GILA CLIFF DWELLINGS
Administrative History
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ENDNOTES


Introduction


1 Apachean affiliation is probable but can not be confirmed since human remains are no longer at the site.

2 Apache fear of the dead and of things associated with the dead is commonly adduced as a reason for their not disturbing prehistoric sites. There is no published material dealing with Apachean attitudes towards prehistoric pueblo sites, however, according to Keith Basso, an anthropologist and an expert on the Western Apache. In fact, he has noted that Apaches do collect artifacts from these sites "although certain steps are taken." Keith Basso to Peter Russell, April 12, 1990, personal files of the author.

3 These measurements were taken at the gauging station at Gila Hot Springs. F. D. Trauger, Water Resources and General Geology of Grant County, New Mexico (Socorro: New Mexico State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Hydrologic Report 2, 1972), p. 48.


Chapter I


1 Geronimo, Geronimo's Story of his Life, ed. S. M. Barrett, (Williamstown, Massachusetts: Corner House Publishers, 1973), p. 17.

2 Keith Anderson, Gloria J. Fenner, Don P. Morris, George A. Teague and Charmion McKusick, The Archeology of Gila Cliff Dwellings. Publications in Anthropology 36 (Tucson: Western Archeological and Conservation Center, 1986).

3 Donald E. Worcester, "The Beginnings of the Apache Menace of the Southwest," New Mexico Historical Review 16, No. 1 (January 1941). Also see Linda S. Cordell, Prehistory of the Southwest (New York: Academic Press, 1984), p. 358.

4 Cordell, Prehistory of the Southwest, p. 358.

5 Worcester, "The Beginnings of the Apache Menace," pp. 2-3.

6 Alonso de Benavides, Revised Memorial of 1634 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1945), p. 82.

7 James C. Martin and Robert Sidney Martin, Maps of Texas and the Southwest 1513-1900 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984), p. 82.

8 William B. Griffen, Apaches at War & Peace: the Janos Presidio, 1750-1858 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988), p. 4.

9 Griffen, Apaches at War & Peace, p. 33.

10 John L. Kessell, "Campaigning on the Upper Gila, 1756," New Mexico Historical Review 46, no. 2 (1971):135.

11 Griffen, Apaches at War and Peace. Also see William B. Griffen, Utmost Good Faith: Patterns of Apache Mexican Hostilities in Northern Chihuahua Border Warfare, 1821-1848 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988).

12 Ibid, p. 154.

13 Kessell, "Campaigning on the Upper Gila," p. 139.

14 Griffen, Utmost Good Faith, 1821-1848, p. 3.

15 Ibid, pp. 9-17.

16 Richard Batman, James Pattie's West: the Dream and the Reality (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986), pp. 118-129.

17 Billy D. Walker, "Copper Genesis: the Early Years of Santa Rita del Cobre," New Mexico Historical Review 54, no.1 (1979).

18 James Ohio Pattie, The Personal Narrative of James O. Pattie (Cincinatti: John H. Wood, 1831; reprinted New York: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1962), p. 48.

19 Pattie, The Narrative of James O. Pattie, p. 49.

20 Batman, James Pattie's West, p. 157.

21 Griffen, Apaches at War & Peace, pp. 173-176.

22 Ibid, pp. 139-221.

23 Griffen, Utmost Good Faith, pp. 58-60.

24 Ibid, p. 122 n. 8.

25 William H. Goetzman, Exploration and Empire (New York: W. W. Norton, 1966), pp. 77, 253-55.

26 Martin and Martin, Maps of Texas and the Southwest, 1513-1900, pp. 150-51.

27 Gordon R. Willey and Jeremy A. Sabloff, A History of American Archaeology (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1974), p. 59.

28 Dan L. Thrapp, Victorio and the Mimbres Apaches (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1974), p. 22.

29 Differences between the intent of this campaign and its implementation have generated different interpretations about its nature: extermination or relocation? Dan Thrapp, an authority on the history of nineteenth-century Apaches, came down decidedly on the side of extermination, writing that: "Carleton pursued single-mindedly his extermination against the exasperating Apaches and Navahos, but the results were not decisive." Thrapp, Victorio and the Mimbres Apaches, p. 83. Robert Utley, former chief historian of the Park Service, used a different but equally sinister term to describe this campaign, writing that: "...Carleton failed to realize his grand design of purging the Southwest of Indians and tapping its mineral wealth." Robert Utley, Frontier Regulars: The United States Army and the Indian (New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc., 1973), p. 169.

30 Thrapp, Victorio and the Mimbres Apaches, p. 129.

31 Ojo Caliente is currently being studied by the National Park Service as a possible area to commemorate the Apache culture. The area lies approximately 50 miles east of Gila Cliff Dwellings.

32 Ibid, p. 133

33 Henry Wetherbee Henshaw, "Autobiographical Notes," The Condor 22, no.1 (January-February 1920):3-10.

34 In November 1871, eight miles west of Wickenburg, a stagecoach carrying eight passengers was attacked by Apaches. Seven passengers were killed, including three members of Wheeler's survey. Dan L. Thrapp, The Conquest of Apacheria (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), p. 104.

35 George M. Wheeler, Report Upon United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian (Washington, DC: U.S Government Printing Office, 1889).

36 Don D. Fowler, The Western Photographs of John K. Hillers: "Myself in the Water" (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989), pp. 77-79.

37 Willey and Sabloff, A History of American Archaeology, p. 49.

38 Now a "ghost town", Georgetown lies about 15 miles east of Silver City, New Mexico.

39 H. B. Ailman, Pioneering in Territorial Silver City, ed. Helen J. Lundwall (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983), pp. 57-58.

40 Beatrice Chauvenet, Hewett and Friends: A Biography of Santa Fe's Vibrant Era (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983), pp. 13-21.

41 Adolph F. Bandelier, The Southwestern Journals of Adolph F. Bandelier, 2 ed. Charles H. Lange and Carrol L. Riley, (Albuquerque: University of Ne Mexico Press, 1966), pop. 193-194.

42 Bandelier located the ruin "directly opposite Mr. Jordan Rogers'[sic] new ranch, on a perfectly bare hill." A township survey completed less than a year after Bandelier's visit located this ranch on the west side of the Gila River, just below the confluence of the West and Middle forks or roughly where the Heart Bar headquarters stand today--across the river and below the TJ site.

43 Bandelier, The Southwestern Journals, p. 199.

44 James A. McKenna, Black Range Tales (New York: Wilson-Erickson, Inc., 1936), p. 13.

45 McKenna, Black Range Tales, pp. 47-50.

46 Adolph F. Bandelier, Final Report of Investigations among the Indians of the Southwestern United States, Part II (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1892), pp. 359-362.

47 Dan L. Thrapp, The Conquest of Apacheria (Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1967), pp. 267-310.

48 Map Files, Gila National Forest, Silver City, New Mexico.

49 Thrapp, The Conquest of Apacheria, pp. 328-367.

50 Silver City Enterprise, October, 21 1892. Article reproduced in This is Silver City 1892 and 1893, Vol. 5 (Silver City: Silver City Enterprise, Inc., 1971).

51 Silver City Enterprise, October 13, 1893.

52 Ibid.

53 Silver City Enterprise, November 3, 1893.

54 Henry Woodrow, "Henry Woodrow," in The Early Days: a Sourcebook of Southwestern Region History, Book I, Report No. 7, ed. Edwin A. Tucker, (Albuquerque: USDA Forest Service Southwestern Region, 1989), p. 199.

