Mormon Pioneer
Historic Resource Study
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NOTE: Most of the research for this historic resource study is based on twenty-six years of fieldwork on the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail and research in the Mormon archives. The notes and bibliography are mainly to guide readers to further information.

Furthermore, since between Fort Laramie and Fort Bridger in present Wyoming (a distance of about 397 miles), the Mormon, Oregon, California, and Pony Express trails are nearly identical, some selected studies of the Oregon, California, and Pony Express trails are listed in this bibliography. A few studies of the Santa Fe Trail, used by the Mormon Battalion, are also listed.

This bibliography lists but a few of the more than 3,000 printed and unprinted contemporary Mormon Trail accounts. For access to these Mormon and also the more than 2,000 non-Mormon Trail chronicles, see the works by Bitton, Mattes, Mintz, and Townley in this bibliography. This bibliography is largely restricted to the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, the route of the pioneers of 1846-1847 between Nauvoo, Illinois, and Salt Lake City, Utah, for the period 1846-1869. Mormons used many other trails not covered, or only briefly treated, in this bibliography.


Allen, James B., and Glen Leonard. The Story of the Latter-day Saints. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976. The best single volume of Mormon history.

Arrington, Leonard J. Great Basin Kingdom. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966. Without doubt the best economic history of Mormonism.

Berrett, William E. The Restored Church. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1963. An old, but still useful basic history of Mormonism.

Billington, Ray Allen. The Far Western Frontier 1830-1860. New York: The University Library, 1956. Treats the settlement of each western region in relation to the Turner thesis.

______. Westward Expansion. New York: Macmillan Co., 1982.

Brodie, Fawn M., ed. Frederick H. Piercy, Route from Liverpool to Great Salt Lake Valley. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962. An illustrated, factual account of Piercy's 1853 trip from Liverpool to Salt Lake City. Skimpily edited.

Cross, Whitney R. The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York: 1800-1850. New York: Cornell University Press, 1950. An essential book regarding Mormon origins.

De Voto, Bernard. The Year of Decision: 1846. Boston: Little Brown and Co., 1943. A classic study presenting the Mormons in the general context of mid-19th century America.

Dick Everett. Vanguards of the Frontier, A Social History of the Northern Plains and Rocky Mountains from the Fur Traders to the Sod Busters. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1941. Briefly presents the Mormons as part of the social history of the Rocky Mountains.

Hafen, LeRoy. Western America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970. A basic text.

Hewitt, James, ed. Eye-Witnesses to Wagon Trains West. New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1973. Firsthand accounts of trail life, one chapter on the Mormons.

Hillman, Martin, Bridging a Continent, vol. 8 in Encyclopaedia of Discovery and Exploration. London: Aldus Books Ltd., 1971. A good general introduction to the westward movement, Well illustrated.

Howles, Rulon S. The Mormon Story: A Pictorial Account. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1957. Interesting and useful.

Lavender, David. The American Heritage History of the Great West. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1982. One of the best general treatments of the westward movement. Profusely illustrated.

The Old West. By the editors of Time-Life Books, New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1990. Another terrific introduction to the old west.

Rich, Russell R. Ensign to the Nations. Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1979. A basic text of Mormon history for the period 1846-1972.

Roberts, B. H. A Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 6 vols. Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, Vol. II, 1930. An old, but the most extensive history of the Mormons published to date.

Unruh, John D., Jr. The Plains Across, The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840-1860. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979. The most comprehensive study to date. Excellent.

Webb, Walter Prescott. The Great Plains. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1972. Excellent.


Andrews, Thomas F. "'Ho! For Oregon and California!' An Annotated Bibliography of Published Advice to the Emigrant, 1841-47." The Princeton University Library Chronicle. 33, Autumn 1971: 41-64.

Flake, Chad. A Mormon Bibliography: 1830-1930. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1979. Definitive.

_______. A Mormon Bibliography, 1830-1930: Ten Year Supplement. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1989. Excellent.

Krol, Helen B. "The Books That Enlightened the Emigrants." Oregon Historical Quarterly 45, June 1944: 103-123. An essential bibliography of the Oregon Trail.

Malone, Michael P., ed. Historians and the American West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987. An excellent bibliographic study; see especially the chapters of the Mormons and transportation.

Mintz, Lannon W. The Trail: A Bibliography of the Travelers on the Overland Trail to California, Oregon, Salt Lake City and Montana during the Years 1841-64. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987. An excellent work devoted largely to "collectible" primary accounts for the benefit of book dealers and collectors. Of limited use for the Mormon Trail.

