Design Ethic Origins
Design Policy & Process
Western Field Office
Decade of Expansion
Many individuals contributed to this study, and I am indebted to them all for their interest, support, and comments. First of all, I wish to thank those who have Supported this project from the beginning. I extend my appreciation to Alan Rubin of the National Park Foundation and the members of the selection committee of the Horace Albright Employee Development Fund which provided the initial funding for this study. I wish to recognize my supervisor Carol D. Shull, Chief of Registration, National Register of Historic Places, and Lawrence E. Aten, Chief, Interagency Resources Division, for supporting my continuing research and making this publication possible. To my family, I extend my thanks for their patience and understanding.
Several individuals have generously shared their own research and ideas. To Hugh Miller, formerly the chief historical architect, National Park Service, whose pioneering groundwork in landscape preservation has led to the preservation of many cultural landscapes, I credit the idea for this study. I offer special thanks to James W. Steely of the Texas Historical Commission, for sharing his master's thesis and continuing research on the history of Texas State Parks. To Barry Mackintosh of the History Division, I extend my thanks for his review and comments on an early draft. To William C. Tweed of Sequoia National Park and Laura Soulliere Harrison of the Denver Service Center, I am indebted for their fine research on rustic park architecture. I wish to thank Richard W. Sellars of the Southwest Regional Office for sharing his research on the history of natural resource policy in the National Park Service. I extend my appreciation to Dorothy Waugh, Edward Ballard, and Charles Peterson for their thoughtful correspondence and recollections. For sharing their research and documents in their care, I wish to thank Stephanie Toothman of the Pacific Northwest Regional Office and Clifford Tobias of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Office.
In addition, I wish to acknowledge the contributions of others to this field of research: Mary Shivers Culpin formerly of the Rocky Mountain Regional Office; Cathy Gilbert and Gretchen Luxenberg of the Pacific Northwest Regional Office; John Paige of the Denver Service Center; Claudette Stager of the Tennessee Historical Commission; Rolf Anderson, consultant for the Minnesota Historical Society; James Denny of the Missouri Division of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation; Ian Firth of the University of Georgia; Lee Maddex of the Institute for the History of Technology and Industrial Archaeology, West Virginia University; and Joyce McKay, consultant for the State Historical Society of Iowa.
My thanks are extended to a number of people who assisted me in my research of historical documents: Jodi Morrison and Edna Ramey of the Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center; Margaret Yates, former park ranger and librarian at Mount Rainier National Park; Jim Rush and Raymond Cotton, archivists of the National Archives; Tom DuRant of the National Park Service Historic Photography Collection; Rolf Diamant, superintendent, and Joyce Connally, registrar, of the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site; Harriet Rusin and Donald Chase of the Natural Resources Library, U.S. Department of the Interior.
Appreciation is also extended to those who shared their parks with me: James Carrico, former superintendent, and Tom Alex, cultural resource manager, Big Bend National Park; John Debo, Jr., superintendent, and David Humphrey, landscape architect, Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area; Felix Hernandez, chief ranger, Carlsbad Caverns National Park; Barbara Stewart, park ranger, and Dale Hoak, assistant chief of maintenance, Shenandoah National Park; Angela Cartwright, assistant manager, Indian Lodge, Davis Mountains State Park in Texas; and Jessie Aronow, planner, Blue Hills Reservation in Massachusetts.
I wish to thank several of my colleagues in the National Register of Historic Places for their assistance in making this publication a reality: Patty Sackett Chrisman, Rama Ramakrishna, Jennifer Meisner, and Antoinette Lee. I also extend my thanks to Heidi Fritschel for her assistance as copy editor. Others shared information and supported this project in various ways. I wish to thank Victoria Clarke and Albert Werking, Employee Development Division; Terry Wood, Employees and Alumni Association of the National Park Service; Don Fox and Linda Eade of Yosemite National Park; Denis P. Galvin, Associate Director for Planning and Development; the late William Penn Mott, former director of the National Park Service; Randall Biallas, Chief Historical Architect; Edwin Bearss, Chief Historian; Eric DeLony, Historic American Engineering Record; John Byrne and Beth Savage, Interagency Resources Division; Lindsay McClelland, Wildlife and Vegetation Division; Karl Esser, Management Services Division; Ethan Carr and Robert Page, Park Historic Architecture Division; Pat Sacks and Carey Fierabend, Denver Service Center; Shary Page Berg, Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation; and Noel Dorsey Vernon, American Society of Landscape Architects.
For their helpful comments on the draft of this study, I extend my thanks to Harvey Kaiser, Syracuse University; Robert E. Grese, University of Michigan; Ian Firth, University of Georgia; James W. Steely, Texas Historical Commission; Craig Shafer, Wildlife and Vegetation Division; Steve Elkinton, Recreation Division; Ben Levy, History Division; Randall Biallas, Park Historic Architecture Division; Linda W. Greene, Jere L. Krakow, and Harlan D. Unrau of the Denver Service Center; William C. Tweed of Sequoia National Park; Lucy Lawless and Lenard E. Brown, Southeast Regional Office; Lynn R. Wightman, Morristown National Historical Park; and Shary Page Berg, Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation.
Linda Flint McClelland