55 Ibid, p. 199.

56 Ibid, p. 201.

57 Ibid, p. 201.

58 Sharman Russell, "A Lion in the Gila," New Mexico Magazine 61, no. 8 (August 1983):25.

59 Fred Winn, "West Fork of the Gila River," Science 64 (July 21, 1926):16-17.

60 Ibid.

61 Silver City Enterprise, June 26, 1892.

62 Silver City Enterprise, August 7, 1891. Article reproduced in This is Silver City 1891, Vol. 4, (Silver City: Silver City Enterprise, Inc., 1967).

63 Silver City Enterprise, June 26, 1892.

64 Arizona Enterprise, May 26, 1892. This article was reproduced in Forever Frontier. Elizabeth McFarland, Forever Frontier, The Gila Cliff Dwellings (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1967), p. 41.

65 As early as 1864, in his widely-read monograph Man and Nature, George Marsh had expressed concern about declining environmental conditions on the public domain. In 1881, as a partial consequence of these concerns among a growing number of people, the Division of Forestry was established in the Department of Agriculture. In 1891, by authority of the General Provision Act of 1891, the President began setting aside large forested areas of the western public domain, closing them to private development. The first such area designated in the Southwest was Pecos River Forest Reserve, which was established in 1892. By 1907, nearly all the forested lands in the public domain--with the exception of Indian reservations--had been set aside in New Mexico and Arizona. The vast forest drained by the Gila River was an obvious candidate for this kind of reserve. It was the fifth of 25 set aside in the Southwest by 1907, but the specific history of its designation has not yet emerged from the archives in a published form. For a general history of the Forest Service in the Southwest see: Robert D. Baker, Robert S. Maxwell, Victor H. Treat and Henry C. Dethloff, Timeless Heritage: a History of the Forest Service in the Southwest. (Washington, D.C.: U.S.D.A. Forest Service, 1988).

66 Silver City Enterprise, July 13, 1900.

67 Theodore F. Rixon, Forest Conditions in the Gila River Forest Reserve, New Mexico. Prof. Pap. 33, Series H, Forestry 11 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, 1905).

68 Ibid, p. 14.

69 John Ise, Our National Park Policy: a Critical History (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1961), p. 148.

70 Fowler, The Western Photographs of John K. Hillers, p. 79.

71 For a full account of the activities of Richard Wetherill and the controversy that he generated see: Frank McNitt, Richard Wetherill: Anasazi (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1957, revised ed. 1966).

72 Walter Hough, Antiquities of the Upper Gila and Salt River Valleys in Arizona and New Mexico. Bureau of Ethnology Bulletin No. 35 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1907), p. 48.

73 J. J. Brody, Mimbres Painted Pottery (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1977), pp. 6-8.

74 For a full review of the legislative evolution of the Antiquities Act see: John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History.

75 For details of Edgar L. Hewett's career see: Beatrice Chauvenet, Hewett and Friends.

76 "Report of the Acting Secretary", Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1906 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1907).

77 Hough, Antiquities of the Upper Gila and Salt River Valleys.

78 Hal Karl Rothman, "Protected by a Gold Fence with Diamond Tips: A Cultural History of the American National Monuments" (Ph.D. diss., University of Texas at Austin, 1985), pp. 91-93.

79 In 1905 the forest reserves had been transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture, and the Bureau of Forestry had been reorganized as the Forest Service. In 1907, the forest reserves were renamed national forests. Baker et al., A History of the Forest Service in the Southwest, p. 40.

80 Harold K. Steen, The U.S. Forest Service (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976), p. 113.

81 R. C. McClure to the Forester, Forest Service, Washington, D.C., December 20, 1906, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

82 James B. Adams to McClure, April 27, 1907, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

83 There exists a local vernacular tradition that Hugh Hodge, owner of the Diamond Bar ranch, was a cousin to Theodore Roosevelt and that this relationship was instrumental in bringing Gila Cliff Dwellings to the president's attention. In another version of this tradition, it was Hodge's first wife who had the influential relationship. This tradition is not supported by official contemporary correspondence, however.

84 "Presidential Proclamation No. 781" (35 Stat. 2162), Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

85 H. Calkins to District Forester, June 20, 1916, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

86 "McKinney" Park is now known as McKenna Park. The old ranger district is now divided between the Glenwood District, the Silver City District, and the Wilderness District.

87 Joe Janes, "Administrative History of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," undated manuscript, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

88 Harlan D. Unrau and G. Frank Williss, Administrative History: Expansion of the National Park Service in the 1930s (Denver: Denver Service Center, 1983), p. 16.

89 A. F. Potter to Forest Officers, November 24, 1908, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

90 Frank E. Andrews to District Forester, December 9, 1908, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

91 "National Forests as Playgrounds", Harper's Weekly 54 (September 10, 1910):26.

92 Don P. Johnson to District Forester, July 26, 1912, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

93 Agnes C. Laut, "Why Go Abroad?" Sunset 30 (February 13, 1913):156-64.

94 Walter Hough, Culture of the Ancient Pueblos of the Upper Gila River Region, New Mexico and Arizona, Bulletin 87, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1914), p. 133.

95 Gila National Forest Map, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

96 Steen, The U.S. Forest Service, p. 114.

97 Ibid, pp. 114-115.

98 E. A. Sherman to District Forester Redington, June 5, 1916, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

99 Calkins to District Forester, June 20, 1916, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City.

100 Unrau and Williss, Administrative History, p. 35.

101 Ibid.

102 H. G. Calkins to District Forester, September 25, 1916, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

103 Henry Woodrow to Forest Supervisor, January 18, 1917, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

104 For an account of the early activities of Aldo Leopold and the evolution of his ideas see Susan L. Flader, Thinking Like a Mountain (Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1974).

105 In the early years of the Forest Service, the areas now known as regions were called districts. The Southwestern District is now Region III.

106 Richard H. Spray, "The Gila Wilderness: Boundary Adjustments and Other High Jinks, 1924 to 1980" (Paper delivered at the Southwest Wilderness Conference, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, New Mexico, September 29, 1989), p. 1.

107 Flader, Thinking Like a Mountain, pp. 98-102.

108 Ibid.

109 Dawson "Doc" Campbell, personal communication to the author, March 18, 1990.


Chapter II


1 Unrau and Williss, Administrative History, p. 43.

2 Albright as quoted by Alfred Runte. Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987), p. 221.

3 Unrau and Williss, Administrative History, p. 69.

4 Unrau and Williss (p. 68) identify Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument as one of eight monuments the Park Service would like to see transferred. On the other hand, in his administrative history of Saguaro National Monument, A. Berle Clemensen writes that Gila Cliff Dwellings was one of six that National Park Service did not want. A. Berle Clemensen, Cattle, Copper and Cactus: The History of Saguaro National Monument (Denver: Denver Service Center, 1987), p. 122.

5 Clemensen, Cattle, Copper, and Cactus, p. 120.

6 Unrau and Williss, Administrative History, p. 69.

7 In 1921, the chief forester of the Forest Service had himself described the relationship between his agency and the Park Service as "open warfare." The aggravating perception of a bureaucratic betrayal in 1933 and its consequences were tentatively reported by John Ise in his history of national park policy. The tenacious nature of the interagency hostility, especially in the field, was reported by Unrau and Williss in their history of the Park Service's expansion in the 1930s; Ise, Our National Park Policy, p. 353. Unrau and Williss, Administrative History, p. 70.

8 Memorandum to Frank Pinkley, by Acting Director of the Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, November 17, 1933, Folder Correspondence 1933-1955, Library, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona.

9 Hal Rothman, "Forged by One Man's Will: Frank Pinkley and the Administration of the Southwestern National Monuments, 1923-1932," The Public Historian 8, no. 2 (Spring 1986):83.