Rittenhouse, Jack D. The Santa Fe Trail: A Historical Bibliography. Jack D. Rittenhouse: Albuquerque, 1986. The best there is to 1971.

Townley, John M. The Trail West: A Bibliography - Index to Western American Trails, 1841-1869. Reno: Jamison Station Press, 1988. Useful. Five star, excellent all around, especially on the Mormons.


Beck, Warren A., and Ynez D. Haase. Historical Atlas of the American West. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman and London, 1989. A good, but not excellent atlas. Of limited use to trail students. Its extensive bibliography, however, should be noted.

Franzwa, Gregory M. Maps of the Oregon Trail. Gerald, MO.: The Patrice Press, 1982, Excellent and useful. The best book of maps of this trail.

________. Maps of the Santa Fe Trail. St. Louis: The Patrice Press, 1989. As good as the maps of the Oregon Trail.

List of Selected Maps of States and Territories. Washington: The National Archives, Special List No, 29, 1971.

Miller, David. Utah History Atlas. np: David E. Miller, 1964. A very general, but useful tool. Mimeographed.

Sale, Randall D., and Edwin D. Karn. American Expansion: A Book of Maps. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979. Basic, but very useful.

Wheat, Carl I. Mapping the Trans-Mississippi West, 1540-1861. San Francisco: Institute of Historic Cartography, 5 vols., 1957-1963. Essential.

A serious student of emigrant trails should use county maps and USGS 7.5 minute quadrangle maps. Very serious students should also consult the appropriate General Land Office Notes and maps. (It is worth remembering that the original surveyor did not prepare the maps; others did that on the basis of his notes.)

See also "Trail Guides" and "Government Publications." Almost all states publish historical atlases.


Arrington, Leonard J. Brigham Young: American Moses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985. A superior biography.

Bitton, Davis. Guide to Mormon Diaries and Autobiographies. Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1977. Incomplete, but invaluable. He lists and describes 2,894 items.

Brooks, Juanita, ed. On the Mormon Frontier: The Diary of Hosea Stout, 1844-61. 2 vols., Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1964. Stout opened a window on Mormon history; excellent and brilliantly edited.

Cannon, John Q., ed. Autobiography of Christopher Layton. Salt Lake City, 1911.

Clayton, Wm, Journal. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1921. The best single journal of the 1847 trek.

Cowley, Matthias F. Wilford Woodruff Fourth President of the Church. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1909. The best biography of this Mormon leader to date.

Egan, Howard L. Pioneering the West. Richmond, Utah: Egan Estate, 1917. An excellent account by a pioneer.

Esshom, Frank. Pioneers and Prominent Men of Utah. Salt Lake City: Western Epics, Inc 1966 (first printed in 1913). Useful biographical sketches, A vanity press type of publication.

Fish, Joseph. The Pioneers of the Southwest and Rocky Mountain Regions: Mormon Migrations and Related Events. Salt Lake City: J. Fish Smith, 1972. An amateurish but interesting potpourri of information on the Mormon Trail, early Utah, and seven "Lists of Biographical Notes of (seven different groups of) the Pioneers." These lists are incomplete, but the biographical notes are useful.

Hunter, Milton, Brigham Young the Colonizer, 4th ed., revised. Santa Barbara: Peregrine Smith, 1973. The best study to date.

Jenson, Andrew. Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopaedia. Salt Lake City: Western Epics, 1971 reprint.

Kimball, Stanley B. Heber C. Kimball. Mormon Patriarch and Pioneer. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981. A prize-winning biography.

Mattes, Merrill, J. Platte River Road Narratives. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988. Monumental. A must as a guide to trail journals. He lists and describes 2,082 items.

Nibley, Preston. Brigham Young. Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1937.

Parker, Samuel. Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains. 1838.

"The Pioneer Journal of Heber C. Kimball." Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine 30 and 31, 1939-1940. One of the best firsthand accounts of the 1847 trek.

Pratt, Parley Parker. Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1961. A pioneer.

Roberts, B.H. The Life of John Taylor. Salt Lake City: Book Craft, 1963.

Watson, Elden J., compiler. Manuscript History of Brigham Young: 1846-47 Salt Lake City: Elden J. Watson, 1971. A basic source.


Anderson, William and Eloise. Guide Book to Mormon History. Hayward, CA: the authors, 1980. A useful guide for the traveler.

Burton, Alma P. Mormon Trail from Vermont to Utah. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1960. An early, quick guide to the Mormon Trail. Of little use today.

