IMPORTANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF PIPESTONE NATIONAL MONUMENT
1858Yankton Sioux cede their lands in Minnesota, with the exception of the right to quarry on a 640-acre tract surrounding the pipestone quarries.
1880sU. S. Army forces out illegal white settlers on the reserved area.
1890First mention of the Pipestone area for national park status.
1890sYankton seek compensation for unauthorized use of the quarry area. U. S. government seeks to buy out the Indians. The case continues for more than thirty years.
1892Pipestone Indian School founded.
1910sFirst efforts for a park develop.
1924State park proclaimed, but because of the court case over Yankton rights, no land for it is secured.
1928U. S. Supreme Court rules on Yankton claim; awards the tribe $100,000 and interest from 1890, more than an additional $200,000, for the 640-acre area. Indian legal claim extinguished.
1932Pipestone National Park Association founded; Winifred Bartlett is instrumental in the process.
1933Department of the Interior official E. K. Burlew visits Pipestone to assess its merits as a park area. He decides that it had greater regional than national significance and does not merit inclusion in the park system.
1935First National Park Service study of the area by Edward A. Hummel.
1937115 acres of the former reserved area proclaimed as Pipestone National Monument proclaimed. NPS officials recognize natural as well as cultural potential of the new area. Superintendent of the Pipestone Indian School, J. W. Balmer, is enlisted as volunteer custodian.
1940Seasonal custodian Albert F. Drysdale begins work at Pipestone.
1941First plans to change the entrance road are conceived.
1941-1945World War II puts growth and development aside.
1946Initial NPS improvements compelled by local complaints about conditions at the monument.
1946First regulations to govern quarrying established.
1948First permanent, full-time employee, Lyle K. Linch, arrives. Within months, his title is upgraded from custodian to superintendent.
1948George "Standing Eagle" Bryan serves as first American Indian seasonal interpreter at Pipestone.
1949First Song of Hiawatha pageant begun by local Exchange Club. The pageant became a tradition. Later the club changed its name to the Hiawatha Club.
1953Pipestone Indian School closes. Attempts to close it began in 1948, but local opposition delayed its demise. Closure paves the way for transfer of additional land to the monument.
1954Pipestone National Park Association reconstituted as Pipestone Indian Shrine Association. Winifred Bartlett remains a leading influence.
1956164 acres of the formerly reserved area are formally transferred to the monument. The transfer of the Three Maidens area on the south boundary of the monument closely followed, bringing the total area of the park to 282 acres.
1957Second permanent staff member arrives.
1958MISSION 66 program for Pipestone implemented; new Visitor Center constructed and dedicated.
1966National Historic Preservation Act passed.
1968Cecil D. Lewis, Jr., becomes first American Indian to serve as superintendent at Pipestone.
1968Raymond L. "Chuck" Derby becomes first full-time American Indian employee at Pipestone.
1970American Indian Movement protesters disrupt Hiawatha pageant.
1971Upper Midwest American Indian Cultural Crafts Center completed.
1973experimental controlled burning program begins at Pipestone. The program was developed as a result of the knowledge gained from an accidental fire in 1971.
1975Pipestone faces preservation-use dichotomy in cultural resources management. Officials can not allow quarrying to continue and be in compliance with Section 106 of the amended National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Nor they can stop quarrying, for it would place the monument in violation of treaties, proclamations, and the organic legislation of the park. A resources management strategy is developed as part of the solution.
1978American Indian Religious Freedom Act becomes law.
1981First comprehensive resources management plan for the monument developed.
1982Fish kill in Pipestone Creek illustrates pollution problems at the monument.
1988First Spiritual Run/Walk to protest inappropriate uses of Pipestone begins. A rift in the Native American community develops, with the Park Service in an uncomfortable position. The run/walk continued through 1991.
1991Sundance ceremony occurs at Pipestone; close cooperation between organizers and park personnel make for a successful event.
Last Updated: 21-Aug-2004