10 Ibid, p. 91.

11 In 1938, this monument was expanded and renamed Olympic National Park.

12 Rothman, "Forged by One Man's Will," p. 97.

13 G. H. Gordon, "Report on Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument" March 20, 1935, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

14 Six years later, a report by Hugh Miller, who succeeded Pinkley as superintendent of Southwestern Monuments, also suggests that opinions were divided about Gila Cliff Dwellings. In 1941, after his first visit to the site, Miller observed that he had "previously overrated its isolation and underrated its interest. I think some reports have been unduly pessimistic...." Hugh Miller, "Report of Inspection, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, September 10, 11, 1941," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

15 In January 1937, the administration of the Park Service was divided into administrative regions. Region III was headquartered in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and included essentially all the monuments and parks in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas, as well as Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado, three other national monuments in the southwestern quadrant of that state, and Rainbow Bridge, Arches, and Natural Bridges national monuments in southeastern Utah.

16 Charles Gould, "Location and Area," Report on Gila Primitive Area, New Mexico, September 17-26, 1937 and October 13-22, 1937, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

17 Grand Canyon National Park and Bryce Canyon National Park.

18 For details about the interagency struggle over Bandelier National Monument, see Chapter Two of Rothman's administrative history of the monument. Hal Rothman, Bandelier National Monument: An Administrative History (Santa Fe: United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Professional Papers No. 14, 1988), pp. 19-39.

19 About the wilderness movement, Assistant Forester Leon F. Kniepp noted in 1930 that "[t]here is a wide spread concern in the minds of many people and members of organizations with reference to the rapid modification of all parts of the United States leading to the elimination of the primitive conditions under which the pioneer growth of the Nation took form...The Forest Service has attempted to allay this feeling of alarm by the pledge that within certain selected and clearly defined areas the intrusion of the evidence of man's handiwork will be held to an irreducible minimum." Stephen Mather couldn't have summarized the mission of his own agency any better. Report for Claude Wood by Regional Forester, August 5, 1954, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

20 Steen, The U.S. Forest Service, pp. 237-245.

21 Memorandum for the Director, National Park Service, by W. C. Mendenhall, January 22, 1940, Folder O-35, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

22 In 1972, William Everhart noted that mining claims could still be filed in national monuments, a transaction prohibited in national parks. William C. Everhart, The National Park Service, (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972), p. 49.

23 Secretary of Interior to the President, no date, Folder L1417, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

24 "Excluding Certain Lands from the Gila National Forest and Reserving Them Together with the Lands Now Comprising the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument as the Gila National Monument-New Mexico, By the President of the United States of America, A Proclamation," Folder L1417, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

25 Memorandum for Superintendent Miller, Southwestern National Monuments, by Minor Tillotson, August 18, 1941, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

26 Russ Olsen, Administrative History: Organizational Structures of the National Park Service 1917 to 1985 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1985), p. 16. Olsen observed that Drury "disliked the rough and tumble politics of Washington."

27 Memorandum to Acting Regional Director, from W. H. Wirt, October 28, 1937, Folder L, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

28 Memorandum for Forest Supervisor, Gila, from Frank Pooler, Regional Forester, November 27, 1937, L Folder, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

29 Charlie Steen, personal communication to the author, March 7, 1990.

30 Memorandum for Superintendent Miller, Southwestern Monuments, by Minor Tillotson, August 18, 1941, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

31 "Doc" Campbell, personal communication to the author, March 18, 1990.

32 Hugh Miller, "Report of Inspection, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, September 10, 11, 12, 1941," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

33 Neil Clark, "Wilderness Family," Saturday Evening Post, (March 27, 1948):29.

34 Memorandum for Custodian Dawson A. Campbell, by the Acting Superintendent, July 3, 1942, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

35 Ibid.

36 Clark, "Wilderness Family," p. 29.

37 "Doc" Campbell, personal communication to the author, March 18, 1990.

38 Memorandum to General Superintendent, Southwestern National Monuments, from the Superintendent, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, February 27, 1952, GICL File, Library, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona.

39 Charlie Steen, undated and untitled manuscript, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

40 Erik Reed, "A Review of Upper Gila Prehistory," undated manuscript, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

41 Both Dale King and Charlie Steen, for example, left their jobs with the Park Service in order to serve in the armed forces.

42 Charlie Steen, 1948 Estimates for Ruins Stabilization, October, GICL File, Library, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona.

43 In response, for example, to an inquiry by the regional office asking whether the annual report for Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument had been overlooked, the acting superintendent of Southwestern National Monuments observed that "no annual reports are received from Capulin Mountain and Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monuments for the reason that these are very small areas with no full-time superintendents." Memorandum to Regional Director, by Acting General Superintendent Leslie Arnberger, June 12, 1952, GICL File, Library, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona.

44 Marjorie Lambert to Erik Reed, June 28, 1954, Folder H3015, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

45 "U.S. Agency Takes Steps to Preserve Ruin," Albuquerque Journal, September 17, 1954.

46 Memorandum to General Superintendent, Southwestern National Monuments, from Superintendent, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, February 27, 1952, GICL File, Library, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona.

47 The Gila Wilderness was originally established in 1924 under the provisions of a recreational working plan that was specific to the Gila National Forest. Over the next few years wilderness areas were established on other national forests using similarly local administrative mechanisms. In 1929, finally, the Washington office of the Forest Service announced a new official designation: Primitive Area. These areas were established under the new national guidelines of Regulation L-20, and they eventually included all the areas that had previously been classified locally as wildernesses. The Gila Wilderness was reclassified--and reduced, incidently--as the Gila Primitive Area under Regulation L-20 in 1933. Later, concerns about incursions by motorized vehicles and the potential ascendancy of the Park Service in the arena of wild lands management induced the Forest Service to revive in 1939 the designation of wilderness area as a category that was more protected than primitive areas. These wildernesses were established under the provisions of Regulation U-1. Spray, "The Gila Wilderness." Steen, The U.S. Forest Service, pp. 153-56, 209-11.

48 Fred Kennedy to Claude Wood, July 12, 1956, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

49 Memorandum to the General Superintendent of Southwestern National Monuments, from Superintendent, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, February 27, 1952, GICL File, Library, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona.

50 To address local opposition that was emerging in the wake of the proposed reductions, the Forest Service called for a public hearing and the formulation of a committee of local citizens to study the proposals. Named the James Committee after its chairman Dr. Harlan W. James, the president of New Mexico Western College (now Western New Mexico University), this group consisted of 21 members, representing 19 different local organizations. The committee studied the proposals for several months and then made its recommendations at the public hearing, which was held on August 7, 1952. In brief, these recommendations outlined a wilderness boundary that essentially matches the current line. More important than the details of the boundary was the committee's unison of local opposition to the proposed reductions--with the exception of a corridor into the Gila forks. Also present at the hearing were New Mexico Senator Clinton Anderson and national representatives of the Wilderness Society, the Sierra Club, the Izaak Walton League of America, and the National Parks Association, all of whom also resisted wilderness reductions. After meeting again with the James Committee in September, the regional forester announced a six-point program that would entail a reassessment of the boundary proposals. For a complete discussion of the events in 1952, see Wealdon F. Heald's report in the autumn issue of the Wilderness Society's quarterly magazine. Wealdon F. Heald, "Report from the Gila," The Living Wilderness, 42 (Autumn 1952):26-39.

51 Richard E. McArdle to Clinton B. Anderson, January 12, 1953, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

52 "All-Weather Road to Gila Cliff Dwellings Asked in House," Silver City Daily Press, 58 no. 297 (March 3, 1955):1. "Today's Comment," Silver City Daily Press, 58 no. 82 (September 29, 1955):6.

53 Ibid.

54 Although Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument was actually in Catron County, the potential increase in tourism would benefit most Silver City, in Grant County, where the proposed road would begin.

