List of Illustrations
Chapter 1: The Incomparable Valley
Chapter 2: First Park
Chapter 3: Prophecy and Change
Chapter 4: National Park
Chapter 5: The Commission, the Cavalry, and the Natural Resource
Chapter 6: Losing Ground
Chapter 7: Changing of the Guard
Chapter 8: University of the Wilderness
Chapter 9: The Science of Sanctuary
Chapter 10: Sanctuary on Trial
Chapter 11: The Science of Sanctuary Redefined
Chapter 12: Self-Interest and Environment
Chapter 13: Management Adrift
Epilogue: Reassessment and Future
A Note on the Sources
Index (omitted from the online edition)
Frontispiece. Vernal Falls.
Hikers pause to marvel at the power and majesty of Vernal Falls, June
1938. Photograph by Ralph H. Anderson, courtesy of the National Park
I. Incomparable Yosemite.
Half Dome; Thomas A. Ayres's Yo-Hamite
Falls; Yosemite Falls; Glacier Point; View from
Glacier Point; Giant sequoias of the Mariposa
Grove; Hikers at Mount Lyell; Frederick Law
II. The Art of Promotion.
Albert Bierstadt's Lake in Yosemite Valley; Thomas Hill's
Yosemite Valley; Cover of Sunset magazine featuring
Yosemite; Railroad pro motional brochure covers; Horseshoe Route;
Firefall produce label; Yosemite Park and Curry Company promotions.
III. Visitation and Development.
John Muir and Theodore Roosevelt; David and Jennie Curry; Alcoholic
beverages at Desmond's Camp Yosemite Yosemite Lodge; Indian Field Days;
Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.; Automobiles and campers at Stoneman Meadow;
Dredging paving materials from the Merced River; Bridge across Wildcat
Creek; Painting the rock face above Wawona Tunnel.
IV. Wildlife Management and Ecology.
Ed Beatty with ice-preserved bighom sheep; Grizzly Giant; Visitors
confrontation with bear; Bear capture; Feeding deer; Joseph Grinnell;
Yosemite Valley "zoo"; Elk herd.
V. Urban Distractions and Influence.
Hetch Hetchy Valley; Ahwahnee Hotel; Bracebridge Christmas pageant;
Winter Carnival; Badger Pass ski area; Freeing bear from milk can;
Killing bear by lethal injection; Causes of visitors' deaths; Yosemite
Valley jail; Yosemite Village Courthouse; Tioga Road; Yosemite Valley at
1. Map of Yosemite National Park
Copyright © 1990 by the University of Nebraska Press.
All rights reserved.
Manufactured in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Runte, Alfred, 1947
Yosemite: the embattled wilderness/ Alfred Runte.
p. cm. Bibliography: p.
ISBN 0-8032-3894-0 (alk. paper)
1. Natural history California Yosemite National Park.
2. Nature conservation California Yosemite National Park.
3. Yosemite National Park (Calif.) Management.
4. Natural resources California Yosemite National Park. I. Title
508.794'47-dc20nbsp; 89-35128 CIP
For Christine, with love;
For Mary Vocelka, with gratitude;
And for my brother, August,
In special memory of Mom,
Who showed us both the way.