Historic Resource Study
General references: Lorraine and Orrin H. Bonney. The Grand
Controversy (New York, NY: The AAC Press, 1992); Bob Godfrey.
Chelton, and Dudley, Climb! Rock Climbing in Colorado (Boulder,
CO: Published for the American Alpine Club by Alpine House Publishing,
1977); Chris Jones, Climbing in North America (Berkeley, Los
Angeles, London: Published for the American Alpine Club by the
University of California Press, 1976); Leigh N. Ortenburger, and Reynold
G. Jackson, A Climber's Guide to the Teton Range (Seattle, WA:
The Mountaineers, 1996); and Alfred Runte, National Parks, The
American Experience (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press,
1. Chris Jones, Climbing in North America
(Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press for the
American Alpine Club, 1976).
2. Z. M. Pike, The Journals of Zebulon Montgomery
Pike, ed. Donald Jackson (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma,
3. Richard [Beaver Dick] Leigh, Letter to Mr. Editor,
(Denver) Rocky Mountain News, probably late December 1894.*
4. Nathaniel P Langford, handwritten manuscript, the
first version of his subsequent article in Scribner's Monthly,
Yellowstone National Park library. Wyoming.*
5. Fort Hall Ledger Book, 1837, Columbia River
Fishing and Trading Company. Manuscript 938, p. 136, Oregon Historical
Society, Portland, Oregon.*
6. Mike Foster, The Life of Ferdinand Vandeveer
Hayden. (Niwot, CO: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1994), p. 235.
7. Nathaniel P. Langford, "Dr. Hayden's Geological
Survey." Helena Daily Herald, September 9, 1872, p. 1, c. 2.*
8. Nathaniel P Langford, "The Ascent of Mount
Hayden," Scribner's Monthly 6 (2) (June 1873): 146.
9. Baillie-Grohman, Camps in the Rockies.
10. The Kieffer letter was first uncovered in the
Owen papers at the Western History Research Center, University of
Wyoming, Laramie, by Leigh N. Ortenburger in the spring of 1959.*
11. "The Jackson Hole Country of Wyoming,"
Scientific American, March 30, 1918, p. 272.
12. At a meeting held June 3, 1931, the United
States Geographic Board gave official status to 61 place names in Grand
Teton National Park, which had previously been approved by the National
Park Service. Garnet Canyon was originally named for the geologist on
the 1872 Hayden Survey. Frank Bradley, who was one of the members of the
expedition that made it to the Lower Saddle.
13. Fritiof M. Fryxell, "The Grand Tetons: Our
National Park of Matterhorns," American Forests and Forest Life
35 (August 1929): 455.
14. Jones, Climbing in North America, p.
15. Fritiof M. Fryxell, The Teton Peaks and Their
Ascents (Grand Teton National Park, WY: The Crandall Studios, 1932),
16. Interview of Jack Durrance and Henry Coulter by
Renny Jackson, September 23, 1988.
17. Interview of Gerald B. Cullinane, member of 87th
Mountain Infantry Regiment, F Company. 10th Mountain Division, by Renny
Jackson, December 6, 1997.
18. Daugherty, John, "A Place Called Jackson Hole: A
History," draft, Grand Teton National Park, National Park Service.
19. Pete Sinclair, We Aspired: The Last Innocent
Americans (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1993).
*Notes marked with this symbol were taken from an as yet
unpublished manuscript by Leigh N. Ortenburger on the history of the
Teton Range in the nineteenth century, and based on research done by
that author. Ortenburger is considered by many to be the climbing
historian of the range.
Last Updated: 24-Jul-2004