Natives in the Landscape: Images and Documents of Seventeenth Century Virginia Indians
Compiled by Buck Woodard
Indigenous Material Culture Imagery
Purpose: To document and summarize select extant primary and secondary sources of American Indian imagery and material culture in relationship to the period of the first permanent English Settlement at Jamestown. Evaluation of resources to be included: 1) Annotated list of image sources containing content on Mid-Atlantic American Indians, with emphasis on the Southern Algonquians in the Chesapeake and Albemarle drainage; 2) description, location, and catalogue of select contact period material cultural items relative to the scope of study; 3) catalogue of images of seventeenth-century documents and maps relative to Native populations.
The Paintings of John White
Virginia's first colony was actually located in what is today Roanoke Island, North Carolina. White was the artist and cartographer of the first Virginia colony in 1585 and later the governor of the famed 1587 "Lost Colony". He recorded much of what he saw of Albemarle Natives in the form of watercolor paintings and select field descriptions. While the images of Native life have been listed below, White's record of the flora and fauna of the Carolina Coast has been omitted. The following list of originals are owned and copyrighted by the British Museum in London.
*only select images have been visually reproduced because of the familiarity with most of the White / DeBry paintings and engravings.
1) "The manner of their attire and painting them selues when they goe to their generall hunting, or at theire solemne feasts." Reg. # LB 13. ECM 48. 1906.5 9.1 (12). Neg. # 5254. British Museum
2) "The wyfe of an herowan of Secotan." Reg. # LB 19. ECM 37. 1906.5.9.1 (18). Neg. # 5260. British Museum
3) "One of their religious men." Reg. # LB 15. ECM 42. 1906.5.9.1 (14). Neg. # 5256. British Museum
4) "One of the wyues of Wyngyno." Reg. # LB 18. ECM 47. 1906.5.9.1. (17). Neg. #5259. British Museum
5) " Chiefe Herowan." Reg. # LB 22. ECM 46. 1906.5.9.1 (21). Neg. # 5263. British Museum
6) "A Chiefe Herowan wyfe of Pomeoc and her daughter of the age of 8 or 10 years." Reg. #LB 16. ECM 33 1906.5.9.1 (13). Neg# 5257. British Museum
7) "The aged man in his winter garment." Reg. # LB 20. ECM 34.1906.5.9.1(19). Neg. #5261 British Museum
8) "The Wyfe of An Herowan of Pomeiooc" Reg. # LB 14. ECM 34. 1906.5.9.1(15) Neg. # 5255. British Museum
9) "The Flyer" Reg. #LB 17. ECM 49. 1906.5.9.1 (16). Neg. # 5258. British Museum
10) "The Manner of Their Fishing." Reg. # LB 5. ECM 43. 1906.5.9.1 Neg. # 5246. British Museum
11) "Their Sitting at Meate." Reg. # LB 5. ECM 41. 1906.5.9.1 (20). Neg # 5262. British Museum
12) "Ceremony of Sitting Round A Fire" Reg. # LB 10. ECM 40. 1906.5.9.1 (11) Neg. #5251. British Museum
13) "Religeous Dance" Reg. # LB 9. ECM 49. 1906.5.9.1 (16). Neg. # 5250. British Museum
14) "Secotan" Reg. # LB 6. ECM 36. 1906.5.9.1 (7). Neg. # 5247. British style='mso-tab-count:3'> Museum
15) "The Tombe of Their Cherounes or Cheife Personages" Reg. # LB 8. ECM 38. 1906.5.9.1 (9). Neg. # 5249. British Museum
16) "The Town of Pomeiock and True Form of Thier Houses" Reg. # LB 7. ECM 32. 1906.5.9.1 (8). Neg. # 5248. British Museum
Theodore de Bry was a Flemish engraver and goldsmith. He worked primarily in Frankfurt and never actually saw the American continent that he is so well remembered for depicting. For his 1591 publication, A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia, De Bry produced 23 engravings after John White's watercolors. His additional 1591 publication of Brevis Narritio Eorvm Qvae in Florida Americae Provicia, a narrative after paintings produced by Jaques le Moyne de Morgues of a French Huguenot colony, make these the earliest published images of Native life in what is today the Southeastern United States.
Titles and Descriptions for engravings taken from the 1893 edition of Hariot's Narrative of the First Plantation of Virginia in 1585..., Compliments of the New York Public Library.
* only select images have been visually reproduced because of the familiarity with most of the White / DeBry paintings and engravings.