Clayton, William. The Latter-day Saints' Emigrants' Guide. St. Louis, MO: Steam Powered Press, 1848. Clayton's famous guide.

Driggs, Howard R. Mormon Trail. New York, NY: American Pioneer Trails Association, Inc., 1947. An early booklet describing the Mormon westward movement from Vermont to Utah. Of little value today.

Franzwa, Gregory M. The Oregon Trail Revisited, 4th ed. St. Louis: The Patrice Press, 1988. Essential, journalistic and detailed.

Haines, Aubrey L. Historic Sites Along the Oregon Trail. Gerald, MO: Patrice Press, 1981, Definitive, a must.

Hastings, Lansford W. The Emigrants' Guide to Oregon and California. Cincinnati: George Conclin, 1845.

Kimball, Stanley B. "The Iowa Trek of 1846." The Ensign, August 1971: 36-45.

_______. ed. W. Clayton's The Latter-day Saints' Emigrants' Guide. Gerald, MO: The Patrice Press, 1983. The best edition to date.

________. "Another Route to Zion: Rediscovering the Overland Trail." Ensign, June 1984: 34-45. One of the best studies of this trail.

________. "The Fort Leavenworth Branch of the Santa Fe Trail in 1846: An Annotated Map." in Leo Oliva, ed. The Santa Fe Trail as High Adventure. Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society. 1988.

_______. Historic Sites and Markers Along the Mormon and Other Great Western Trails. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988. The best of its kind. Definitive.

_______. The Travelers' Guide to Historic Mormon America. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 17th ed., 1990. A simple, up-to-date, useful, basic guide.

_______. and Hal Knight. 111 Days to Zion. Salt Lake City: Deseret Press, 1979. A compilation of newspaper stories.

Long, Margaret. The Oregon Trail. Denver: W.H. Kistler Stationery Co., 1954. A classic.

Mattes, Merrill J. The Great Platte River Road. Lincoln: Nebraska State Historical Society, 1969. A classic study.

Mormon Guide...From Omaha to Salt Lake City, np.: Farmer's Oracle Printer, 1864.Mormon Way-Bill to the Gold Mines from the Pacific Springs. Salt Lake City: W. Richards, Printer, 1851. Of historic value only.

Paden, Irene D. The Wake of the Prairie Schooner. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1970. A classic.

Peterson, Charles S., et al. Mormon Battalion Trail Guide. Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1972. Excellent in its day. Now outdated.See also "Atlases/Maps," and "Government Publications."


Atwood, Harriet T. "The Mormon Migration and Adaption to Geography," Vassar Journal of Undergraduate Studies 4, 1929: 137-158. Was useful in its day, but now is superseded.

Brown, Joseph E., and Dan Guravich, The Mormon Trek West. New York: Doubleday, 1980. An interesting study for armchair travelers.

Cannon, D. James, ed. Centennial Caravan. Salt Lake City: Author, 1948. Details a 1947 reenactment of the original Mormon trek.

Carter, Kate B. The Mormons: Their Westward Trek Salt Lake City: Utah Printing Company, 1974.

Clements, Donald, "Saints and Railroads: Immigration Transportation in Transition." Unpublished paper 1984.

Cook, Lyndon W., and Donald Q. Cannon, eds, The Exodus and Beyond: Essays in Mormon History. Salt Lake City: Hawkes Publishing Inc., 1980. A useful collection of essays highlighting major themes in Mormon history, including the Exodus and Colonization.

Deseret News 1976 Church Almanac. Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1976. Useful for a variety of reasons, especially the list of Mormon Pioneer companies.

Duehlmeier, Fred. D. "The 1847 Mormon Migration." M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1977. General.

Harlan, Edgar R. The Location and Name of the Mormon Trail. Knoxville: Express, 1914. Outdated.

Jackson, Richard H., ed. The Mormon Role in the Settlement of the West. Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1978. A collection of articles, one of which is titled "The Overland Journey to Zion" by the editor (a geographer) entirely based on primary sources.

Jenson, Andrew. "Church Emigration." The Contributor. 12-13, 1891-1892. A series of twenty-two detailed articles on emigration or immigration.

_______. "Utah Pioneer Companies." Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine 8, January 1917: 1-6. Dated.

_______. Day by Day with the Utah Pioneers of 1847 Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1934. A series of newspaper articles. Good reading, many biographical sketches.

Kasparek, Bob. "A Tour of The Mormon Pioneer Trail." Overland Journal 5, Spring 1987: 35-40. A general account based on an automobile tour.