55 R. E. Rea to J. E. Gilmore, April 15, 1955, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

56 Runte, National Parks, p. 173.

57 Memorandum to Chairman, MISSION 66, from General Superintendent, August 2, 1955, Folder A9815, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

58 Memorandum to General Superintendent, Southwestern National Monuments, from Acting Superintendent Campbell, Gila Cliff Dwellings, August 9, 1955, Personal Files of Dawson Campbell, Gila Hot Springs, New Mexico. Dawson Campbell to John Davis, August 9, 1955, Personal Files of Dawson Campbell, Gila Hot Springs, New Mexico.

59 Memorandum to General Superintendent, from Dale King, Naturalist, November 15, 1955, GICL, Folder A9815, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

60 Memorandum to General Superintendent, from Conrad Wirth, January 31, 1956, GICL, Folder 9815, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

61 Memorandum to General Superintendent, from Dale King, Naturalist, November 15, 1955, GICL, Folder A9815, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

62 These people were specifically identified as influential by Dale King, who had been sent to assess Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument by Office of Southwestern National Monuments. His visit had been prompted by a cautionary letter from Vivian after his own visit in August.

63 Dawson Campbell, personal communication with the author, March 18, 1990.


Chapter III


1 Memorandum to Regional Director, from Regional Archeologist, April 13, 1956, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico. Gordon Vivian, "Gila Cliff Dwellings: Archeological Resume," March 29, 1956, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

2 Clyde Ely, "Today's Comment", Silver City Daily Press, 62 no. 73 (September 20, 1956):4.

3 Memorandum to Regional Director, from Supervisor, Gila National Forest, August 10, 1956, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico. E. A. Schilling to Hugh Miller, August 15, 1956, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

4 Memorandum to the Regional Forester, by R. E. Rea, Forest Supervisor, July 25, 1958, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

5 Memorandum to File, by S. R. Servis, September 27, 1957, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

6 R. E. Rea to Hugh M. Miller, May 19, 1958, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico. Harthon L. Bill to R. E. Rea, June 25, 1958, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

7 Memorandum to Regional Forester, by R. E. Rea, Forest Supervisor, July 10, 1958, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

8 Memorandum to the Regional Forester, by R. E. Rea, Forest Supervisor, July 25, 1958, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files,Silver City, New Mexico.

9 Ibid.

10 Memorandum to the Secretary of the Interior, from Regional Director, Southwest Region, Folder A44, Box 5, Denver Federal Record Center.

11 Chief Forester Edward Cliff was advised that the proclamation was published in the Federal Register of April 20, 1962. Acting Assistant Director to Edward P. Cliff, May 18, 1962, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

12 Public Land Order 2655 was published in the Federal Register on April 14, 1962. Statement for Management, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (Santa Fe: United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, 1976), p. 4, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

13 Ibid.

14 Memorandum to the Regional Forester, by R. E. Rea, Forest Supervisor, January 6, 1956, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

15 Ibid.

16 Dawson A. Campbell to Hon. Dennis Chavez, January 20, 1956, Folder A3815, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

17 Thomas J. Allen to Hon. Dennis Chavez, February 23, 1956, Folder A 3815, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

18 Dennis Chavez to Conrad L. Wirth, December 17, 1957, Folder D30-a, Box 3, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

19 Memorandum to Messrs. R. F. Lee, Price, Robinson, Thompson, Tolson, Vint and Davis, from Chief, MISSION 66 Staff, February 3, 1958, Folder A 98-c, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

20 Note attached to Memorandum: "Can we rush this thru? Tolson wants it yesterday." Memorandum to Regional Director, Region Three, from Acting Director, December 27, 1957, Folder D 30-a, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

21 Notice of Approval, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Prospectus, July 10, 1958, Folder A 9815, Box 8, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

22 Richard E. McArdle to Hon. Clinton P. Anderson, March 22, 1956, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

23 Examples of these letters and other correspondence alluding to them are still included in the Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Clyde Ely to Howard Zahnizer, February 25, 1956, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Clinton P. Anderson to Richard, E. McArdle, June 3, 1956, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

24 Memorandum to the Gila, by E. A. Schilling, Assistant Regional Forester, March 30, 1956, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

25 Memorandum to Chief, Forest Service, by Fred H. Kennedy, Regional Forester, June 21, 1956, Folder 2760, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

26 Clyde Ely, "Today's Comment," Silver City Daily Press, 62 no. 75 (September 22, 1956):4.

27 Memorandum for Files, by S. B. Servis, November 14, 1957, Folder 2760, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

28 Included in this delegation were Chancie Snyder, Clyde Ely and "Doc" Campbell.

29 Request of the Silver City-Grant County New Mexico Chamber of Commerce, December 9, 1957, Folder D 30-a, Box 3, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

30 Memorandum to Regional Chief, Division of Recreation Planning, from Regional Chief, National Park System Planning, December 11, 1957, Folder D 30-a, Box 3, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

31 Memorandum to Regional Director, from Assistant Regional Director, May 9, 1958, Folder D 30-a, Box 3, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

32 Ibid.

33 Notice of Approval, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument Prospectus, July 10, 1958, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

34 "Grant County Caravan Travels Rugged Route To Visit Cliff Dwellings," Albuquerque Journal, July 1, 1960.

35 The road to Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument was one of three included in a package. The other roads were the Red Lodge to Cooke City Road in Montana near the Wyoming border and the Staircase Road in Olympic National Park; consequently, sharing in interest in this road package were legislators from Wyoming, Montana, and Washington.

36 To Commissioner of Public Roads, Bureau of Public Roads, from D. B. Dixon, March 15, 1961, Folder D 30-a, Box 3, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

37 Fred H. Kennedy to W. J. Keller, March 17, 1961, Folder D 30-a, Box 3, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

38 Hillory A. Tolson to Paul F. Royster, December 19, 1960, Folder D 30-a, Box 3, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

39 Memorandum to G. M. Willimans, by K. S. Chamberlain, October 24, 1960, Folder D 30-a, Box 3, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

40 Memorandum to Regional Director from Assistant Regional Director, June 23, 1958, Folder A5427, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

41 "Doc" Campbell, personal communication to the author, March 18, 1990.

42 James Sleznick, Master Plan of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (Santa Fe: United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, 1964), p. 4.

43 Memorandum to Regional Chief of Interpretation, from Regional Archaeologist, May 24, 1962, Folder A5427, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

44 Memorandum to Chairman, MISSION 66, from General Superintendent, August 2, 1955, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

45 Memorandum to Chairman, MISSION 66, from General Superintendent, November 16, 1955, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

46 Ibid.

i47 Fred H. Kennedy to Regional Director, National Park Service, November 30, 1960, Folder D 18-a, Box 1, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

48 Memorandum to Chief, WODC, from Acting Regional Director, July 31, 1962, Folder D18-a, Box 1, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

49 Memorandum to Chief Landscape Architect, WODC, from Landscape Architect Barnett, WODC, June 25, 1963, D 18-a, Box 1, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

50 Ibid.

51 Memorandum to Director from Regional Director, February 14, 1964, Folder D 18-a, Box 1, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

52 Memorandum to Regional Chief of Operational Plans and Requirements from Park Planner, September 18, 1963, Folder D 18-a, Box 1, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

53 James Sleznick, personal communication to the author, March 25, 1991.

54 "Memorandum of Agreement of July 22, 1964, Between the National Park Service and the Forest Service, Relating to Joint Recreational Development in Gila National Forest," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

55 Notice of Approval, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, July 10, 1958.

56 "Sleznick Named Cliff Dwelling Monument's First Superintendent," Silver City Daily Press, January 26, 1966.

