USGS Logo Geological Survey Bulletin 845
Guidebook of the Western United States: Part F. Southern Pacific Lines



Principal Divisions of Geologic Time



New Orleans, La., to Lobo, Tex.
Side trip to Carlsbad Caverns, N. Mex.
Lobo to El Paso, Tex.
North line from El Paso, Tex., to Mescal Ariz.
South line from El Paso, Tex., to Mescal, Ariz.
Mescal to Tucson, Ariz.
Tucson to Picacho, Ariz.
Mainline, Picacho to Phoenix and Wellton, Ariz.
Detour by the Apache Trail.
Main line, Phoenix to Wellton, Ariz.
Old main line, Picacho to Wellton, Ariz.
Wellton to Yuma, Ariz.
Yuma, Ariz., to Los Angeles, Calif.
Yuma, Ariz., to San Diego, Calif.

History of the Railroad


Index (omitted from the online edition)



1. New Orleans to Schriever La.
2. Chacahoulato Segura, La.
3. Burke to Welsh, La.
4. Lacassine, La., to Orange, Tex.
5. Terry to Liberty, Tex.
6. Liberty to Richmond, Tex.
7. Rosenberg to Borden, Tex.
8. Weimar to Luling, Tex.
9. Sullivan to Macdona, Tex.
10. Idlewild to Ange, Tex.
11. Uvalde to Amanda, Tex.
12. Johnstone to Hijito, Tex.
13. Pumpville to Longfellow, Tex.
14. Rosenfeld to Alpine, Tex.
15. Toronto to Chispa, Tex.
16. Wendel to Lasca, Tex.
17. Torcer to El Paso, Tex.
18. Ysleta, Tex., to Cambray, N. Mex. (north line), and Malpais, N. Mex. (south line)
19. Akela to Ladim, N. Mex. (north line), and Arena to Hachita, N. Mex. (south line)
20. Separ, N. Mex., to Olga, Ariz. (north line), and Minero, N. Mex., to Perilla, Ariz. (south line)
21. Holt to Chamiso, Ariz. (north line), and Silver Creek to San Juan, Ariz. (south line)
22. Mescal to Wymola, Ariz.
23. Ocatilla to Norton (north line) and Estrella, Ariz. (south line)
24. Liberty to Athel, Ariz. (new line), and Shawmut to Aztec, Ariz. (old line)
25. Horn (new line) and Musina (old line) to Fortuna, Ariz.
26. Araby, Ariz., to Niland, Calif.
27. Mundo to Garnet, Calif.
28. Hugo to Colton, Calif.
29. Colton to Los Angeles, Calif.


1. Map showing precipitation in the Southwest

2. Relief map showing larger features of the Southwest and the location of areas covered by sheets 1 to 29

3. A, Old French market in Vieux Carré, New Orleans; B,Typical graveyard in New Orleans

4. A, Woodland scene, south-central Louisiana; B, Salt mining, Avery Island, La.

5. A, Oil field near Jennings, La.; B, Galveston, Tex.

6. A, Cotton ready for shipment, Galveston, Tex.; B, Block of sulphur at New Gulf, Tex.

7. A, The Alamo, San Antonio, Tex.; B, Palace of Spanish governor, San Antonio, Tex.

8. A, Austin chalk, San Antonio, Tex.; B, Quaternary and Eocene deposits, San Antonio, Tex.

9. A, Armadillos in central Texas; B, Fault in Buda limestone northwest of Hondo, Tex.; C, Columnar structure in basalt near Knippa, Tex.

10. A, Asphalt quarry southeast of Clime, Tex.; B, Eagle Ford and Buda contact northwest of Hacienda siding, Tex.

11. A, Anacacho limestone north of Hondo, Tex.; B, Del Rio clay capped by Buda limestone, Comstock, Tex.; C, Recesses and buttresses, Castle Canyon, west of Del Rio, Tex.

