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Historical Background

Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings

Suggested Reading

Soldier and Brave


Information Regarding Published Edition


This volume was prepared in the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation (Ernest A. Connally, Chief), Division of History, National Park Service, under the general supervision of the Chief Historian, Robert M. Utley. One of a series designed to make available to the public the studies of the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, directed by Horace J. Sheely, it incorporates survey and evaluation reports prepared by the following National Park Service historians and archeologists: Edwin C. Bearss, William E. Brown, William C. Everhart, Olaf T. Hagen, Edward A. Hummel, John A. Hussey, John D. McDermott, Merrill J. Mattes, Ray H. Mattison, Charles S. Pope, Frank B. Sarles, Jr., Albert H. Schroeder, Paul J. F. Schumacher, Charles W. Snell, Erwin N. Thompson, and Robert M. Utley. These reports were reviewed by the Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments and the Consulting Committee for the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. Members of these groups are listed in the Acknowledgments. The following Northeastern University students, employed under a co-operative agreement with their institution, provided invaluable research assistance: James H. Charleton, Richard E. Dean, Jr., and Julia Schlinski. Assistant editor for this volume was Richard E. Morris.

Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments (1969-70)

Durward L. Allen, Purdue University.
Anthony A. Buford, Clayton, Mo.
Loren C. Eiseley, University of Pennsylvania.
Joe B. Frantz, University of Texas.
Emil W. Haury, University of Arizona.
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, Stonewall, Tex.
Peter C. Murphy, Jr., Eugene, Oreg.
Nathaniel A. Owings, San Francisco, Calif.
Melvin M. Payne, National Geographic Society.
Elisha Walker, Jr., New York, N.Y.
James W. Whittaker, Seattle, Wash.

Consulting Committee for the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings (1969-70)

Edward P. Alexander, Colonial Williamsburg, Inc.
The Reverend John F. Bannon, S.J., St. Louis University.
James Biddle, National Trust for Historic Preservation.
J. O. Brew, Harvard University.
Richard H. Howland, Smithsonian Institution.
Herbert E. Kahler, Eastern National Park and Monument Association.
Charles E. Lee, South Carolina Department of Archives and History.
Henry A. Millon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Frederick D. Nichols, University of Virginia.
Donald Robertson, Tulane University.

National Park Service

Roy E. Appleman, Chief (retired), Branch of Park History, Division of History.
Edwin C. Bearss, Historian, Division of History.
Roy F. Beasley, Historian, Fort Union National Monument, N. Mex.
Frederick R. Bell, Picture Librarian, Office of Information.
Elroy W. Bohlin, Management Assistant, Big Hole National Battlefield, Mont.
Lenard E. Brown, Historian, Division of History.
John D. Caldwell, Student Research Assistant (Northeastern University), Division of History.
George S. Cattanach, Jr., Archeologist, Division of History.
Thomas N. Crellin, Chief, Office of History and Historic Architecture, Eastern Service Center, Washington, D.C.
Bobby L. Crisman, Park Ranger, Fort Davis National Historic Site, Tex.
Robert J. Gamer, Park Ranger, Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Ariz.
Vincent L. Gleason, Chief, Division of Publications.
John A. Hussey, Historian, Office of History and Historic Architecture, Western Service Center, San Francisco.
Ronald F. Lee, Special Assistant to the Director.
Benjamin Levy, Historian, Division of History.
Mrs. Thelma Lund, Park Aide, Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, Ariz.
Douglas C. McChristian, Historian, Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kans.
John D. McDermott, Historian, Division of History.
Merrill J. Mattes, Chief, Office of History and Historic Architecture, Western Service Center, San Francisco.
Thomas W. Mullen, Student Research Assistant (Northeastern University), Division of History.
Thomas A. Munson, Management Assistant, Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kans.
Albert H. Schroeder, Archeologist, Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe.
James W. Sheire, Historian, Division of History.
Charles W. Snell, Historian, Division of History.
Franklin G. Smith, Superintendent, Fort Davis National Historic Site, Tex.
L. Clifford Soubier, Historian, Custer Battlefield National Monument, Mont.
David G. Stimson, Superintendent, Chiricahua National Monument, Ariz.
Erwin N. Thompson, Historian, Division of History.
Bernard G. Tracy, Superintendent, Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, Ariz.
Thomas E. White, Historian, Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyo.