Kimball, Stanley B. "Women, Children, and Family Life on Pioneer Trails." Paper presented before the National Convention of the Daughters of Utah Pioneers, Salt Lake City, Utah, October 1980."Red Men and White Women on Mormon Trails, 1847-68, The Captivity Narrative in Mormondom," Paper presented before the Mormon History Association, Brigham Young University, May 1984.

_______. "The Dark Side of Heroism on Mormon Trails: A New Look at the Mythic Pioneers." Paper presented before the Mormon History Association, Kansas City, Missouri, May 1985.

_______. "Love, Marriage, Romance, and Sex on Mormon Trails: 1831-68." Paper presented before the Mormon History Association, Salt Lake City, May 1986.

________. "Disease, Trauma, and Medicine on Mormon Trails." Paper presented before the Mormon History Association, Utah State University, May 1988.

________. "Disease, Trauma, and Medicine of Mormon Trails, 1831-68." Paper presented at the Western History Conference, Wichita, Kansas, 1988.

_______. "The Unusual and the Outre on Mormon Trails." Paper presented at the Mormon History Conference, Utah State University, 1988.

________. 'The Power of Place and the Spirit of Locale: Finding God on Western Trails." Journal of Mormon History 16, 1990: 3-9.The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail." Encyclopaedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan, in preparation.

_______. "Mormon Trails in Utah." Utah History Encyclopaedia. University of Utah Press, in preparation.

Little, James A. From Kirtland to Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City: author, 1890. Based on his personal journal account of immigrating to Utah in 1849.

Lyon, T. Edgar. "Some Uncommon Aspects of the Mormon Migration." Improvement Era. September 1969. 33-40. Insightful.

Madsen, Brigham D. Gold Rush Sojourners in Great Salt Lake City: 1849-50. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1983. One excellent chapter on the use of the Mormon Trail by gold-rushers.

Mattes, Merrill J. "The Council Bluffs Road: Northern Branch of the Great Platte River Road." Nebraska History 65, Summer 1984: 179-194. The Mormon Trail is sometimes called the Northern Branch of the Oregon Trail, which in fact it was. A very good study of this.

Murdock, S. "Mormon Trails in the Midwest." Travel 127, January 1972: 58-63. Popular.

Neff, Andrew L. "The Mormon Migration to Utah, 1830-47." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California-Berkely, 1918. Completely out of date.

Nibley, Preston, Exodus to Greatness: The Story of the Mormon Migration. Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1947. An old, orthodox, but still useful interpretation of westering Mormons.

Peterson, Bryan L. "A Geographic Study of the Mormon Migration from Nauvoo, Illinois, to the Great Salt Lake Valley (1846-47)." M.A. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1941. General.

Piercy, Frederick H. Route From Liverpool to the Great Salt Lake Valley. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962. A firsthand account from the year 1853.

Richards, Aurelia. Mormon Trail. Salt Lake City: Hawkes, 1980.

Smart, William B. Exploring the Pioneer Trail. Salt Lake City: Young Men's Mutual Assn., 1958. General, out of date.

Stansbury, Howard. "Exploration and Survey of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah Including a Reconannoissance [Sic] of the New Route through the Rocky Mountains." Senate Executive Document 3 (serial 608), 32 Congress, Special Session, March 1851. An account of some early exploring and surveying along the Mormon Trail.

Stegner, Wallace. The Gathering of Zion. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. The most readable book on the topic.

Taylor, Philip A. "The Mormon Crossing of the United States, 1840-70." Utah Historical Quarterly 25, October 1957: 319-358. General, out of date.

White, Hiram F. "The Mormon Road." Washington Historical Quarterly 6, October 1915: 243-250. Out of date.

Wilcox, Wayne. "Thirty-six Miles of History." Utah Historical Quarterly 23, October 1955: 363-367. Brief, outdated study of trans-Wasatch route.

See also "Multiple Trails," "Trail Guides," "Iowa," "Nebraska," "Utah," and "Government Publications."


Agnew, Dwight L. "Iowa's First Railroad." Iowa Journal of History 48, 1950: 1-26."The Rock Island Railroad in Iowa." Iowa Journal of History 52, 1954: 203-222.

Ames, Charles Edgar. Pioneering the Union Pacific. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967. An excellent introduction of the subject.

Broadhead, G.C. "Early Railroading in Missouri." Missouri Historical Review 7, 1912-1913: 149-150.

Chisum, Emmett D. "Boom Towns on the Union Pacific: Laramie, Benton and Bear River City." Annals of Wyoming 53, Spring 1981: 2-13. As good a study as there is for general purposes.

