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The Upper Missouri Fur Trade
Its Methods of Operation
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Footnotes

1 Frank H. Hodder, ed., The Present State of European Settlements on the Mississippi by Captain Philip Pittman (Cleveland, 1906), 30-31.

2 A. P. Nasatir, Before Lewis and Clark (St. Louis, 1852), I, 75-115.

3 Failing to establish a foothold in the Blackfoot country and its party attacked by the Arikara in 1823, the Rocky Mountain Fur Company abandoned the Upper Missouri and penetrated the Rocky Mountain region. There Ashley adopted the rendezvous system for the fur trade. Under this system, the traders, instead of operating from fixed trading posts, held an annual fair, at which they exchanged products of European and American manufacture for furs and horses of the Indians. (John C. Ewers, ed., Adventures of Zenas Leonard, Fur Trader [Norman, 1959], xi-xiv.)

4 F. G. Young, ed., "The Correspondence and Journals of Captain Nathaniel J. Wyeth, 1831-6," Sources of Oregon History (Eugene, 1899), I, 213.

5 Maria R. Audubon and Elliott Coues, eds., Audubon and His Journals (London, 1898), II, 180.

6 Reuben G. Thwaites, ed., Travels In the Interior of North America by Maximilian, Prince of Wied (Cleveland, 1906), I, 177.

7 Ibid.

8 J. N. B. Hewitt, ed., Journal of Rudolph Friederick Kurz, hereafter cited as Kurz's Journal, BAE Bulletin 115 (Washington, 1937), 234-235; Hiram M. Chittenden, The American Fur Trade of the Far West (New York, 1936), two volumes, I, 57.

9 John Dougherty to Secretary of War, November 19, 1831, St. Louis Superintendency, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, National Archives; William Gordon to General William Clark, William Clark Papers, Volume 6, ms. Kansas State Historical society; Maximilian's Travels, I, 379-380.

10 Pierre Chouteau Collection, Post Accounts, Upper Missouri Outfit, July 1, 1831 to May 1836. Missouri Historical Society, hereafter abbreviated MoHS. In November 1834, there were 42 men engaged at Fort Union and 52 at Fort McKenzie. Wm. Hamilton to Kenneth McKenzie, Nov. 15, 1834, Pierre Chouteau Collection, MoHS.

11 Young, op. cit., 216.

12 Audubon and his Journals, II, 180-195; Maximilian's Travels, I, 317-318, 316-317; II, 235; III, 89; Hiram M. Chittenden, History of Steamboat Navigation on the Missouri River (New York, 1903), two volumes, I, 96-97.

13 John Dougherty to Secretary of War, Nov. 19, 1831, St. Louis Superintendency, Records of Bureau of Indian Affairs, National Archives.

14 Washington Irving, Adventures of Captain Bonneville (Chicago, n.d.), 62

15 Acct. Book, Pierre Chouteau Collection, MoHS.

16 Irving, op. cit., 62-63; See also Chittenden, American Fur Trade, II, 917-918.

17 Osborne Russell, Journal of a Trapper (Boise, 1921), 85.

18 Kurz's Journal, 125; See also J. N. B. Hewitt, ed., "Indian Tribes on the Upper Missouri by Edwin T. Denig," hereafter cited as Denig, "Indian Tribes;" Forty-Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, 1930), 411.

19 Wm. Laidlaw to Pierre Chouteau Jr., Pierre Chouteau Collection, MoHS.

20 Inventory of Goods, Upper Missouri Outfit, Pierre Chouteau Collection, MoHS.

21 Dougherty to Secretary of War, Nov. 19, 1831, NA, Gordon to Clark, Oct. 27, 1831, KSHS. The Inventories for 1852 and 1855 for the Missouri River posts of the Upper Missouri Outfit (American Fur Co.) were as follows:


July 1, 1852August 23, 1856
Fort Pierre34,744.471,405.00
Fort Pierre (Supp.)916.02......
Fort Union14,717.1119,154.93
Fort Berthold4,759.211,552.81
Fort Benton7,369.894,686.82
Fort Clark7,365.589,885.84

(Anne McDonnell, ed., Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana, Vol. X [Helena, 1910], 236.)

