America's National Monuments
The Politics of Preservation
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Chronology of National Monument Establishment

Part 1. Monuments Established between 1906 and May 1944. Source: The National Monuments (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, 1944).

Site NameDate Established StatePresident Total Federal

Devils Tower24 September 1906Wyo.T. Roosevelt1,152.91
El Morro8 December 1906N.M.T. Roosevelt240.00
Montezuma Castle8 December 1906Ariz.T. Roosevelt520.00
Petrified Forest8 December 1906Ariz.T. Roosevelt84,597.1
Chaco Canyon11 March 1907N.M.T. Roosevelt17,636.73
Cinder Cone6 May 1907Calif.T. Roosevelt5,120.002
Lassen Peak6 May 1907
9 August 19163
Calif.T. Roosevelt1,280.00
Gila Cliff Dwellings16 November 1907N.M.T. Roosevelt160.00
Tonto19 December 1907Ariz.T. Roosevelt1,120.00
Muir Woods9 January 1908Calif.T. Roosevelt424.56
Grand Canyon11 January 1908
26 February 19194
Ariz.T. Roosevelt806,400.00
Pinnacles16 January 1908Calif.T. Roosevelt12,817.65
Jewel Cave7 February 1908S.D.T. Roosevelt1,274.56
Natural Bridges16 April 1908UtahT. Roosevelt2,740.00
Lewis and Clark Cavern11 May 1908
24 August 19375
Mont.T. Roosevelt
Tumacacori15 September 1908Ariz.T. Roosevelt10.00
Wheeler7 December 1908Colo.T. Roosevelt300.00
Mount Olympus2 March 1909
29 June 19386
Wash.T. Roosevelt298,090.00
Navajo20 March 19097
14 March 19128
Oregon Caves12 July 1909Ore.Taft480.00
31 July 1909
19 November 19199
Shoshone Cavern21 September 1909Wyo.Taft212.37
Gran Quivira1 November 1909N.M.Taft370.94
Sitka23 March 1910AlaskaTaft57.00
Rainbow Bridge30 May 1910UtahTaft160.00
Big Hole Battlefield23 June 1910Mont.Taft200.00
Colorado24 May 1911Colo.Taft16,763.39
Devils Postpile6 July 1911Calif.Taft800.00
Cabrillo14 October 1913Calif.Wilson0.50
Papago Saguaro31 January 1914
7 April 193010
Dinosaur4 October 1915UtahWilson183,221.56
Walnut Canyon30 November 1915Ariz.Wilson1,593.16
Bandelier11 February 1916
25 February 193211
Sieur de Monts8 July 1916
26 February 191912
Capulin Mountain9 August 1916N.M.Wilson680.37
Old Kasaan25 October 1916AlaskaWilson38.00
Verendrye29 June 1917N.D.Wilson253.04
Casa Grande3 August 191813Ariz.Wilson472.50
Katmai24 September 1918AlaskaWilson2,697,590.00
Scotts Bluff12 December 1919Nebr.Wilson1,652.15
Yucca House19 December 1919Colo.Wilson9.60
Lehman Caves24 January 1922Nev.Harding639.31
Timpanogos Cave14 October 1922UtahHarding250.00
Fossil Cycad21 October 1922S.D.Harding320.00
Aztec Ruins24 January 1923N.M.Harding25.88
Hovenweep2 March 1923Utah and Colo.Harding285.80
Mound City Group2 March 1923OhioHarding57.00
Pipe Spring31 May 1923Ariz.Harding40.00
Bryce Canyon8 June 1923
7 June 192414
Carlsbad Cave25 October 1923
14 May 193015
Chiricahua18 April 1924Ariz.Coolidge10,529.80
Craters of the Moon2 May 1924IdahoCoolidge47,540.70
Castle Pinckney15 October 1924S.C.Coolidge3.50
Fort Marion15 October 1924Fla.Coolidge18.51
Fort Matanzas15 October 1924
9 January 1935
F. D. Roosevelt
Fort Pulaski15 October 1924Ga.Coolidge5,427.39
Statue of Liberty15 October 1924N.Y.Coolidge10.38
Wupatki9 December 1924Ariz.Coolidge34,680.89
Meriwether Lewis6 February 1925Tenn.Coolidge300.00
Glacier Bay26 February 1925AlaskaCoolidge2,299,520.00
Father Millet Cross5 September 1925N.Y.Coolidge0.01
Lava Beds21 November 1925Calif.Coolidge45,727.00
Arches12 April 1929
25 November 1938
F. D. Roosevelt
Holy Cross11 May 1929Colo.Hoover1,392.00
George Washington Birthplace23 January 193016Va.Hoover394.47
Sunset Crater26 May 1930Ariz.Hoover3,040.00
Colonial3 JuIy 1930Va.Hoover9,430.00
Canyon de Chelly1 April 193117Ariz.Hoover83,840.00
Great Sand Dunes17 March 1932Colo.Hoover43,769.19
Grand Canyon22 December 1932Ariz.Hoover196,531.00
White SandsI8 January 1933N.M.Hoover135,085.15
Death Valley11 February 1933Calif.Hoover1,850,565.20
Saguaro1 March 1933Ariz.Hoover55,124.00
Black Canyon of the Gunnison2 March 1933Colo.Hoover12,723.46
Cedar Breaks22 August 1933UtahF. D. Roosevelt5,946.60
Fort Jefferson4 January 1935Fla.F. D. Roosevelt86.82
Fort Frederica26 May 1936Ga.F. D. Roosevelt94.30
Perry's Victory Memorial6 July 1936Ohio
Joshua Tree10 August 1936Calif.F. D. Roosevelt653,123.30
Ocmulgee23 December 193618Ga.
Zion22 January 1937UtahF. D. Roosevelt37,464.00
Organ Pipe Cactus13 April 1937Ariz.F. D. Roosevelt328,161.73
Capitol Reef2 August 1937UtahF. D. Roosevelt33,735.67
Pipestone25 August 1937Minn.
Channel Islands26 April 1938Calif.F. D. Roosevelt1,119.98
Fort Laramie16 July 1938Wyo.F. D. Roosevelt214.41
Ackia Battleground25 October 1938Miss.
Homestead3 January 1939Nebr.
Badlands25 January 1939S.D.
Santa Rosa Island17 May 1939Fla.F. D. Roosevelt9,500.00
Tuzigoot25 July 1939Ariz.F. D. Roosevelt42.67
Fort McHenry11 August 193919Md.
Whitman20 January 1940Wash.
Appomattox Court House10 April 1940Va.
Andrew Johnson27 April 1942Tenn.
Jackson Hole15 March 1943Wyo.F. D. Roosevelt173,064.62