Clevenger, Homer. "The Building of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad." Missouri Historical Review 36, 1941: 32-47. Excellent.

Cornwall, Rebecca and Leonard J. Arrington, Rescue of the 1856 Handcart Companies. Provo, UT: Redd Center for Western Studies, 1982. An interesting booklet.

Gates, Paul W. "The Railroads of Missouri, 1850-70." Missouri Historical Review 26, 1931-1932: 126-141. Very useful.

Hafen, LeRoy R. and Ann W. Handcarts to Zion: 1856-60. Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1960. The best there is on this topic.

Harlan, Edgar R., ed. "First Mormon Handcart Trip Across Iowa." Annals of Iowa 26, October 1936: 444-449. General and brief. Outdated.

Hulmston, John K. "Transplain Migration: The Trains in Mormon Immigration, 1861- 68." MS thesis, Utah State University, 1985. The thesis from which his article was taken.

________. "Mormon Immigration in the 1860s: The Story of the Church Trains." Utah Historical Quarterly 58, Winter 1990: 32-48. The latest and best study of this subject.

Jensen, Richard L. "Steaming Through: Arrangements for Mormon Emigration from Europe, 1869-87." Journal of Mormon History 9, 1982: 3-23. An excellent account of railroad emigrants after 1868.

Kimball, Stanley B. "The LDS and The Railroads." Unpublished paper.

Kock, Felix J. "The Handcart Brigade." Out West 6, September 1913: 111-114. Totally out of date.

Monaghan, Jay. "Handcarts on the Overland Trail." Nebraska History 30, March 1949: 3-18. Good study of the carts themselves.

Overton, Richard C. Buriington West. Harvard University Press, 1941. Excellent.

_______. Burlington Route. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965. The best study of this large network.

Sonne, Conway B. Saints on the High Seas, A Maritime History of Mormon Migration: 1830-90. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1983. The best study of its kind.

Stover, John F. Iron Road to the West: American Railroads in the 1850s. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978. Excellent coverage of railroads used by the Mormons.

Wakefield, Eliza M. The Handcart Trail. Salt Lake City?: Author, 1949. Basically the slightly edited 1856 diary of Twiss Bermingham.

See also "Iowa."


Gibbons, Boyd. "Life and Death on the Oregon Trail." National Geographic 170, August 1986: 147-177. Great reading and great photos.

Lavender, David. Westward Vision: The Story of the Oregon Trail. Eyre and Spottiswoode: England, 1965. A literary history.

See also "Multiple Trails," "Trail Guides," "Atlases/Maps," and "Government Publications."


Golder, Frank Alfred. The March of the Mormon Battalion from Council Bluffs to California, Taken from the Journal of Henry Standage. New York: Century, 1928. One of the best Mormon accounts of this march. Somewhat tangential to the Mormon Trail.

Kimball, Stanley B. "Rediscovering the Fort Leavenworth Military Branch of the Santa Fe Trail." Journal of the West 28, April 1989: 59-68.

_______. "Rediscovering the Fort Leavenworth Military Branch of the Santa Fe Trail." In Mark Gardner, ed. The Mexican Road: Trade, Travel, and Confrontation on the Santa Fe Trail. Manhattan, Kansas: Sunflower University Press, 1989.

Tyler, Daniel. A Concise History of the Mormon Battalion in the Mexican War. Chicago: Rio Grande Classic, 1964.

See also "Multiple Trails."


Hill, William E. The California Trail Yesterday and Today. Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing, 1986. An amateur's collection of maps, guides, diaries, illustrations, and photographs. Interesting.

Steward, George R. California Trail. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983. A scholarly account, including the relationship of the Mormon Trail to the California Trail.

See also "Multiple Trails."


Jennings, Warren A. "The Army of Israel Marches into Missouri." Missouri Historical Review 62, Winter 1968: 107-135. An excellent article.

Launius, Rodger D. Zion's Camp. Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1984. The best study of this topic.


Goetzmann, William H. Army Exploration in the American West: 1803-63. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979. Essential.

Hafen, LeRoy. Old Spanish Trail. Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark, Co., 1954.

Jackson, W. Turrentine. Wagon Roads West: A Study of Federal Surveys and Construction in the Trans-Mississippi West, 1846-1869. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965. Essential. Excellent bibliography.

James, Edwin. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, 1819-20. Philadelphia: H.C. Carey, 1823. James was Major Stephen H. Long's physician and prepared this official report of Long's western expedition of 1820. The best account of what later became the Mormon Trail.

