On-line Book

Book Cover






Study Area

Elk Population

Population Dynamics

Elk Habits

Effects on Habitats

Elk Management






Research Report GRTE-N-1
The Elk of Grand Teton and Southern Yellowstone National Parks
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The bulletin is a contribution from the National Park Service's Office of Natural Science Studies, Project GRTE-N-1. Dr. Don C. Quimby, Montana State University; Dr. A. Starker Leopold, University of California; and Dr. D. R. McCullough, University of Michigan, reviewed the manuscript.

Clifford J. Martinka, Douglas B. Houston, Larry D. Clark, and Floyd A. Gordon greatly aided field studies while serving as seasonal biologists on the project. Wyoming biologist, Ira James Yorgason, who worked cooperatively with the author on elk migration and distribution studies, freely communicated results from his own studies and aided in the development of refined elk management programs. I wish to thank Kenneth Martin, Supervisor of the Jackson District, and other personnel of the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission for cooperation which greatly facilitated the study.

Kenneth Greer, Supervisor of the Montana Fish and Game Department Laboratory, examined elk reproductive material and tabulated results. Dr. Charles Loveless, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, provided for the loan of photoelectric eye counters to study elk movements along migration trails and helped in their initial installation. The Grand Teton ranger force operated and maintained records at a hunter check station and processed biological collections. Former Grand Teton Park Superintendents Fred C. Fagergren and Jack K. Anderson, the Grand Teton staff, and Regional Biologist Walter H. Kittams provided administrative assistance which made the study possible. Robert H. Bendt, National Park Service, and Chester C. Anderson, Wyoming Game and Fish Commission, made the 1959 measurements of subalpine vegetation used in the study. My wife, Gladys Irene, and family abided with extended periods of field work and manuscript preparation.

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Last Modified: Tues, Jan 20 2004 10:00:00 pm PDT

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