Part 2. Monuments Established between June 1944 and December 1981. Compiled by the author.

Site NameDate Established StatePresident

Harpers Ferry30 June 194420W.Va., Md. and Va.F. D. Roosevelt
Castle Clinton12 August 1946N.Y.Truman
Fort Vancouver19 June 194821Wash.Truman
Fort Sumter12 July 1948S.C.Truman
Saint Croix Island8 June 194922MaineTruman
Fort Union28 June 1954N.M.Eisenhower
Booker T. Washington2 April 1956Va.Eisenhower
Edison Laboratory14 July 195623N.J.Eisenhower
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal18 January 196124District of Columbia and Md.Eisenhower
Russell Cave11 May 1961Ala.Kennedy
Buck Island Reef28 December 1961Virgin IslandsKennedy
Agate Fossil Beds5 June 1965Neb.L. B. Johnson
Pecos28 June 1965N.M.L. B. Johnson
Biscayne18 October 196825Fla.L. B. Johnson
Marble Canyon20 January 196926Ariz.L. B. Johnson
Florissant Fossil Beds20 August 1969Colo.Nixon
Hohokam-Pima21 October 1972Ariz.Nixon
Fossil Butte23 October 1972Wyo.Nixon
John Day Fossil Beds26 October 1974Ore.
Congaree Swamp18 October 1976S.C.Ford
Aniakchak1 December 197827AlaskaCarter
Bering Land Bridge
Cape Krusenstern
Gates of the Arctic
Glacier Bay
Kenai Fjords
Kobuk Valley
Lake Clark
Wrangell-St. Elias
Salinas19 December 198139N.M.Reagan

1Figures indicate gross acreage in 1944 or at the time area was transferred to national park category or abolished.