Kimball, Stanley B. Discovering Mormon Trails. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1979. A simple, basic study of eleven different Mormon trails.

Pioneer Trails West. Caxton Printers, Caldwell, Idaho, 1985. A popular study; the one chapter on the Mormon Trail is by a recognized scholar, S. George Ellsworth.

Trails West. Washington, D.C. : National Geographic Society, 1979. A typical National Geographic publication of six important western trails, including the Mormon.

Winther, Oscar Osburn. The Transportation Frontier, Trans-Mississippi West, 1865-1890. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974. The best study of this subject.

See also "Trail Guides" and "Atlases/Maps."


Jenson, Andrew. "Latter-day Saints Emigration from Wyoming, Nebraska: 1864-1866." Nebraska History Magazine 27, 1936: 113-127. The best on this topic.

Lass, William E. From the Missouri to the Great Salt Lake: An Account of Overland Freighting. Lincoln: Nebraska State Historical Society, 1972. A first-rate study of freighting through the Platte Valley with brief references to the Mormon Trail.

Mattes, Merrill J. "The Northern Route of the Non-Mormons: Rediscovery of Nebraska's Forgotten Historic Trail." Overland Journal 8, No. 2, 1990: 2-14. An update of his argument of Great River Road.

Topping, Gary. "Overland Emigration, the California Trail and the Hastings Cutoff." Utah Historical Quarterly 56, Spring 1988: 109-127.


Backman, Milton V., Jr. "The Quest for a Restoration: The Birth of Mormonism in Ohio." Brigham Young University Studies 12, Summer 1972, 346-364.

________. The Heavens Resound. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1983. Backman is a specialist in Mormon history in Ohio.


Jennings, Warren A. "The Expulsion of the Mormons from Jackson County, Missouri." Missouri Historical Review 64, October 1969: 41-63.

LeSuer, Stephen C. The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri. Columbia: University of Missouri, 1987. Recent and excellent.

See also "Zion's Camp Trail."


Flanders, Robert B. Kingdom on the Mississippi. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1965. Essential to the understanding of the Mormons in Illinois.

Miller, David and Della. Nauvoo: The City of Joseph. Santa Barbara: Peregrine Smith, 1974. Useful.


Babbitt, Charles H. Early Days at Council Bluffs. Washington, D.C.: Bryon S. Adams, 1916. Interesting. A good chapter on the Mormons.

Beitz, Ruth S. "Where the Saints Have Trod." The Iowan, Winter 1962: 18-23. Good, but very general.

Bennett, Richard. "Eastward to Eden: the Nauvoo Rescue Mission." Dialogue 19, Winter 1986: 100-108.

Durham, Reed C. Jr. "The Iowa Experience: A Blessing in Disguise." Brigham Young University Studies 21, Fall 1981: 463-454. More on the Iowa experience than just the trail.

Easton, Susan W. "Suffering and Death on the Plains of Iowa." Brigham Young University Studies 21, Fall 1981: 431-439. Just a good start.

Gentry, Leland H. "The Mormon Way Stations: Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah." Brigham Young University Studies 21, Fall 1981: 445-461. Excellent.

Graham, Bruce L. "The Mormon Crossing of Iowa in 1846." Restoration Trail Forum 77, November 1981: 3, 7-8. A three-part article. See also February 1982 and May 1982. A short, basic treatment.

Green, Lida L. "Markers for Remembrance: the Mormon Trail." Annals of Iowa 40, Winter 1970: 190-193. A very brief discussion.

Harvey, R.E. "The Mormon Trek Across Iowa Territory." Annals of Iowa 10, July 1946: 36-60. Good, but barely adequate.

Holmes, Gail G. "The LDS Legacy in Southwestern Iowa." The Ensign, August 1988: 54-57. Holmes is the expert on this subject.

Kimball, Stanley B. "The Mormon Trail Network in Iowa, 1838-68." Brigham Young University Studies 21, Fall 1981: 417-430. Definitive.

Palmer, Belle. "The Sojourn of the Mormons at Kanesville, Iowa, 1846-1852." M.A. thesis, Colorado State College, 1936.

Peterson, William J. "Mormon Trails in Iowa." The Palimpsest 47, 1966: 353-384. A local interpretation.

Van der Zee, Jacob. "Mormon Trails in Iowa." The Iowa Journal of History and Politics 12, January 1914: 3-16. Now completely outdated.

See also "Handcarts" and "Multiple Trails."


Bennett, Richard, Mormons at the Missouri, 1846-52. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. The best study of this topic.