1) "A WEROAN OR GREAT LORDE OF VIRGINIA." Engraving number 3 from De Bry, 1590. 8 3/4 x 5 7/8 inches.
2) "ONE OF THE CHEIFF LADYES OF SECOTA." Engraving number 4 from De Bry, 1590. 8 3/4 x 5 7/8 inches.
3) "ONE OF THE RELIGEOUS MEN IN THE TOWNE OF SECOTA." Engraving number 5 from De Bry, 1590. Engraved by G. Veen. 8 3/4 x 6 1/4 inches.
4) "A YOUNGE GENTILL WOEMAN DOUGHTER OF SECOTA." Engraving style='mso-tab-count: 2'> number 6 from De Bry, 1590. Engraved by G. Veen. 8 3/4 x 5 7/8 inches.
5) "A CHIEF LORD OF ROANOAC." Engraving number 7 from De Bry, 1590. 8 3/4 x 6 3/8 inches.
6) "A CHIEF LADYE OF POMEIOOC" Engraving number 8 from De Bry, 1590. 8 1/2 x 5 3/4 inches.
7) "AN AGED MAN IN HIS WINTER GARMENT." Engraving number 9 from De Bry, 1590. 8 5/8 x 6 inches.
8) "THEIR MANNER OF CAREYNGE THER CHILDREN AND ATYERE OF THE CHEIFFE LADYES OF THE TOWN OF DASAMONQUEPEUC" Engraving number 10 from De Bry, 1590. 8 3/8 x 5 5/8 inches.
9) "THE CONIUERER" Engraving number 11 from De Bry, 1590. Engraved by G. Veen. 8 1/2 x 6 inches.
10) "THE MANNER OF MAKINGE THEIR BOATES" Engraving number 12 from De Bry, 1590. 8 1/2 x 5 7/8 inches.
11) "THEIR MANNER OF FISHYNGE IN VIRGINIA" Engraving number 13 from De Bry, 1590. 12 1/2 x 10 3/8 inches.
12) "THE BROVVYLINGE OF THEIR FIFHE OUER THE FLAME" Engraving style='mso-tab-count:1'> number 14 from De Bry, 1590. 8 3/8 x 5 1/4 inches.
13) "THEIR FEETHEYNGE OF THEIR MEATE IN EARTHERN POTTES." style='mso-tab-count: 2'> Engraving number 15 from De Bry, 1590. Engraved by G. Veen. 81/4 x 5 5/8 inches.
14) "THEIR FITTING AT MEATE." Engraving number 16 from De Bry, 1590. 8 1/2 x 6 inches.
15)"THEIR MANNER OF PRAINGE VVITH RATTELS ABOWT THE FYER" Engraving number 17 from De Bry, 1590. 10 1/8 x 7 1/4 inches.
16) "THEIR DANFES THEY VFE ATT THEIR HYGHE FEAFTES" Engraving number 18 from De Bry, 1590. 12 5/8 x 10 1/2 inches.
17) "THE TOWNE OF POMEIOOC." Engraving number 19 from De Bry, 1590. 8 3/4 x 11 1/2 inches.
18) "THE TOVVNE OF SECOTA." Engraving number 20 from De Bry, 1590. 9 x 12 1/4 inches.
19) "THE TOMBE OF THEIR WEROVVANS OR CHIEF LORDES." Engraving number 22 from De Bry, 1590. 9 x 12 3/4 inches.
20) "THER IDOL KIVVAFA." Engraving number 21 from De Bry, 1590. 8 1/2 x 6 1/8 inches.
21) "THE MARCKES OF FUNDRYE OF THE CHEIF MENE OF VIRGINIA." style='mso-tab-count: 2'> Engraving number 23 from De Bry, 1590. 8 3/4 x 6 3/8 inches.
* Images based on Theodore De Bry's engravings of John White's watercolors dominate the majority of the Virginia Indian visual representation for the 17th and 18th Examples of these reproductions have been included below.
Robert Beverly used Simon Gribelin as his engraver for the 1705 publication of "The History and Present State of Virginia". While Gribelin copied directly from DeBry, he added various elements at Beverly's request. Beverly felt that the new engravings adequately illustrated the Virginia Natives as well as added to the understanding of Virginia's Indians.
1) "A Woman and a Boy Running after Her," Engraving by Simon Gribelin. From Robert Beverly, History and Present State of Virginia, London 1705.
2) "A Priest and a Conjurer in their proper Habits," Engraving by Simon Gribelin. From Robert Beverly, History and Present State of Virginia, London 1705.