57 Sleznick attributed his unique classification to his own low GS-7 rank and the fact that the Park Service had not been able to attract to the remote monument a GS-9, which was the minimum rank necessary to qualify for Superintendent. James Sleznick, personal communication to the author, March 25, 1991

58 James Sleznick, personal communication to the author, March 25, 1991.

59 James Sleznick, personal communication to the author, March 25, 1991.

60 Memorandum to Regional Director, SWR, from Supervisory Park Ranger, May 28, 1963, Folder A 2823, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

61 James Sleznick, personal communication to the author, March 25, 1991.

62 Memorandum to Regional Director, SWR, from Supervisory Park Ranger, August 27, 1963, Folder A 2823, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

63 Memorandum to Regional Director, Southwest, from Supervisory Park Ranger, December 4, 1965, Folder A 2615, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

64 Again, the monument's isolation helped Sleznick's career. The man slated to become superintendent at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument declined the assignment. To fill this superintendency, Sleznick was promoted. James Sleznick, personal communication with author, March 25, 1991.

65 James Sleznick, personal communication to the author, March 25, 1991.

66 William Lukens, personal communication to the author, April 7, 1991.

67 William Lukens, personal communication to the author, April 7, 1991.

68 William Lukens, personal communication to the author, April 7, 1991.

69 "Inspection Report, General Integrating, Wilderness District, by Richard C. Johnson and R. E. Swigart, May 22-23, 1972," Folder 1440, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

70 "Management Appraisal of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico, November 6 and 7, 1968," Folder A5427, Box 5, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

71 William Lukens, personal communication to the author, April 7, 1991.

72 Joseph C. Rumburg, personal communication to the author, August 30, 1991.

73 Ibid.

74 Joseph C. Rumburg, Jr to William D. Hurst, September 13, 1974, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

75 "Forest Service Assumes Administrative Duties at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," Gila Forest Press Release, April 21, 1975, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

Memorandum to the Regional Forester, R-3, from Robert M. Williamson, January 9, 1975, Folder 1340, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

77 Ibid.

78 "Cooperative Agreement between the National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior, and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, April 14, 1975," Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

79 Memorandum to Regional Director, Southwest Region, from Associate Regional Director, Park Operations, SWR, October 13, 1987, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

80 "Annual Statement for Interpretation, Fiscal Year 90, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," Folder SF190, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

81 Ibid.

82 Mary Carter, personal communication to the author, August 26, 1991.

83 "Assignment Agreement, August 18, 1986," Folder P30, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.


Chapter IV


1 Map Files, Gila National Forest, Silver City, New Mexico.

2 Ailman, Pioneering in Territorial Silver City, pp. 57-58.

3 Susan Berry, "The Case of the Missing Mummies" Frontier Days Magazine 1982 (July 1982):32-35. Susan Berry is director of the Silver City Museum.

4 McKenna, Black Range Tales, pp. 47-50.

5 Ibid.

6 Col. G. H. Sands, "The U.S. Cavalry at the Gila River Cliff Dwellings, 1885," El Palacio 64 (11-12):340-346.

7 Frank Hamilton Cushing, "My Adventures in Zuni. Parts 1, 2." Century Magazine 25 (December 1882, February 1883): 191-207, 500-511.

8 William French, Further Recollections of a Western Ranchman, New Mexico 1883-1899, ed. Jeff C. Dykes (New York: Argosy-Antiquarian Ltd., 1965), pp. 380-387.

9 Although it is not clear by French's description that the ruin he visited was the interpreted one at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, his account has been used during campfire programs at the monument.

10 McFarland, Forever Frontier, pp. 41-42.

11 Jim Bradford, an archeologist in the Regional Office of the Park Service, observes that this burial is probably Apachean but that the attribution has not been confirmed and is not currently demonstrable.

12 See footnote 64.

13 Berry, "The Case of the Missing Mummies," pp. 32-35.

14 Susan Berry, personal communication to the author, May 10, 1990.

15 These human remains are still curated at the Smithsonian Institution (Cat. No. 273340 USNM).

16 In 1892 the Silver City Enterprise reported that William Taylor, on whose ranch lay the large Mimbres site known today as Old Town, could "go out anytime before breakfast and unearth one or two [Aztec] ancient citizens." The same article also recounted a day's digging in "Aztec Ruins" by George Hinman, in whose store window McKenna's mummy had reportedly been displayed. During this dig, Hinman found a child's skeleton, the skull of which had been covered by a bowl bearing a lizard decoration. More interesting than the pottery, apparently, were some anomalies about the skeleton. This Is Silver City 1892 and 1893, Vol. 5 (Silver City: Silver City Enterprise, Inc., 1971), p. 31.

17 "Circular No. 316."

18 "Report of the Secretary," 1879 Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute (Washington,D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880), p. 38.

19 "Summary of Correspondence of the Smithsonian Institution previous to January 1, 1880, in Answer to Circular No. 316," 1880 Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1881), pp. 428-429.

20 "Report of the Secretary," 1882 Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1883), p. 26.

21 See Chapter One, p. 43.

22 Hough, Culture of the Ancient Pueblos of the Upper Gila River Region, p. 3.

23 The portion of Hough's survey that occurred in New Mexico lay in what was then the Datil National Forest--outside of Andrew's purview.

24 Albert Schroeder, Memorandum to the Superintendent of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, July 13, 1956, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

25 Bandelier, The Southwestern Journals, p. 198.

26 Incidently, Bandelier's observation that "the plain on top is grassy" suggests that the open nature of the terrain predates the area's use as a pasture and polo field at the turn of the century, an environmental trait the origin of which has recently been pondered. Bandelier also found no metates, a paucity also observed recently, and one that must have occurred before 1884.

27 Editha L. Watson, "Some New Mexico Ruins," El Palacio 23 no.11-12 (August 27, 1927):174-234.

28 C. B. Cosgrove, Caves of the Upper Gila and Hueco Areas in New Mexico and Texas (Cambridge: Harvard University, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Anthropology and Ethnology 24, no.4, 1947, p. 22.

29 Apparently the Cosgroves were confused about the scope of the national monument and believed it to only include the cliff dwellings themselves. Since one of the major incentives for their survey was to forestall the loss of archeological information that recent looting was causing, they may have ignored what they believed to be the national monument, which presumably already received special protection.

30 C. B. and H. S. Cosgrove, The Swarts Ruin: a Typical Mimbres Site in Southwestern New Mexico (Cambridge: Harvard University, Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Papers 15, no. 1, 1932.)

31 Erik Reed, "Prehistoric Features: Archaeology" in Report on Gila Primitive Area, New Mexico, September 17-26, 1937 and October 13-22, 1937, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

32 Winifred Gladwin and Harold S. Gladwin, A Method for Designation of Cultures and their Variations, Gila Pueblo Medallion Papers 15 (Globe, Arizona, 1934).

33 Emil Haury, The Mogollon Culture of Southwestern New Mexico, Gila Pueblo Medallion Papers no. 20 (Globe, Arizona, 1936), p. 110.

34 Erik Reed, "Prehistoric Features: Archaeology" in Report on Gila Primitive Area, New Mexico, September 17-26, 1937 and October 13-22, 1937, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

35 Nearly all dendrochronological samples taken from Gila Cliff Dwellings cluster in the 1280s.

36 Charlie Steen, untitled and undated manuscript, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Although the manuscript is undated, there exists a letter from Steen to Campbell telling the custodian that he had completed his overview and that it was enclosed with the letter. Charlie Steen to Dawson Campbell, April 7, 1949, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

37 This sherd may have been a misidentification. Otherwise, it has since been lost.

38 Roland Richert, "Ruins Stabilization Report, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Catron County, New Mexico, 1956," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

39 The 1286 date was published in official descriptions of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

40 Subsequent examination of Steen's sherd sample revealed 213 sherds of Reserve or Tularosa ware, 8 sherds of unclassified white ware, and 20 sherds of Alma Plain.