Other Individuals

Bill Barnhart, Historian, Wyoming Recreation Commission, Cheyenne.
Mrs. Clara. S. Beatty, former Director, Nevada Historical Society, Reno.
Jack K. Boyer, Director, Kit Carson Home and Museum, Taos, N. Mex.
Joe R. Brankley, Assistant Director of Public Relations, Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va.
Sidney Brinekerhoff, Curator, Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society, Tucson.
Mrs. W. Neil Clark, Supervisor, Municipal Museums, Greeley, Colo.
Donn M. Coddington, Historic Sites Supervisor, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
Mrs. Mary K. Dains, Research Assistant, State Historical Society of Missouri, Columbia.
Jeff C. Dykes, College Park, Md.
Russell W. Fridley, Director, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
Mrs. Barbara S. Friedman, Photograph Librarian, Oregon Historical Society, Portland.
Maurice Frink, former Executive Director, State Historical Society of Colorado, Denver.
Miss Mildred Goosman, Curator, Western Collections, Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha.
Gillett Griswold, Director, U.S. Army Field Artillery Center Museum, Fort Sill, Okla.
Miss Lola Homsher, former Executive Secretary, Wyoming State Historical Society, Cheyenne.
Mrs. R. J. Hubbell, Ganado, Ariz.
Miss Lila Johnson, Chief, Audiovisual Library, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
Robert N. Killen, Historic Sites Specialist, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln.
Bruce Le Roy, Director, Washington State Historical Society, Tacoma.
C. Boone McClure, Director, Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Tex.
Neal E. Miller, Director, Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department, Cheyenne.
Nyle H. Miller, Executive Secretary, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka.
Patrick Patterson, Director, Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Okla.
Robert A. Pike, Assistant Director, Division of Recreation and State Parks, Oklahoma Industrial Development and Park Department, Oklahoma City.
Richard H. Randall, Jr., Director, Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore.
F. G. Renner, Washington, D.C.
Don Rickey, Jr., Assistant Director, Military History Research Collections, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa.
Paul A. Rossi, Director, Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa.
Paul E. Schulz, Interpretive Specialist, Nevada State Park System, Carson City.
Barry Scobee, President, Fort Davis Historical Society, Fort Davis, Tex.
Joseph W. Snell, Assistant State Archivist, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka.
James E. Sperry, Superintendent, State Historical Society of North Dakota, Bismarck.
K. Ross Toole, former Director, Montana Historical Society, Helena.
Mrs. Donna H. Traxler, Chief, Reference Service Branch, U.S. Army Photographic Agency, Washington, D.C.
Thomas Vaughan, Director, Oregon Historical Society, Portland.
Merle W. Wells, Director, Idaho Historical Society, Boise.
Miss Muriel H. Wright, Secretary, Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City.
Mrs. Arthur Young, Clerk-Stenographer, Department of Public Relations, Union Pacific Railroad, Omaha.


Foreword to Published Edition

Americans take great pride in their historic monuments. Although these monuments reflect the good and the bad, triumph and tragedy, joy and despair, all of them are part of our treasured national heritage.

Historic monuments strengthen our appreciation for the effort of our ancestors of all races that led to a Nation that attaches great importance to individual freedoms and democratic institutions.

The monuments described in this volume helped shape America as we know it today. They poignantly reflect how this Nation's ideals were forged from an amalgamation of successes and failures. They accurately mirror the growth of America.

Secretary of the Interior

Preface to Published Edition

The enthusiastic response of the public to this series of volumes has been heartwarming to me. It reveals a widespread interest in historic sites and buildings. At the same time, it underscores the need for continued vigilance on the part of historic preservationists.

Sites and buildings associated with Indian affairs and the Indian wars are well represented in the National Park System and in State parks. Historical societies, other organizations, county and municipal agencies, corporations, and private individuals maintain and preserve numerous other sites. But the momentum must be maintained. Increasing urbanization and the burgeoning of population in the West represent new threats to historic preservation. They must not be allowed to widen the swath of the bulldozer.

This is one of a series of books designed to make available to Americans the findings of the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, a nationwide program conducted by the National Park Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior under authority of the Historic Sites Act of 1935. The Survey's purpose is to identify historic and prehistoric places of significance to the Nation.

Such places are studied and evaluated by Service field historians and archeologists, screened by a Consulting Committee of outside scholars, and final selections recommended to the Secretary of the Interior by the Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments. When approved by the Secretary, sites and buildings judged of national significance are eligible for designation as National Historic Landmarks. Upon application, their owners are provided with a certificate and a bronze plaque attesting to the distinction.

Credit for the preparation of this volume is shared widely by persons both in and out of the National Park Service. In particular, the work of the Service in the general field of historic preservation has benefited inestimably from the assistance provided by the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, a cosponsor of the Survey.

The sites and buildings described in this volume represent a colorful phase of American history. Yet, it was a tragic era. It has also been distorted in the popular mind by television and motion picture presentations. Visits to pertinent historic sites will do much to dispel the myths associated with the period and contribute to better understanding of its complexities.

National Park Service

Art and Picture Credits to Published Edition

The National Park Service gratefully acknowledges the assistance of agencies and individuals furnishing illustrations and granting permission to reproduce them. Where available, names of photographers are indicated in parentheses following picture.

Last Updated: 19-Aug-2005