On-line Book

Book Cover
Presenting Nature








Design Ethic Origins

Design Policy & Process

Western Field Office

Park Planning

Decade of Expansion

State Parks

Appendix A

Appendix B


Presenting Nature:
The Historic Landscape Design of the National Park Service, 1916-1942
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1. Landscape architects played a substantial role in the effort to create a national park service, which began in the early 1900s and was promoted by conservation groups such as the Sierra Club; scientists such as Joseph Grinnell of the University of California, Berkeley; and several congressmen and other political leaders. The Secretary of the Interior urged the formation of the service in his 1910 annual report and enlisted the help of J. Horace McFarland and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., in preparing a bill. McFarland encouraged President Taft to speak at the American Civic Association's annual convention in 1911. With McFarland's encouragement, Franklin Lane, who became secretary of the interior in 1913, hired an assistant in charge of parks. John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press, 1961), pp. 186-190.

2. Richard B. Watrous, "Our National Parks: A Conference," Landscape Architecture 6(3):104.

3. James Sturgis Pray, "Danger of Over-Exploitation of Our National Parks," Landscape Architecture 6(3):113.

4. Robert B. Marshall and James Sturgis Pray, "The American Society of Landscape Architecture and Our National Parks," Landscape Architecture 6(3):1 19-120.

5. Henry Vincent Hubbard and Theodora Kimball, An Introduction to the Study of Landscape Design (1917; reprint, New York: MacMillan Company, 1924), p. 74

6. Ibid., p. 323.

7. Frank Waugh, The Natural Style in Landscape Gardening (Boston: Gorsham Press, 1917), pp. 144-145.

8. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., "National Parks and Forests: Inherent Values," Landscape Architecture 48(3):115, from a paper read at the annual meeting of the American Civic Association in 1921.

9. Ibid.

10. Henry Hubbard, "The Designer in National Parks," Landscape Architecture 38(2):60; originally published in 1941 Yearbook: Park and Recreation Progress (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1942), p. 39.

11. Hubbard, "Landscape Development Based on Conservation," Landscape Architecture 29(3):105-121.

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