USGS Logo Geological Survey Bulletin 611
Guidebook of the Western United States: Part A



Principal Divisions of Geologic Time




References cited

Glossary of Geologic Terms

Index of Railroad Stations



For the convenience of the traveler the sheets of the rents map are so folded and placed that he can unfold them one by one and keep each one in view while he is reading the text relating to it. A reference in parentheses is given in the text at each point where a new sheet should be unfolded.


1. St. Paul to Cable, Minn
2. St. Cloud to Verndale, Minn. (with map of Cuyuna iron range)
3. Wadena to Hawley, Minn. (with map of western and Superior ice sheets of Minnesota)
4. Hawley, Minn., to Buffalo, N. Dak. (with map of glacial Lake Agassiz)
5. Tower City to Berner, N. Dak. (with map showing moraines formed by the ice sheet that crossed North Dakota in Wisconsin time)
6. Eldridge to Geneva, N. Dak
7. Driscoll to Sedalia, N. Dak
8. New Salem to Gladstone, N. Dak
9. Lehigh to Sentinel Butte, N. Dak
10. Beach, N. Dak., to Fallon, Mont
11. Fallon to Joppa, Mont
12. Rosebud to Custer, Mont
13. Waco to Laurel, Mont
14. Park City to Dehart, Mont
15. Carney to Central Park, Mont
16. Manhattan to Stuart, Mont
17. Townsend to Elliston, Mont
18. Warm Springs to Clinton, Mont. (with map of western Montana showing distribution of known Tertiary lake beds)
19. Turah to Weeksville, Mont. (with map of glacial Lake Missoula)
20. Eddy, Mont., to Hope, Idaho
21. Oden, Idaho, to Spokane, Wash
22. Marshall to Ritzville, Wash
23. Essig to Vale, Wash. (with map of the great lava plateau of Columbia River)
24. Eltopia to Mabton, Wash
25. Empire to Wymer, Wash
26. Indio to Lester, Wash
27. Lester to Seattle, Wash. (with map showing depth of water in Elliott Bay, Seattle)



I. Relief map showing surface features of the western part of the United States
II. Minnehaha, "Laughing Water
III. A, Valley City, N. Dak., from the "high line"; B, The "high line" across the valley of Sheyenne River, N. Dak.
IV. A, Badlands in the vicinity of Mandan, N. Dak.; B, Cracks produced by the burning of a bed of lignite
V. A, B, Erosion forms of North Dakota
VI. A, Silicified stump in Pyramid Park, N. Dak.; B, The "prow of the battleship," one of the buttes of Pyramid Park, N. Dak
VII. A, View of the badlands of North Dakota; B, A bed of lignite 15 feet thick in the canyon of Little Missouri River, N. Dak
VIII. A, B, Views of the badlands of North Dakota
IX. A—D, Views of the badlands of North Dakota and Montana
X. The great Triceratops, which in Lance time roamed through the forests of Montana and North Dakota
XI. A, Bluffs of Lance formation on Yellowstone River west of Hysham, Mont.; B, Fossil palm leaf of Eocene age found near Hysham, Mont
XII. A, B, Views in the sheep range of Montana
XIII. A, Pompeys Pillar, Mont., as seen from the Northern Pacific Railway; B, Inscription made by Capt. Clark on Pompeys Pillar, July 25, 1806
XIV. Emigrant Peak, the sentinel guarding the northern approach to Yellowstone Park
XV. Rocky gateway which Rock Creek has cut through the Madison limestone below Chestnut, Mont
XVI. View looking west from Homestake summit, Mont
XVII. Silver Bow Canyon, Mont
XVIII. Cliffs of Madison limestone at Lombard, Mont
XIX. A, Summer camp of the Flathead Indians, a familiar scene in the Jocko Valley, Mont.; B, Glacier on the north slope of McDonald Peak, Mont
XX. View down Flathead River from Knowles, Mont
XXI. Cabinet Gorge, Idaho
XXII. A, White Bluff of the Columbia, 20 miles above Pasco, Wash.; B, Columnar lava at Cactus siding, 5 miles south of Connell Wash.
XXIII. Mount Adams, as seen from the Northern Pacific trains near Toppenish, Wash
XXIV. A, Yakima Canyon, Wash.; B, Columnar andesite near Yakima Canyon, Wash
XXV. Beautiful Lake Keechelus, Wash
XXVI. The almost impassable tangle of a Washington forest
XXVII. Mount Rainier, "monarch of the Cascades," as seen from the boulevard on the shore of Lake Washington, Seattle, Wash



1. Section across Mississippi Valley between St. Paul and Fort Snelling, Minn
2. Diagram showing northward rise of the rocks in the vicinity of Minneapolis, Minn
3. Diagram showing probable origin of many kettle holes
4. Section of Buffalo River delta, Minn
5. Section of Herman beach ridge west of Magnolia, N. Dak
6. Gingko leaf
7. Diagram of Glendive anticline, Mont
8. Sun-bleached skull near Miles City, Mont
9. Diagram showing the thinning out and coming in of formations from Black Hills, S. Dak., to Billings, Mont
10. Monument built by sheep herder
11. Eagle sandstone north of Park City, Mont
12. Cross section to illustrate the change in the formations between Terry and Livingston, Mont
13. Cross section showing the rim of the mountains south of Livingston, Mont
14. Diagram showing the structure of Cinnabar Mountain, Mont
15. Dike cutting coal bed and sill intruded in a position to affect the quality of the coal
16. Vertical fold in Madison limestone west of Chestnut, Mont
17. Upturned Madison limestone and associated rocks, forming the Bridger Range, Mont
18. Southeast side of the great synclinal basin north of Logan, Mont
19. Diagram to explain the course of Jefferson River west of Willow Creek, Mont
20. Section of great anticlinal fold near Lime Spur, Mont
21. Diagram of braided stream
22. Diagram of Continental Divide east of Butte, Mont
23. Diagrams illustrating the ways in which the broad valleys of the Rocky Mountain region were formed
24. Sections along Northern Pacific Railway between Durant and Drummond, Mont., showing probable mode of formation of Deer Lodge Valley
25. Section between Logan and Trident, Mont
26. Faulted fold at Trident, Mont
27. Fold and fault in the rocks near Lombard, Mont
28. Diagram of fold west of Drummond, Mont
29. Horizontal beach lines on Mount Jumbo, as seen from railway station at Missoula, Mont
30. Normal faults and overthrust fault
31. Great folds in the rocks between Plains and Thompson Falls, Mont
32. Profile of mountain slope east of Sandpoint, Idaho
33. Cross-bedding in glacial gravel on Latah Creek 1 mile west of Spokane, Wash
34. Island of gneiss or schist in the lava near Marshall, Wash
35. Section of Yakima Valley east of Prosser, Wash
36. Fold in basalt north of Roza, Wash
37. Section showing structure of Yakima basalt north of Ellensburg, Wash
38. Section showing size and shape of the valley of Green River below Eagle Gorge, Wash., compared with the valley the river abandoned when it was blocked by ice


George Otis Smith, Director

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Last Updated: 28-Mar-2006