7. Ibid., pp. 65-66, 68, 69. Bernhard gave a description of the sugar-making process at Villeré's, which because of its significance to the battlefield area, is presented here: "The whole is surrounded by cane fields, of which some were then brought in, and others all cut down. A field of this description must rest fallow for five years, and be manured, before being again set out in plants. For manure, a large species of bean is sown, which is left to rot in the field, and answers the purpose very well. The cane is commonly cut in December, and brought to the mill. These mills consist of three iron cylinders, which stand upright, the centre one of which is put in motion by a horse-mill underneath, so as to turn the other by crown-wheels. The cane is shoved in between these, and must pass twice through to be thoroughly squeezed out. The fresh juice thus pressed out, runs through a groove into a reservoir. From this it is drawn off into the kettles, in which it is boiled, to expel the watery part by evaporation. There are three of these kettles close together, so as to pour the juice when it boils from one to the other, and thus facilitate the evaporation of the water. The boiling in these kettles lasts one hour; one set gives half a hogshead of brown sugar." Ibid., p. 69.
9. The house pointed out by the guide conforms more closely to the Rodriquez House, which during the battle was closely adjacent to Jackson's line. Jackson had his headquarters in the Macarty house some distance to the rear of the line. Apparently there existed confusion among local inhabitants over the proper headquarters site, an error that seemingly was perpetuated for decades. A battle participant who visited the Macarty house in 1838 noted "cannon-balls still embedded in its walls, where the owners had in their enthusiasm, caused them to be gilt, in the year 1822." Nolte, Fifty Years in Both Hemispheres, p. 217.
11. B.M. Norman, Norman's New Orleans and Environs: Containing a Brief Historical Sketch of the Territory and State of Louisiana, and the City of New Orleans.... (New Orleans: Published by the author, 1845), p. 200.
18. Ibid., pp. 308-09. Apparently the battlefield area was referred to locally as "Jacksonburgh." "Plan of Levee Ward and Drainage District No. 1." 1851 or 1852. National Archives, Record Group 77. Cartographic Archives Division, M 53-2.
Last Updated: 05-Sep-2004