12. A, Bridge over canyon of Pecos River, Tex.; B, Brahma cattle

13. A, Comanche limestone on tilted Pennsylvanian strata, Tesnus, Tex.; B, Sinuous ridges of hard beds in Marathon Basin, Tex.; C, Mitre Peak, near Alpine, Tex.

14. A, Lava and tuff of Davis Mountains, west of Alpine, Tex.; B, Paisano Pass, Davis Mountains, Tex.

15. A, Permian limestone on El Paso limestone north of Van Horn, Tex.; B, Guadalupe Point, Tex.

16. A, Finback lizards of Permian time; B, Carlsbad Caverns, N. Mex.

17. A, Badlands in lake beds; B, Overturned sycline of Malone Mountains, Tex.

18. A, Smelter at El Paso, Tex.; B, Kilbourne Hole, a crater west of El Paso, Tex.

19. A, Edge of lava west of El Paso, Tex.; B, Restoration of giant sloth

20. A, "Lilies of the desert"; B, Water from the biznaga

21. Mission of San Xavier de Bac, near Tucson, Ariz.

22. A, Maguey; B, Picacho, near Wymola, Ariz.

23. A, Rattlesnake, common in the Southwest; B, Gila monster

24. A, Casa Grande, Ariz.; B, Typical Pima home

25. A, Desert plain, western Arizona; B, Pictographs near Sacaton, Ariz.

26. A, Dates in Salt River Valley, Ariz.; B, Cotton field, Salt River Valley

27. A, Desert of Salt River Valley, Ariz.; B, Irrigating in Salt River Valley

28. A, Cliff dwellings, Tonto National Monument, Ariz.; B, Roosevelt Dam, Ariz.

29. A, Encampment of Apache Indians; B, View across Canyon Lake, Ariz.

30. Canyon of Fish Creek, Ariz.

31. A, Blossoms of prickly pear cactus; B, Superstition Mountain, Ariz.

32. A, Montezuma Face, near Ryder, Ariz.; B, Northern part of Mohawk Mountains, Ariz.

33. A, The Explorer, of the Ives expedition; B, Gila River from Antelope Hill, Ariz.

34. A, Part of Yuma, Ariz.; B, Irrigated district near Yuma

35. Map of the Colorado River delta region, below Yuma, Ariz.

36. A, Drifting sands near Amos, Calif.; B, Salton Sea, Calif.

37. A, Irrigating date palms, Imperial Valley, Calif.; B, Cotton in Imperial Valley

38. A, Mud volcanoes southwest of Niland, Calf.; B, Travertine of Lake Cahuilla, Calif.

39. A, B, San Andreas fault northwest of Indio, Calif.

40. A, Tertiary strata east of Mecca, Calif.; B, Tilted late Tertiary beds in Indio Hills, Calif.

41. A, Ocotillo and cholla, Coachella Valley, Calif.; B, Washington palms in Palm Canyon, Calif.

42. A, San Jacinto Mountain, Calif.; B, Orange trees in fruit, Redlands, Calif.

43. View up San Timoteo Valley, Calif.

44. A, San Bernardino Peak from point near Redlands, Calif.; B, Magnolia Avenue, Riverside, Calif.

45. A, Picking lemons near Riverside, Calif.; B, Orange groves near Riverside

46. A, The great arrow-shaped scar near Arrowhead Springs, Calif.; B, Upturned strata in Cajon Pass, Calif.

47. Los Angeles Plain, Calif.

48. A, Shore of the Pacific Ocean at Santa Monica, Calif.; B, Asphalt pits at La Brea, Calf.

49. Carrizo Gorge, Calif.


1. Hypothetical section of salt dome at Avery Island, La.
2. Section across dome near Sulphur, La.
3. Section through Spindletop salt dome, Tex.
4. Section through Columbus and Glidden, Tex.
5. Section across Salt Flat oil field, Tex.
6. Diagram showing changes in stratigraphy, Spofford to San Antonio, Tex.
7. Sketch section from Turkey Mountain through Anacacho Mountain, Tex.
8. Section at Langtry, Tex.
9. Section near Maxon, Tex.
10. Section through House Mountain, Tex.