2For monuments no longer in existence the gross area (not the Federal area) is given in this column.

3Lassen Volcanic National Park was created by the Act of 9 August 1916 (39 Stat. 442), including the lands formerly in Cinder Cone and Lassen Peak national monuments.

4Grand Canyon National Park was created by the Act of 26 February 1919 (40 Stat. 1175), including most of the land formerly in the monument.

5The monument was abolished by the Act of 24 August 1937 (50 Stat. 746), and the land transferred to the State of Montana.

6Olympic National Park was created by the Act of 29 June 1938 (52 Stat. 1241), including the land formerly in the monument.

7The proclamation did not specify a particular acreage, but included all of the ruins within a described area, with an area of forty acres around each ruin.

8The area was "reduced' to 360 acres.

9Zion National Park was created by the Act of 19 November 1919 (41 Stat. 356), including the land formerly in the monument.

10The Monument was abolished by the Act of 7 April 1930 (46 Stat. 142) and the land divided among state and local agencies.

11Transferred to NPS.

12Lafayette National Park (later changed to Acadia) was created by the Act of 26 February 1919 (40 Stat. 1178), including the lands formerly in Sieur de Monts National Monument.

13The proclamation gave monument status to lands previously pursuant to the act of 2 March 1889 (25 Stat. 961).

14Utah National Park (later changed to Bryce Canyon) was created by the Act of 7 June 1924 (43 Stat. 593), including the land formerly in Bryce Canyon National Monument.

15Carlsbad Cavern National Park was created by the Act of 14 May 1930 (46 Stat. 279), including the land formerly in the Monument.

16The Monument was established by the Act of 23 January 1930 (46 Stat. 58).

17Pursuant to the Act of 14 February 1931 (46 Stat. 1161).

18Pursuant to the Act of 14 June 1934 (48 Stat. 958).

19Fort McHenry National Park was changed to Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine by an act of Congress.

20Redesignated a National Historic Park in 1963.

21Redesignated a National Historic Site in 1961.

22Redesignated an international historic site in 1984.

23Incorporated in Edison National Historic Site in 1962.

24Authorization dated from 1938; became a national monument in 1961; incorporated in Cheasapeake and Ohio National Historic Park in 1971.

25Incorporated in Biscayne National Park in 1980.

26Incorporated in Grand Canyon National Park in 1975.

27Incorporated in legislated Aniakchak National Monument and National Preserve in 1980.

28Redesignated as a national preserve in 1980.

29Incorporated with Mount McKinley National Park in Denali National Park and National Preserve in 1980.

30Incorporated in Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve in 1980.

31Addition to existing monument; both incorporated in Glacier Bay National Park and National Preserve in 1980.

32Addition to existing monument; both incorporated in Katmai National Park and National Preserve in 1980.

33Redesignated a national park in 1980.

34Redesignated a national park in 1980.

35Incorporated in Lake Clark National Park and National Preserve in 1980.

36Incorporated in Noatak National Preserve in 1980.

37Incorporated in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and National Preserve in 1980.

38Redesignated Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve in 1980.

39Incorporated Gran Quivira, a national monument, and two state-designated areas, Salinas and Ato.


America's National Monuments: The Politics of Preservation
©1989, Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
©1994, University Press of Kansas
All rights reserved by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois

rothman/appendix.htm — 04-Feb-2005

Copyright © 1989 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. Material from this edition published by the University Press of Kansas by arrangement with the University of Illinois Press and may not be reproduced in any manner without the written consent of the author and the University of Illinois Press.