Boye, Alan. The Complete Roadside Guide to Nebraska. St. Johnsbury, VT: Saltillo Press, 1989. A useful guide to have in the glove compartment of your car.

Bryson, Conrey. Winter Quarters. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1986. Journalistic, but useful.

Homer, Michael W. "After Winter Quarters and Council Bluffs: The Mormons in Nebraska Territory, 1854-67." Nebraska History 65, Winter 1984: 467-483. A good study of a neglected topic.

Kimball, Stanley B. "The Mormon Trail Network in Nebraska, 1846-68: A New Look." Brigham Young University Studies 24, Summer 1984: 321-336. Definitive.

Shumway, Ernest W. "Winter Quarters, Nebraska, 1846-48." Nebraska History 35, June 1954: 115-125. Superseded by Bennett.

Steele, Olga Sharp. "Geography of the Mormon Trail Across Nebraska." M.A. thesis, University of Nebraska, 1933. Old, but still the single best study of the subject.

Trennert, Robert A., Jr. "The Mormons and the Office of Indian Affairs: The Conflict over Winter Quarters, 1846-48." Nebraska History 53, Fall 1972: 381-400. See also Bennett.

Williams, Helen Roberta. "Old Wyoming." Nebraska History Magazine 27, 1936: 79-80. Excellent.

See also "Mormon Trail General," "Oregon Trail," and "Multiple Trails."


Carley, Maurine. "Emigrant Trail Trek No. 10." Annals of Wyoming 32, April 1960: 102-123 and October 1960: 218-238. See also treks 4-9 in vols. 29-31. An account of an Oregon Trail trek by automobile. Not recommended.

Noble, Bruce J., Jr. "Marking Wyoming's Oregon Trail." Overland Journal 4, Summer 1986: 19-31. An excellent study of the history of trail marking in Wyoming and a county-by-county listing of the Oregon Trail markers in that state.

See also "Mormon Trail General," "Oregon Trail," and "Multiple Trails."


Creer, Leland H. The Founding of an Empire. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1947. An excellent study of early Utah.

Ellsworth, S. George. Utah's Heritage. Santa Barbara: Peregrine Smith, Inc., 1972. One of the best histories of Utah.

Fleming, L.A., and A.R. Standing, "The Road to Fortune: The Salt Lake Cutoff," Utah Historical Quarterly 33, Summer 1965: 248-271.

Kimball, Stanley B. "The Golden Road." The Pioneer 27, November-December 1980: 11, 15, 17, 20.

_______. "The Mormon Trail in Utah." Utah History Encyclopaedia. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, in preparation.

Morgan, Dale. Utah's Historic Trails. Salt Lake City: Utah Tourist and Publicity Council, 1960. Touristy.

Smart, William B. Old Utah Trails. Utah Geographic Series, Inc. Salt Lake City, 1988. Popular, beautiful, current, excellent; by a first-rate journalist.

See also "Mormon Trail General" and "Multiple Trails."


Arrington, Leonard J., and Susan Arrington Madsen. Sunbonnet Sisters. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1984. One of several excellent studies of Mormon Pioneer women.

Arthur H. Clark Co., publisher, Covered Wagon Women. Glendale, California, being published.

Burgess-Olson, Vicky. Sister Saints. Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1978. Another of a growing number of excellent studies on Mormon women.

Faragher, John Mack. Women and Men on the Overland Trail. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Excellent, centers on midwestern farm families and their move west.

Godfrey, Kenneth W., Audrey M. Godfrey, and Jill Mulvay Derr. Women's Voices. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1982. Excellent.

Holmes, Kenneth L. Covered Wagon Women, Diaries and Letters... Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark, 1988 (seven volumes to date). This is a series devoted to the subject. Excellent.

Munkres, Robert L. "Wives, Mothers, Daughters: Women's Life on the Road West." Annals of Wyoming 42, October 1970: 191-224. An excellent study of Oregon Trail women based largely on primary sources.

Myers, Sandra L. Westering Women and the Frontier Experience 1800-1915. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press: 1982. An excellent example of the current interest in women's history.

Schlissel, Lillian. Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey. New York: Schocken Books, 1982. Essential.

Tullidge, Edward W. The Women of Mormondom. New York: Tullidge and Crandall, 1877 (1975 reprint). Old but still useful.

See also "Mormon Trail General" and "Indians/Blacks."


Arrington, Leonard J. "The Mormons and the Indians, Review and Evaluation." The Record. (Friends of the Library) Washington State University, Pullman 1970: 5-29. An excellent survey.