41 Erik Reed, "A Review of Upper Gila Prehistory," undated manuscript, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Although the manuscript itself bears no date, a memorandum from Reed to Campbell tells the custodian that he has completed the overview. Erik Reed to Dawson Campbell, May 13, 1949, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

42 David E. Stuart and Rory P. Gauthier, Prehistoric New Mexico (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984) p. 230.

43 Statement of Significance and Study of Alternatives, Mimbres Culture, New Mexico (Santa Fe: United States Department of Interior/National Park Service, 1989), p. 8. The presence of Mimbres sites in the monument is acknowledged in the next sentence although the context implies that they are not important. The contradiction between the two sentences may hang from the confusion between Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, a 533-acre tract of 45 different archeological sites, and the cliff dwellings themselves, one site in the monument. It would not be the first time the site has been confused with the monument. See footnote 281.

44 Roland Richert, "Stabilization Report, 1956," p. 7.

45 Gordon Vivian Memorandum to General Superintendent, April 10, 1956, Folder H2215, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

46 E. B. Danson to Conrad Wirth, letter dated May 29, 1962, file H2215, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

47 Memorandum to General Superintendent, from Archeologist Vivian, August 23, 1955, Folder H2215, Box 1, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

48 Stephen H. Lekson, Lynn S. Teague, Robert W. Layhe and James E. Ayres, "A Technical Proposal For Class III Culture Resources Survey of the Upper Gila Water Supply Study, Central Arizona Project, Southwestern New Mexico" (University of Arizona: Cultural Resource Management Division, Arizona State Museum, 1986), p. 38.

49 Joe Ben Wheat, Mogollon Culture Prior to A.D. 1000. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association 82 (Menasha, Wisconsin, 1955), p. 185.

50 Edward B. Danson, An Archaeological Survey of West Central New Mexico and East Central Arizona, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 44, no. 1 (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1957), p. 98.


Chapter V


1 Memorandum to Regional Archaeologist, Southwest Region, from Custodian, January 1, 1963, Folder H30, GICL, Box 15, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

2 The ceramic assembledge is sorted by type. Anderson et al., The Archeology of Gila Cliff Dwellings, p. 129.

3 Roland Richert to the Staff Curator of the Western Museum Laboratory, Southwest Archeological Center, Gila Pueblo, November 5, 1964, File D6215, GICL, RG 79, National Archives. For a variety of reasons, by the time Richert was writing, the Animas phase no longer designated a specific group of traits but rather the period of time that immediately followed the Mimbres abandonment.

4 Ronald Ice, "West Fork Ruin. A Stratified Site Near Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," New Mexico Laboratory of Anthropology Notes 48, 1968. Without personally expressing an opinion, Ice reported a general belief that the ranch house was the original headquarters of the TJ ranch and that it was occupied through the 1890s. It is more likely, however, that the house was the original homestead of Charles A. Clifford, who patented in 1890 the land on which the West Fork Ruin lies. When C. A. Burdick consolidated the homesteads above the Gila Hot Springs under the TJ brand, it is more likely that he located his headquarters at the ranch of Rodgers, built in 1883 at the present site of the Heart Bar headquarters.

5 Laurens C. Hammack, "Diablo Highway Salvage Archaeology" Laboratory of Anthropology Notes 41, 1966. Possibly the cluster of houses is the small settlement of "Mexicans" noted by Theodore F. Rixon in his 1905 report Forest Conditions in the Gila River Forest Reserve, New Mexico. He recorded the site as being a short distance above the Gila Hot Springs resort, and he implied an unspecified relationship but undoubtedly operose relationship between the residents and the resort.

6 For a discussion of this controversy read Lekson et al., "A Technical Proposal for a Class III Cultural Resources Survey of the Upper Gila Water Supply Study," 1986, pp. 58-71.

7 McKenna and Bradford, TJ Ruin, p. 11.

8 McKenna and Bradford, TJ Ruin, p. 11.

9 The Southwestern Archeological Center is now known as the Western Archeological and Conservation Center

10 Anderson et al., The Archeology of Gila Cliff Dwellings, p. 13.

11 The historic sites do not occur within the boundaries of the monument.

12 Anderson et al., The Archeology of Gila Cliff Dwellings, p. 20.

13 Ronald E. and Pamela A. Everhart. "Report of a Human Burial, Gila Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico." undated manuscript, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service, Tucson, Arizona.

14 Presumably the burials include the following: one adult by Vivian in 1963, one adult by the Cosgroves in 1929, one infant by Morris in 1968, one infant by Vivian in 1963, one infant by staff of the Gila National Forest in 1963, and one infant by either the Hill brothers or McKenna--Ailman's report had not yet been published.

15 The sites used for comparison were: Starkweather Ruin, Higgins Flat Pueblo, Apache Creek Pueblo, Site 13, Site 9, Armijo and School Canyon sites, Whiskey Creek sites LA 4986 and LA 4988, Gallo Pueblo, and Hinkle Park Cliff Dwellings.

16 Anderson et al., The Archeology of Gila Cliff Dwellings, p. 110.

17 Paul Martin noted, for example, for Higgins Pueblo, a site occupied for only 50 to 75 years, that "the people spent a fair amount of energy making architectural changes, such as additions and renovations." Paul S. Martin, John B. Rinaldo, Elaine A. Bluhm, and Hugh Cutler, Higgins Flat Pueblo, Western New Mexico (Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum Fieldiana: Anthropology 40), p. 188.

18 Although bison appear on faunal lists for the Mogollon, the shavespoke type of scraper recovered at the cliff dwellings appeared to be a Plains artifact and consequently a trade item.

19 Anderson et al., The Archeology of Gila Cliff Dwellings, p. 266.

20 Anderson et al., The Archeology of Gila Cliff Dwellings, p. 300.

21 1964 Priority List-Research Program completed by Vivian and Dodgen, Folder N2623-a, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

22 Jim Bradford, personal communication to the author, January 4, 1991.

23 McKenna and Bradford, TJ Ruin, p. 37.

24 Bradfield excavated at Cameron Creek in the 1920s. Unfortunately, he did not rebury or otherwise protect the architecture that he exposed, and over the years a substantial amount of the structures have been damaged by weather.

25 Stuart and Gauthier, Prehistoric New Mexico, p. 353.

26 William Lukens, personal communication, January 6, 1991. Although the need to bank sites may have contributed to Lukens' personal decision to withdraw the petition for excavating the TJ Ruin, as late as 1973 the regional office was still estimating the cost of that excavation. Only the following year, reports Ron Ice, did the influence of conservation archeology conclusive cause the idea of total excavation to be abandoned. Ron Ice, "Review of Administrative History of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," received February 10, 1992, personal files of the author.

27 Sabloff and Willey, The History of American Archaeology, p. 192.

28 Paul S. Martin and Fred Plog, The Archaeology of Arizona, (New York: Doubleday), p. 33.

29 McKenna and Bradford, TJ Ruin, p. 37.

30 Statement of Significance, Study of Alternatives, Mimbres Culture (Santa Fe: United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, December 1989), p. 69.

31 Ice, "Review of Administrative History."

32 This work had originally been proposed by Superintendent Lukens for Don Morris to do in 1968 along with the site survey, but approval for the mapping task was denied since it was expected to be part of the excavation program for the TJ Ruin, which was still slated for 1970.

33 Peter J. McKenna and James E. Bradford, "The TJ Ruin at the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument" (Paper presented at the 1986 Mogollon Conference, Tucson, Arizona, October 1986). Peter J. McKenna and James E. Bradford, TJ Ruin, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Professional Papers no. 21 (Santa Fe: National Park Service, 1989).

34 James E. Fitting, C. B. Hemphill, and D. R. Abbe, "The Upper Gila Water Supply Study, a Class I Cultural Resources Overview." Manuscript by Hemphill Associates, Springfield Oregon, 1982, pp. 29-50.

