to bare metal before its last painting), equivalent to the physical history in a historic structure report. The report should also thoroughly investigate the history of the locomotive while in service for the Groveton Papers Company, and in particular ascertain whether or not the locomotive ever carried lettering of that company. Photographs of the locomotive on the Woodsville, Blackmount and Haverhill Steam Railroad indicate that the locomotive may have been repainted but was not lettered for that operation, and that fact needs to be confirmed, as well as whether or not the engine operated after 1963 on that line, and what happened to it thereafter until the Steamtown Foundation acquired it. The historian assigned to research and write this report should also seek out former engineers of the Berlin Mills Railway and the Groveton Papers Company to obtain oral history regarding operation of the locomotive. Upon completion of this report, the locomotive should be restored as Berlin Mills Railway No. 7, repainted, lettered and numbered in a historically accurate fashion for that railroad, with whatever color lettering and decoration documentary research and physical research determines was in use during the 1920s or earlier on engines of the Berlin Mills Railway.
Armstrong, Jack. Letter to author, June 5, 1988. Supplied partial motive power rosters (mostly diesel-electric) of the Berlin Mills Railway and Groveton Papers Company.
Bartlett, Otis J. Letter to author, April 14, 1988. Loaned photograph of Locomotive No. 7.
Belcher, C. Francis. Logging Railroads of the White Mountains. Boston: Appalachian Mountain Club, 1980.
"Berlin Mills Railway." The Short Line: The Journal of Shortline and Industrial Railroads, Vol. 13, No. 5 (Mar. 1986): 6.
Bolt, Jeff. The Grand Trunk in New England. Toronto: Railfare Enterprises, Ltd., 1986: 8-51, 64, 65, 86, 87.
Fielding, Ed. "Short Line Equipment: Berlin Mills." The Short Line: The Journal of Shortline and Industrial Railroads, Vol. 7, No. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1979): 6.
________. "1979 Freight Car Survey." The Short Line: The Journal of Shortline and Industrial Railroads, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1980): 7.
Frye, Harry. Letters to author, June 1, 1988 and June 26, 1988. Supplied locomotive rosters of the Berlin Mills Railway, the Groveton Papers Company, the Whitefield & Jefferson Railroad, and the Johns River Railroad.
Guide to the Steamtown Collection. Bellows Falls, Vt.: Steamtown Foundation, n.d. (ca. 1979), Item No. 7 and locomotive roster entry.
Historical Committee. Berlin, New Hampshire, Centennial, 1829-1929. Berlin: n.p., n.d. : 40-45.
Kean, Randolph, The Railfan's Guide to Museum & Park Displays. Forty Fort: Harold E. Cox, Publisher, 1973: 174.
Lewis, Edward A. American Short Line Railway Guide. Strasburg: The Baggage Car, 1975: 56.
MacDow, Shirley, of Groveton Paper Board, Inc. Letter to author enclosing a three-page typescript entitled "The Groveton Mill Location, A Historical Outline."
Mead, Edgar T., Jr. Telephone communication with author, Apr. 12, 1988."A Memory of Years Long Past." Lewiston (Me.) Daily Sun, Aug. 6, 1964.
Moody's Manual of Investments, American and Foreign: Industrial Securities, 1930. New York: Moody's Investors' Services, Inc., 1930.
O'Malley, Frank C. Letter to author, dated Apr. 19, 1988, enclosing copies of three news clippings and two photographs regarding the Woodsville, Blackmount & Haverhill Steam Railroad.
Quinn, Michael. "West Lebanonite Starts Own Steam Railroad Co." Valley News, n.d. [ca. June 1962] (Lebanon, N.H.).
Rice, D.M. Letters to the author, Dec. 20, 1988, Mar. 27, 1989, enclosing photographs, locomotive roster, map under separate cover, and answering many questions and providing much additional information on the Berlin Mills Railway and its parent company.
Short-Line Annual, 1962-1963, 5th ed.
Smith, Arlie G. Letter to Edgar T. Mead, Jr., Mar. 30, 1970. Letter from vice president, Groveton Papers Company, to Steamtown Foundation, documenting donation of Locomotive No. 7 in December 1969.
"Transformation of a Tanker." Trains, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Dec. 1963): 9.
Wallin, R.R. "The Shortline Scene." Extra 2200 South, The Locomotive Newsmagazine, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Jan.-Feb. 1972): 30.
Last Updated: 14-Feb-2002