Georg Keller worked for both DeBry and for their competitor - Hulsius, as an engraver and illustrator. His work appears in several publications however, the material is colored by his experiences in Asia and Africa.
Examples from Hulsius (Abelius):
1) "Pocahontas meets her brothers" from a translation by Abelius of Ralph Hamor's "Present State of Virginia" as "Thirteenth Navigation", Hannua, 1617.
2) "Making a treaty with the Chickahominy Indians." from a translation by Abelius of Ralph Hamor's "Present State of Virginia" as "Thirteenth Navigation", Hannua, 1617.
Examples of the same material produced later by the De Bry engravers:
1) "Captain Smith Saved by Pocahontas" Discovering the New World, based on the works of Theodore De Bry, Micheal Alexander, ed. 1976
2) "The abduction of Pocahontas" Discovering the New World, based on the works style='mso-tab-count:1'> of Theodore De Bry, Micheal Alexander, ed. 1976
3) "Pocahontas is visited by her brothers" Discovering the New World, based on the works of Theodore De Bry, Micheal Alexander, ed. 1976
4) "The Chickahominy become 'New Englishmen'" Discovering the New World, based on the works of Theodore De Bry, Micheal Alexander, ed. 1976
5) "Ralph Hamor tells how he was sent for Powhatan's other daughter" Discovering the New World, based on the works of Theodore De Bry, Micheal Aleander, ed. 1976
6) "The massacre of the settlers" Discovering the New World, based on the works of Theodore De Bry, Micheal Aleander, ed. 1976
Robert Vaughan worked as an illustrator during the middle of the seventeenth-century. His work is based on De Bry and White, however his earliest work was for John Smith. He corrects some of De Bry's mistakes in coordination with Smith's requests.
1) "Their triumph about him", General Historie, John Smith, London, 1624
2) "A Coniurer", General Historie, John Smith, London, 1624
3) "C: Smith Taketh the King of Pamaunkee prisoner 1608." General Historie, John Smith, London, 1624
4) "C: Smith takes the King of Paspehegh prisoner." General Historie, John Smith, London, 1624
MATOAKA (POCAHONTAS). Line engraving 6 3/4 x 4 1/2 inches. London. 1616 British Museum. Reg. No. 18220.127.116.115.
Lottery Broadside featuring Eiakintomino and Matahan, 1615.
POCAHONTAS. The "Booton" portrait. Oil on Canvas. 30 x 25 inches. England. 1616. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Mellon Collection, NPG 21.
This portrait was owned by the Rev. Whitwell Elwin, Booton Rectory, Norfolk, England. The family was supposedly related to the Rolfe family, and they maintain that this painting was created by an Italian Artist.
INDIAN OF VIRGINIA, MALE. ("Vnus Americanus ex Virginia, Aetat: 23 (age 23) W. Hollar ad viuam delia: et fecit., (made from life) 1645")
"DREY AMERICANS." Three Americans. Powhatan? Southern Algonquian. Original pen drawing washed with watercolor, Found in "Report of the Journey of Francis Louis Michel from Berne, Switzerland, to Virginia, October 2, 1701 - December 1, 1702.
The original manuscript is lost. This document is a contemporary copy made by Michel's brother, John Louis Michel. Size 16 x 13.5 cm, Call Number: Burgerbibliothek Bern, Mss. hist. helv. X.152, fol. 64a.
Michel's image depicts several Algonquians wearing a combination of animal skins and plant fibers. Their hats are described in Beverly's account of the "The History and Present State of Virginia" as being made of bark, round and open on the top and wrought with shell peak to make designs. The baskets are mentioned as being carried on the arms as shown in Michel's account, along with comments on singing, dress, and customs.
Detail of the lower third of the print of the Williamsburg public buildings showing American Indians, floras, and fauna. Early 18th century publication, apprentice engraver.
Copied from "William Byrd II and His Lost History: Engravings of the Americas", Pritchard and Sites, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
The collection of images from the North Carolina Museum of History are of a reconstructed regalia and life model of a Carolina Siouan woman believed to be from the Saura tribe. The seventeenth-century site was believed to have been heavily traded with by the coastal English settlers during the contact period, evidenced by the high count of trade materials present. Within the image series, red, white, and blue glass trade beads, brass and copper pendants, brass bells and chevron beads can be seen adorning the buckskin clothing. Shell beads are also present, indicating the transitional materials of the period.
Last Updated: 22-Nov-2006