35 Although the challenge that Cliff-Gila and San Francisco archeology provides to normative views has become apparent with work beyond the Mimbres Valley itself, not everyone is prepared to accept two additional cultural branches. Most recently, for example, in the 1989 study to commemorate the Mimbres Culture only six are mentioned—the ones laid out by Joe Ben Wheat in 1955.

36 Conversely, sites attributed to the San Francisco phase were not found by Morris around the Gila forks or by Fitting in Cliff-Gila Valley although they are present in the Mimbres and San Francisco drainages.

37 Mckenna and Bradford, TJ Ruin, p. 35. Variations in settlement pattern between the Mimbres and the Gila Valleys was initially proposed by James Fitting.

38 Another possible Salado phase site occurs on national forest land between the visitor center and the cliff dwellings.

39 Lekson et al., "Proposal for a Class III Cultural Resources Survey of the Upper Gila Water Supply Study," p. 80.

40 Potholes in the TJ site had been first recorded in the revised 1955 prospectus.

41 Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument had been listed in the National Register of Historic Places since 1966.

42 Polly Schaafsma, Indian Rock Art of the Southwest (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1980), p. 184, 191.

43 Steven Lambert to John Krammer, March 12, 1990, Folder H2215, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

44 Dr. A. J. T. Jull to Keith Anderson, March 6, 1989, Folder H2215, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

45 Keith Anderson to Ron Ice, March 13, 1989, Folder H2215, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

46 This popularity has not limited itself to just laymen.

47 Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Tonto National Monument, Walnut Canyon National Monument, and Bandelier National Monument.

48 Stephen Lekson to Keith Anderson, December 26, 1985, Folder H2215, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

49 Memorandum by Regional Director Tillotson to Superintendent Miller, August 18, 1941, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

50 Memorandum by Regional Archaeologist Steen to Regional Director Miller, April 13, 1956, Folder A5437, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

51 Cosgrove, Caves of the Upper Gila, p. 164.

52 As late as 1956 Paul Martin felt compelled to refute the backwardness of the Mogollon culture, which he saw as extending from 2500 B.C. to A.D.1000. Martin et al., Higgins Flat Pueblo, pp. 191-192.


Chapter VI


1 Memorandum to Forest Supervisor by Henry Woodrow, January 18, 1917, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

2 There had been some doubt about the worthiness of this monument. Recall, for example, the assessment reported at the 1911 Yellowstone Conference: "neither very large nor very important."

3 G. H. Gordon, Report on Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, March 20, 1935, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

4 Steen and his helper built a rock-and-adobe support half way across the cavity beneath the south wall of Room 1, and they chinked with spalls and adobe 15 feet of an undercut section of outer wall in the same cave, presumably along the south walls of Rooms 2, 3, and 4. In Cave 3, dry masonry supports were placed under several breached walls, including a section under the west wall of Room 10.

5 Marjorie Lambert to Erik Reed, June 28, 1954, Folder H30, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

6 Even worse than the graffiti was the damage that could be inflicted by people, who in the absence of a monitor, camped in the ruins. In 1958, for example, Campbell reported that hunters had built a fire in the cliff dwellings and fueled it with prehistoric wood that they had wrenched from the architecture.

7 Roland Richert, "Ruins Stabilization Report, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, May 15, 1956," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

8 Richert and his Navajo crew placed spanning integral members in openings in the south walls of Rooms 4, 9, and 10. In addition, they repaired an undercut portion of the south wall of Room 1, replaced Steen's dry masonry repair to the west wall of Room 10, capped the south wall of Room 22, patched large holes in the walls of Room 33, and reset a section of wall in Room 17.

9 Memorandum to Regional Archeologist by Dawson Campbell, January 1, 1963, Folder H26, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument files.

10 Memorandum to Regional Archeologist by Gordon Vivian, December 2, 1963, Folder H2215, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

11 Ibid

12 Memorandum to Regional Archeologist, SWRO, by William Gibson, August 9, 1967, Folder H30, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

13 Memorandum to Chief, Southwest Archeological Center, by Roland Richert, November 24, 1967, Folder H30, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

14 Memorandum to Director by Frank Kowski, December 22, 1967, Folder H30, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

15 Memorandum to Regional Interpretive Archaeologist, by Roland Richert, March 12, 1968, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Memorandum to Regional Director, Southwest, by William Lukens, March 23, 1968, Folder H30, Box 19, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

16 Don Morris and his crew capped walls in 32 rooms with masonry set in tinted cement, inserted a foundation under the badly sagging north wall of Room 27, and--to prevent the entry of visitors into Cave 2--raised the south wall of Room 1. The cavity below Room 1, in which Steen had built a rock-and-adobe support in 1942, was filled with additional masonry; the arch breaks in Rooms 7 and 10 were filled; and the arch break in the north wall of Room 4 was repaired with reinforcing steel and tinted mortar. Viga and savino sockets were repaired or re-formed in Rooms 9, 17, 20, and 32; and doorways were repaired in Rooms 17 and 25. The floor features in Room 37 were reinforced with tinted cement. Elsewhere, walls were patched with cement. All cement work was covered with a slurry of mud. Don Morris, Stabilization Report, 1968, Gila Cliff Dwellings, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, November 1968, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

17 Don Morris to Roland Richert, October 5, 1968, Folder H30, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

18 Memorandum to Director, Southwest Region, by William Lukens, November 5, 1970, Folder H30, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

19 "Cooperative Agreement between the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, April 10, 1975," Section A.2, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

20 Nordby, "A Stabilization Inspection, 1979," p. 4.

21 Ibid.

22 Memorandum to Chief, Division of Conservation, SWR, by John Morgart, February 19, 1987, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico. Thomas Vitanza to David Dahl, May 7, 1987, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

23 In view of the danger presented to visitors by exfoliating rock in Cave 1, benches were removed from the interior, and a painted metal railing was constructed to deter entrance. A similar railing was placed across the west end of Cave 2 for the same reasons. Additional railings were positioned in front of the small cavity beneath Room 25 and across the entrance to Cave 6, and loose rock was removed from over the trail in Cave 5. Using mud, Mogart's crew of two repointed the fallen wall in Cave 1, regrouted and—where necessary—lay new stones in the bases of south walls in Rooms 1 and 4, where percolating ground moisture had deteriorated the bedrock. They repaired minor basal damage in Rooms 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 16, 21, 22, 25, and 30. Much of the damage there was the product of rodents. The southwest corner of Room 21, which visitors had loosened over time, was rebuilt using a cement amended mortar, and a new lintel was installed in the upper-level doorway in Room 25, with a date stamped into the wood. The vigas in Room 17 were wedged tight with mud mortar, and throughout the ruin all wood was treated with preservatives.

24 FY 90 Annual Statement for Interpretation, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, p. 9.


Chapter VII


1 Forest Ranger Munro, "Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument", undated manuscript, Folder L, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

2 Folder labeled "Neat Stuff", Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

3 Laut, "Why Go Abroad?" pp. 156-64.

4 Memorandum to General Superintendent, Southwestern Monuments, by Dale King, November 15, 1955, Folder A9815, Box 8, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

5 Southwestern National Monuments, Information revised as of June 1, 1940, New Mexico State Records Center and Archives, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

6 Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, WPA Files #27, New Mexico State Records Center and Archives, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

7 Memorandum to Superintendent, Southwestern Monuments, by W. Tillotson, August 18, 1941, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

8 Frank Roberts to Dawson Campbell, July 14, 1947, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Charlie Steen, untitled and undated manuscript, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Erik Reed, "A Review of Upper Gila Prehistory," undated manuscript, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Although neither Steen's nor Reed's manuscripts are dated, they are accompanied by memoranda that tie the overviews to the year 1949. Memorandum to Superintendent, Gila Cliff Dwellings, by Charlie Steen, April 7, 1949, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. Memorandum to Superintendent, Gila Cliff Dwellings, by Erik Reed, May 13, 1949, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

9 Bandelier, Final Report of Investigations, pp. 359-362.

10 Cosgrove, Caves of the Upper Gila.

11 Archeological research along the headwaters of the Gila and the evolution of archeological taxonomies are addressed more completely in Chapter IV and Chapter V.

