III. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION (continued)
2. Preliminary research suggests that much of the contemporary spatial organization of the U.S. Army's Vancouver Barracks, within and outside the park boundaries, posesses significant historic integrity. Long-term planning for this area will require additional research and evaluation prior to any development or treatment of the existing complex.
"In general, beans and clover, with rye-grass, are interposed between corn crops on clayey soils; and turnips, potatoes, and clover with rye-grass in dry loams and sands, or what are technically known by the name of turnip soils. A variety of other plants, such as peas, tares, cabbages, and carrots, occupy a part, though commonly but a small part, of that division of a farm which is allotted to green crops. This order of succession is called the system of alternate husbandry; and on rich soils, or such as have access to abundance of putrescent manure, it is certainly the most productive of all others, both for food for man and for the inferior animals. One half of a farm is in this course always under some of the different species of cereal grasses [wheat, barley, oats and rye], and the other half under pulse [legumes-peas, stares, beans], roots [potatoes, turnips, parsnips, carrots], cultivated herbage [clover, lucern, saintfoin, sometimes-tares, sweet peas], or plain fallow. But the greater part of the arable land of Britain cannot be maintained in a fertile state under this management; and sandy soils, even though highly manured, soon become too incohesive under a course of constant tillage. It therefore becomes necessary to leave that division or break that carries cultivated herbage to be pastured for two years or more...; and all the fields of a farm are treated thus in their turn if they require it. This is called the system of convertible husbandry, a regular change being constantly going on from aration to pasturage, and vice versa."
9. The garden layout of this map may have been inaccurate or schematic in quality, bust the accuracy of the cartographer regarding the remainder of the map is relatively high, lending credibility to this garden depiction. In addition, several nineteenth century books recommended kitchen gardens be laid out along an east-west orientation to take advantage of more southern exposure, and that the garden be divided into beds separated by paths. These recommendations add credence to the 1844 garden layout. For example, J.C. Loudon states in his "Encyclopedia of Agriculture", found in McLoughlin's library, that "The best form is a parallelogram, lying east and west, which may be intersected by walks, so as to divide it into four or six other parallelograms...".
10. One possible indication of the age of the trees is the 1846/47 Stanley drawing. This is the only mustration that shows the garden area east of the summerhouse and it does not show any trees there. If correct, this indicates, the 1860 trees were, at most, thirteen to fourteen years old.
13. Other possible sources of 'grafted' trees, also post-date Dunn's stay: Tolmie may have brought back grafted fruit trees from Scotland in 1842; Henry Luelling who had the first nursery in the Pacific Northwest, and who stocked grafted trees, did not arrive in Oregon until 1847; and while there is no record of plants arriving from California, there were small areas of dwarf apple and pear trees planted there between 1852 and 1858. (Hedrick, U.P., A History of Horticulture in America To 1860, Reprint: Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 1988, p. 379.)
Previous to Henry Luelling, an attempt to transport grafted fruit trees to the Oregon territory was initiated by William Barlow, an 1845 immigrant. Barlow departed from Illinois with an assortment of Illinois' best grafted trees but abandoned the trees upon reaching Independence Rock after being advised his wagons would not survive the trip. He later recounted that his decision to forgo this endeavor probably cost him $50,000 as "there were no grafted apple trees in all the territory . . . and I could have made a full monopoly of all the apples and pears on the coast." (Carey, Charles Henry, History of Oregon, The Pioneer Historical Publishing Company, Chicago Portland, 1922, p. 800.)
Even at the garden at Chiswick, in the early 1820s, a majority of the trees in the orchard were standard trees (2,000-3,000) and the remainder dwarf trees (500). In the kitchen garden a the majority of fruit trees were dwarf. Horticultural Society of London, Report of the Garden Committee..., William Nichol, Cleveland-Row, St. James, London, March 31, 1823, p. 4.
17. Preliminary research indicates other trees in the Vancouver Barracks portions of the park may have historic integrity, for example, the large deciduous trees, including oaks, located along the southwest side of the park. These trees were planted in 1883 along both sides of Dr. McLoughlin Road, a Vancouver Barracks depot road leading from E. Fifth St. to the riverfront, which dated from the early 1850s.
Significant vegetation outside the park boundaries includes the maple trees on both sides of Evergreen Blvd. that were planted in front of Officer's Row in the 1880s. These trees create a strong visual edge to the north side of the parade ground and the park's northern boundary.
18. Thomas, Bryn and Charles Hibbs, Jr., Report of Investigations of Excavations at Kanaka Village, Vancouver Barracks Washington 1980/1981, Washington State Dept. of Transportation, 1984, Vol. 1., pp. 46-47.
19. Hussey, John A., The History of Fort Vancouver and its Physical Structure, Washington State Historical Society, published in cooperation with the National Park Service, Abbott, Kerns & Bell Company, Portland, Oregon, 1957, p. 162.
22. Thomas, Bryn, An Archaeological Assessment of the St. James Mission Property, Vancouver, Washington, Archaeological and Historical Services, Report Number 100-37, Eastern Washington University Reports in Archaeology and History, Cheney, Washington, 1984, pp. 15-33.
23. Thomas, Bryn, and Charles Hibbs Jr., Report of the Excavations at Kanaka Village, Vancouver Barracks Washington 1980/1981, prepared for the Washington State Department of Transportation, by Archaeological and Historical Services, Eastern Washington University, 1984, Vol.11, pg. 725.
Dole, Philip, The Picket Fence in Oregon, Cultural Technical Booklet Number One, Historic Preservation Program, Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon., 1986.
Last Updated: 27-Oct-2003