22 Henry A. Boller, Letter to his father, Aug. 10, 1858, ms. State Historical Society of North Dakota, Bismarck.

23 Kurz's Journal, 234.

24 Denig, "Indian Tribes," 530.

25 Elliott Coues, ed., Forty Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri: The Personal Narrative of Charles Larpenteur, 1833-1872 (New York, 1898), two volumes, passim.

26 Kurz's Journal, 177.

27 Maximilian's Travels, I, 380-383.

28 Denig, "Indian Tribes," 310-311; Merrill G. Burlingame, "The Buffalo in Trade and Commerce," North Dakota Historical Quarterly, III, (1929).

29 Maximilian's Travels, II, 125-131; See also Denig, "Indian Tribes," 458.

30 John Francis McDermott, ed., Journal of an Expedition to the Mauvaises Terres and the Upper Missouri in 1850 by Thaddeus A. Culbertson, BAE Bulletin 147 (Washington, 1952), 53.

31 Larpenteur's Original Journal, Vol. I. Ms. Minnesota Historical Society.

32 Mrs. Anna McDonnell, ed., "Fort Sarpy Journal," Montana Historical Society Contributions, X, 158-159.

33 Audubon's Journals, II, 185-186, 193.

34 Boller to his father, August 10, 1858.

35 Maximilian's Travels, II, 290.

36 Denig, "Indian Tribes," 460.

37 Kurz's Journal, 177.

38 Ibid., 129.

39 Ibid., 236.

40 Denig stated in 1854 that the cost of a buffalo robe in merchandise was about $1.35 in cash and other expenses at $1.20 more for each robe, which brought the total cost to $2.55. The best sale made of a large quantity was $3.00 each. (Denig, "Indian Tribes," 460.)

41 Boller to his father, August 10, 1858.

42 Denig, "Indian Tribes," 458.

43 Kenneth McKenzie to James Kipp, Dec. 27, 1833, Pierre Chouteau Collection, MoHS.

44 Wm. Laidlaw to E. S. Denig, Dec. 3, 1834; See also Laidlaw to Pierre Chouteau Jr., Aug. 29, 1833, Jan. 10, 1834; Laidlaw to Colin Campbell, Oct. 30, 1833, Dec. 22, 1834; Laidlaw to Pierre D. Papin, Jan. 14, 1834; Laidlaw to L. Crawford, Jan. 14, 1834; Laidlaw to Charles Degrey, Jan. 14, 1834; Laidlaw to James Kipp, Feb. 24, 1834, Fort Pierre Letter Book; Kenneth McKenzie to James Kipp, Dec. 27, 1833, Fort Union Letter Book, Pierre Chouteau Collection, MoHS.

45 McKenzie to Kipp, Dec. 27, 1833, Pierre Chouteau Jr. Collections.

46 McKenzie to Joshua Pilcher, Dec. 16, 1833.

47 Francis Chardon to Pierre Chouteau, Jr., May 18, 1835; See also Ben Williamson to Wm. Laidlow, Nov. 23, 1835, Pierre Chouteau Collection MoHS.

48 Pierre Chouteau Jr. to Win. Laidlaw, Jan. 10, 1840; See also H. Picotte to P. Chouteau Jr.; Jan. 4, 1844; E. T. Denig to Alexander Culbertson, Dec. 1, 1849, Pierre Chouteau Jr. Collection, MoHS.

49 Maximilian's Travels, II, 229.

50 Kurz's Journal, 253, 304.

51 Kurz's Journal, 123, 236; Chittenden, History of the American Fur Trade, I, 59; Maximilian's Travels, I, 174.

52 Kurz's Journal, 258; See also Elliott Coues, ed., Forty Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri: The Personal Narrative of Charles Larpenteur, 1833-1872 (New York, 1898), two volumes, I, 72-74.