12 Dawson Campbell, personal communication to the author, March 18, 1990.

13 Gordon Vivian, "Gila Cliff Dwellings: Archaeological Resume," March 29, 1956, Folder A9815, Box 8, GICL, Federal Records Center, Denver, Colorado.

14 Reporting on an inspection trip made to the monument in 1958, the assistant regional director recommended that management still be directed primarily towards protection. Memorandum to Regional Director, by Harthon L. Bill, June 23, 1958, Folder A5427, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

15 "Management Appraisal of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico, November 6 and 7, 1968," December 12, 1968, Folder A5427, Box 5, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch, p. 23.

16 Monthly Narrative Report to Regional Director, SWR, by James Sleznick, May 26, 1963, Folder A2823, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

17 James Sleznick, personal communication to the author, March 25, 1991.

18 Ibid.

19 Memorandum to Director, by James Sleznick, January 25, 1965, Folder K2621, Box 17, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

20 Ibid.

21 Monthly Narrative Report to Regional Director, SWR, by James Sleznick, September 10, 1966, Folder A2823, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

22 A self-guiding trail and the constant presence of a uniformed employee had been the original interpretive plan proposed in the second 1955 MISSION 66 prospectus, and this plan had been reaffirmed by comments on the 1964 Master Plan. Albert Schroeder, Comments attached to routing sheet, July 12, 1962, Folder D18, Box 1, GICL, Denver Federal Record Center.

23 The number of visitors in 1968 was double what the Park Service had projected in a 1961 forecast of visitor use. Memorandum to Regional Director, by Rendel Alldredge, September 14, 1961, Folder A88, Box 13, GICL, Denver Federal Record Center.

24 William Lukens to Frank Kowski, March 23, 1968, Folder H30, Box 19, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

25 William Lukens to Frank Kowski, January 13, 1969, Folder A5427, Box 5, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

26 Dick Morishige to Regional Chief of Interpretation and Visitor Services, July 1, 1969, File D6215, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

27<26/A> Ibid

28 "Archeological Research Management Plan for Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, April 1969," Folder H2215, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

29 Don Morris, "A Preliminary Report of a Survey of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and a Portion of the Gila National Forest," undated manuscript, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

30 Ibid, p. 3.

31 Memorandum to Chairman Mission 66, by John Davis, November 16, 1955, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

32 Jean Swearingen to Chuck Hill, June 9, 1969, Folder D6215, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

33 In 1976, during the first year of management by the Gila National Forest, the primacy of personal contact as an interpretive strategy at the monument was noted by a visiting Park Service official, and this emphasis on personal contact was reiterated as recently as 1990 in that year's Statement for Management. Memorandum for the Curator, Division of Interpretation and Visitor Services by David Brugge, July 29, 1976, Folder A5425, Box 3, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch. "Statement for Management 1990," Folder 1580, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, p. 8.

34 "Plan for Interpretation, Wilderness Ranger District, Gila National Forest, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico," February, 1978, Folder K1817, Box 24, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

35 "Interpretive Prospectus, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Wilderness Ranger District, Gila National Forest, September 1981," Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

36 Memorandum to Associate Regional Director, Park Operations, SWR, by Charles McCurdy, May 18, 1981, Folder A5425, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

37 "Statement for Management, April 1986," Folder 1580, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, p. 24.

38 Ibid, p. 3.

39 "Annual Statement for Interpretation, February 1988," Folder 1580, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

40 Anderson et al.

41 Stephen Lekson, "Archeological Overview of Southwestern New Mexico (first draft)," prepared for New Mexico State Historic Preservation Division, Project No. 35-88-30120.004, September 5, 1989, Chap. 4, p. 72. Cultural Resources Library, Gila National Forest, Silver City, New Mexico.

42 Sharon Prell, "Resources Management Plan for Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," September 1981, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico. Theresa Nichols, "Resources Management Plan for Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," December 7, 1987, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

43 "Natural and Historic Resources Management Plan, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," undated manuscript, Folder N2215, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

44 Memorandum to Associate Regional Director, Park System Management, SWR, by Mark Mosely, January 9 1975, Folder N22, Box 29, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

45 Lists of the proposed projects are included in the appendices.

46 McKenna and Bradford, TJ Ruin.

47 The survey was performed in the fall and spring of 1988-89. The results have not yet been published.


Chapter VIII


1 Bandelier, The Southwestern Journals, p. 193.

2 E. B. Danson to Conrad Wirth, May 29, 1962, Folder H2215, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

3 R. B. Smith to David Dahl, June 11, 1990, Folder N2219, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

4 E. B. Danson to Conrad Wirth, May 29, 1962, Folder H2215, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

5 Rick Smith, personal communication to the author, March 18, 1991.

6 Steve Reiser, "A Summary of Threats to Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument," January 18, 1980, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

7 Memorandum to Regional Director, Region Three, by Dawson Campbell, January 6, 1958, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

8 Anderson et al., The Archeology of Gila Cliff Dwellings, p. 274.

9 Personal communication from seasonal ranger to author, June 9, 1991.

10 Bruce Wachter. See footnote 19.

11 Eric Finklestein, personal communication to the author, November 20, 1990.

12 Monthly Narrative Report to Regional Director, SWR, by James Sleznick, April 27, 1964, Folder A2823, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

13 "Statement for Management, April 1986," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, p.28.

14 Charles Sayre to Keith LeMay, October 20, 1988, Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

15 Roads within the monument are carried on the inventory rolls of the Forest Service, which logically would be responsible for repair should damage occur that the state highway department could not address.

16 Sleznick noted that this flood was the fourth to wash out the bridge over the West Fork. Memorandum to Regional Director, by James Sleznick, August 17, 1967, GICL, Folder A7627, Box 9, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

17 "Superintendent's Annual Report, 1973," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

18 Nordby, "A Stabilization Inspection, 1979."

19

20 Bruce Wachter, "Bedrock Deterioration and Rockfall Hazard at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument: Report of Examination Trip of September 11, 1985," Folder 1580, Gila National Forest Files, Silver City, New Mexico.

21 Bandelier, Southwestern Journals, p. 195.

22 Memorandum to Acting Regional Director, by W. H. Wirt, October 28, 1937, Folder L, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

23 "U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agreement with the New Mexico Game and Fish Commission, State of New Mexico, June, 28, 1951," Folder 2600, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

24 John Kramer, personal communication to the author, May 24, 1991.

25 "Statement for Interpretation, 1980," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

26 John Kramer, "Survey of Aircraft Flights over Wilderness, June 6, 1988," Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

27 Memorandum to Forest Supervisor, by Janet Hurley, March 15, 1989, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

28 "Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement between the United States Forest Service, Gila National Forest, and the National Park Service, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, April 6, 1964," Folder Y14, Box 13, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

29 Memorandum to Chief, Ruins Stabilization Unit, by Don Morris, August 30, 1968, Monument Files, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument.

30 Eric Finklestein, personal communication to the author, June 11, 1991.

31 "Annual Statement for Interpretation and Visitors Services, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, 1980," GICL, Folder K1817, Box 29, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch.

32 Peter Stewart, personal communication to the author, March 10, 1991.

32 "Annual Statement for Interpretation and Visitor Services, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, 1980," Folder K1817, Box 29, GICL, National Archives, Fort Worth Branch, p.11.

33 Peter Stewart, personal communication to the author, March 10, 1991.



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