11. Section showing lithologic variations in the Permian of Glass Mountains, Tex.
12. Section southeast of Dugout Mountain, Tex.
13. Section of Altuda Mountain, Tex.
14. Section across Alpine Basin north of Alpine, Tex.
15. Profile of northern part of Tierra Vieja Mountains, Tex.
16. Section across Van Horn Mountains, Tex.
17. Map showing route from Lobo, Tex., to Carlsbad Caverns, N. Mex.
18. Section of east front of Sierra Diablo at Victorio Peak, Tex.
19. Section across Sierra Diablo and Baylor Mountains, Tex.
20. Sections across Guadalupe Mountains at El Capitan, Tex., and Carlsbad Caverns, N. Mex.
21. Section across western part of Wylie Mountains, Tex.
22. Section from Diablo Plateau to Eagle Flat, Tex.
23. Section from Quitman Mountains to Sierra Blanca, Tex.
24. Section across Malone Mountains, Tex.
25. Section through south end of Hueco Mountains, Tex.
26. Section across Franklin Mountains, Tex.
27. Section west of El Paso, Tex.
28. Cross section of Kilbourne Hole, west of Lanark, N. Mex.
29. Section through Goodsight Peak, N. Mex.
30. Sections across Florida Mountains, N. Mex.
31. Sections across Little Florida Mountains, N. Mex.
32. Section across Fluorite Ridge, N. Mex.
33. Sections across Cooks Range, N. Mex.
34. Sections across Victorio Mountains, N. Mex.
35. Map showing Gadsden Purchase
36. Section of Dos Cabezas Mountains, Ariz.
37. Sections across Dragoon Mountains, Ariz.
38. Section through Johnson mining district, Ariz.
39. Section across northwest end of Whetstone Mountains, Ariz.
40. Section through Bowen siding, N. Mex.
41. Section across Tres Hermanas Mountains, N. Mex.
42. Section across north end of flatchet Mountains, N. Mex.
43. Section of Chiricahua Mountains near Portal, Ariz.
44. Section across explosion crater southeast of Chiricahua, Ariz.
45. Section across Bisbee region, Ariz.
46. Section north of Helvetia mining camp, Ariz.
47. Geologic map and sections east of Vail, Ariz.
48. Section at Picacho de la Calera, northwest of Tucson, Ariz.
49. Section of west side of Tucson Mountains, Ariz.
50. Section through Tempe Butte and Tempe Well, Ariz.
51. Map showing route of Apache Trail, Ariz.
52. Section across Hayes Mountain, southwest of San Carlos, Ariz.
53. Section of region near Globe, Ariz.
54. Outline geologic map of Globe-Miami region, Ariz.
55. Section northwest of Miami, Ariz.
56. Section through Sierra Ancha, Ariz.
57. Section at Roosevelt Dam, Ariz.
58. Section 15 miles southwest of Roosevelt Dam, Ariz.
59. Section at Gillespie Dam, Ariz.
60. Section in Yellow Medicine Butte, Ariz.
61. Section of north end of Gila Mountains, Ariz.
62. Diagrammatic section across Coachella Valley through Mecca, Calif.
63. Section through San Jacinto Mountains, Calif.
64. Cross section of San Gorgonio Pass near Cabazon, Calif.
65. Section from Banning, Calif., north to San Bernardino Mountain
66. Sections northwest of San Bernardino, Calif.
67. Section of San Jose Hills, Calif.
68. Sections across Puente Hills, Calif.
69. Restoration of saber-toothed tiger, sloth, and dire wolf at La Brea, Calif.
70. Section across Coyote Mountain, Calif.
71. Section north of Jacumba Springs, Calif.

HAROLD L. ICKES, Secretary

W. C. MEDENHALL, Director

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Last Updated: 16-Feb-2007