53 Coues, Forty Years a Fur Trader, I, 67, 76; Kurz's Journal, 236.

54 Kurz's Journal, 236.

55 Young, Wyeth's Journals, 213; Audubon's Journals, II, 182-183; Forty Years a Fur Trader, I, 70-71.

56 Kurz's Journal, 236.

57 Kurz's Journal, 78, 126-127; Douglas, op. cit., 392-395; Montana Magazine of History (Jan., 1952), 5-15; George Catlin, Illustrations of the Manners, Customs and Condition of the North American Indians (London, 1857), two volumes, I, 120.

58 John C. Ewers, "Literate Fur Trader Edwin Thompson Denig," Montana Magazine of History (Spring 1954), 1-12.

59 Mildred Walker Schemm, "The Major's Lady, Natawista," Montana Magazine of History (Jan., 1952), 5-15.

60 Kurz's Journal, 240.

61 Pierre Chouteau Jr. to Pierre D. Papin, July 20, 1836, Chouteau Collection, MoHS.

62 Annie Heloise Abel, ed., Chardon's Journal at Fort Clark, 1834-1839 (Pierre, 1932), 78.

63 Ibid., 109.

64 Ibid., 160.

65 Ibid., 164.

66 Ibid., 170.

67 Ibid., 175.

68 Ibid., 182-183.

69 Abel, op. cit., 78.

70 Ibid., 98.

71 Ibid., 151.

72 Kurz's Journal, 155.

73 Ibid., 303-304.

74 J. F. A. Sanford to Wm. Clark, Oct. 20, 1830, Wm. Clark Papers, KSHS; See also Charles E. DeLand, ed., "Fort Tecumseh and Fort Pierre Journal and Letter Books," South Dakota Historical Collections, IX (1918), 133.

75 DeLand, op. cit., IX, 143.

76 Ibid., 107, 137, 144, 160, 165; See also Abel, op. cit., 56-57.

77 Coues, Forty Years a Fur Trader, 128-129; See also Abel, op. cit., 123, 124, 126, 127, 128-129, 131.

78 McDermott, Journal of an Expedition to the Mauvaises Terres and the Upper Missouri in 1850, 96.

79 Kurz's Journal, 73.

80 Boller to his father, August 10, 1858.

81 DeLand, op. cit., IX, 131.

82 Kurz's Journal, 103.

83 Abel, op. cit., 55; See also p. 58, 60, & 65.

84 McDonnell, Fort Benton Journal, Montana Historical Society Contributions, X, 1.

85 Audubon's Journals, II, 33; See also John F. McDermott, ed., Up the Missouri with Audubon: The Journal of Edward Harris (Norman 1951), 101.

86 Kurz's Journal, 125.

87 Abel, op. cit., 18.

88 Boller to his parents. Jan. 17, 1859.

89 McDonnell, "Fort Benton Journal," 37.

90 Coues, Forty Years a Fur Trader, 58-59, 74, 128-129, 158-159, 208-210.

91 Larpenteur's Original Journal, II, July 12, 1867; See also Aug. 4, 1867.

92 Larpenteur's Original Journal, II, Record for Sept. 15, 1865.

93 Kurz's Journal, 104; Coues, Forty Years a Fur Trader, 131-135; J. A. Hamilton to Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Feb. 25, 1838, Pierre Chouteau Jr. Collection, MoHS.

94 Manuel Lisa to Governor William Clark, July 1, 1817, Walter B. Douglas, "Manuel Lisa," Missouri Historical Society Collections, Vol. III, 380-383.

95 Denig, "Indian Tribes," 460; Kurz's Journal, 176.

96 Lucile M. Kane, "New Light on the Northwestern Fur Company," Minnesota History (Winter, 1955), 325-329.


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