Beller, Jack. "Negro Slaves in Utah." Utah Historical Quarterly 2, 1979: 122-126. A good up-to-date account.

Coleman, Ronald G. "Blacks in Utah." in The Peoples of Utah. Helen Z. Papanikolas, ed. Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1976. The best short study of this topic.

_______. "Blacks in Pioneer Utah, 1847-69." UMOJA: A Scholarly Journal of Black Studies 2, Summer 1978: 96-110.

Kimball, Stanley B. ""Red Men and White Women on Mormon Trails, 1847-68." Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Winter 1985: 81-88.

Riley, Glenda. Women and Indians on the Frontier, 1825-1915. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1985.

Utley, Robert M. The Indian Frontier of the American West 1846-1890. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.

See also "'Biographies Journals and Diaries."


Brown, William E. "The Santa Fe Trail." National Park Service, 1963. (This is a National Survey of Historic Sites and Building Study.)

"The California and Pony Express Trails: Eligibility and Feasibility Study."' National Park Service, 1987.

Fremont, John C. Report of the Exploring Expedition Lying between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains...1843. Washington: Senate Report No. 243, 27th Congress, 3rd Session, 1843. A classic account by the "Pathfinder."

_______. A Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842. 1843.

Kimball, Stanley B. "Inventory of Historic Sites Along the Mormon Trail." Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, 1974. Simple, but useful.

______. "Threatened Sites Study of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail." National Park Service, 1989.

Mattes, Merrill J. "State of Nebraska Historic Resource Management Plan." Lincoln, mimeographed, 1975."The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail: Comprehensive Plan." National Park Service, 1981.

"The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail Study." Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (prepared by the Nebraska State Historical Society), 1974.

"The Mormon Trail: A Study Report." Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, 1978.

National Park Service. The Overland Migrations: Handbook 105. Washington, D.C.:1980. An excellent but small guidebook.

National Register Bulletin No. 16 National Park Service, 1986.

National Trails Assessment. National Park Service, 1986."Old Pioneer Wagon Road." Salt Lake City: U.S. Forest Service, n.d.

Oregon/Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trails. Wyoming Bureau of Land Management, 1986.

"Oregon National Historic Trail Management Plan (draft)." National Park Service, 1981."Oregon Trail Cultural Resource Study." Wyoming Bureau of Land Management, 1981.

The Pony Express Stations of Utah... Utah Bureau of Land Management, 1979.

Santa Fe National Historic Trail: Comprehensive Management and Use Plan. National Park Service, 1990.

Western Historic Trails Center: Iowa. "Draft Comprehensive Plan/Environmental Assessment." National Park Service, April 1991.

Wyoming Historic Trails Management Plan. Wyoming Recreation Commission, 1984.


Bitton, Davis. '"American Philanthropy and Mormon Refugees, 1846-49." Journal of Mormon History 7, 1980: 63-82. A unique study of non-Mormons helping finance the Mormon move west.

Carter, Kate B. The Story of the Telegraph. Salt Lake City: Utah Printing Co., 1961. A good short study.

Christian, Lewis Clark, "A Study of Mormon Foreknowledge of the American Far West...." M.A. Thesis: Brigham Young University, 1972. The best study to date.

_______. "Mormon Foreknowledge of the West." Brigham Young University Studies 21, Fall 1981, 403-415. An excellent short study. Compare article by Esplin in this bibliography.

The Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1921. Mainly a collection of revelations received by Joseph Smith.

Esplin, Ronald K. "A Place Prepared: Joseph, Brigham and the Quest for Promised Refuge in the West." Journal of Mormon History 9, 1982: 85-111. An excellent study of who originally planned the Mormon move to the Rocky Mountains.

Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1985.

Irving, Washington. The Adventures of Captain Bonneville in the Rocky Mountains and the Far West. 1837.

Jackson, Clarence S. Picture Maker of the Old West. William H. Jackson, New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1947. An excellent pictorial account of the photographs and paintings of William H. Jackson, "Dean of American photographers."

"Journal History of the Church." Mormon archives. A must for any serious study of Mormonism.

McConkie, Bruce R. Mormon Doctrine. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1958. Highly opinionated, but the best there is.

The Mormon Pioneers. The Columbia Records' Legacy Collection, Stereo LS 1024. A collection of songs sung by Mormon Pioneers. Contains extensive text.

Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881, M234, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (microfilm).

Pruday, William E. "They March Their Way West: The Nauvoo Brass Band." Ensign 10, July 1980: 20-23.226

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Last Updated: 08-Oct-2003