Historic Resource Study
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I. Archival Collections

Alaska Regional Office, National Park Service

General Records: MOMC Lands Files, L1417 and L3027 (Pilgrim Road File).

Alaska State Archives, Juneau:

RG 101 (Governor's Correspondence with the NPS), Box 172, 195, 219, 246, 306, 315, 321, 336, 368, 468, and 573.

Bruce Campbell Collection, Anchorage.

Denali National Park and Preserve Archives, McKinley Park.

National Archives, San Bruno, Calif.:

RG 79 (Records of the National Park Service), Box 9, 77, 78, 79, and 85.

National Archives, Washington, D.C.:

RG 79 (Records of the National Park Service), Entry 6 (General Files, NPS, Mount McKinley NP, up to 1933), Box 201, 369, 370, 374, 379, and 381 through 385; Entry 7 (same subject, after 1933), Box 371, 630, 1403, 1404, 1408 through 1410, 1412, 1414, 1415, 1417, 1419, and 1420.

University of Alaska, Fairbanks:

Lee R. Dice Collection.
Col. Frederick Mears Collection.
Adolph Murie Collection, Box 12 and 14.
Olaus J. Murie Collection, Box 2, 4 and 7.
Oral History Archive: Slim Carlson interviews, 1965, and Robert Rose, 1985.
Reprint File: Falcon Joslin address.
Charles Sheldon Collection: Box 1 and 4.

USGS Technical Data File, Menlo Park, Calif.:

Prindle, L.M., Field Notebook 133-A.

II. Theses, Dissertations, Government Agency Reports and Unpublished Reports

Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, "Historical Profile of the Alaska Railroad," contract report of September 1980, available at Alaska State Library.

Bishop, Richard H., Subsistence Resource Use in the Proposed North Addition to Mt. McKinley National Park, Occasional Paper Number 17, Anthropology and Historic Preservation, Cooperative Park Studies Unit (Fairbanks: University of Alaska), 1978.

Brooker, Edgar, Jr., [Brooker family biographies], n.d., in DENA archives.

Brown, C.M., "The Alaska Railroad: Probing the Interior," report for the History and Archeology Branch of the Alaska Division of Parks (Anchorage), October 1975.

Buzzell, Rolfe, "Overview of Mining in the Kantishna District, 1903-1968," 1989; MS on file at Alaska Regional Office, NPS.

Dice, Lee R., "Interior Alaska in 1911 and 1912: Observations by a Naturalist," MS in Dice Collection, UAF Archives.

Evans, Gail E.H., "From Myth to Reality: Travel Experiences and Landscape Perceptions in the Shadow of Mount McKinley, Alaska, 1876-1938," Master of Arts thesis (Santa Barbara: University of California), 1987.

Grinnell, George Bird, "Charles Sheldon," MS in William Sheldon Collection, copied from research files of Gail Evans, DENA.

Gudgel-Holmes, Dianne, comp. and ed., "Kantishna Oral History Project," report prepared for National Park Service (Anchorage: Gudgel & Holmes Associates), 1983.

Gudgel-Holmes, Dianne, "Kantishna Oral History Project - Interviews with Native Elders," typescript report for the NPS, 1988.

Gudgel-Holmes, Dianne, "Predictive Model of Aboriginal Site Types and Locations for a Catchment Basin along the Denali Park Road within Denali National Park and Preserve," typescript report for National Park Service, Alaska Region, 1989.

Guthrie, R. Dale, "Paleoecology of the Site and it Implications for Early Hunters," in W. Roger Powers, et al., Dry Creek, Archeology and Paleoecology of a Late Pleistocene Alaskan Hunting Camp, report prepared for the National Park Service (Fairbanks: University of Alaska), 1983.

Holthaus, Gary H. and Raymond Collins, "Education in the North: Its Effect on Athapascan Culture" (typescript), 1971, in DENA archive.

LaFleur, Harold [historical architect], "Building Inventory" for Mount McKinley National Park, September 16, 1975, in DENA archive.

Mitchell, Beverly, "An Early History of the Healy Valley," unpublished college term paper, May 1989, in author's collection.

Morton, Susan, "Geese House Report," prepared for the Doyon Cemetery and Historic Sites Committee (Fairbanks: Anthropology and Historic Preservation, Cooperative Park Studies Unit, University of Alaska), 1983.

Neilson, J.M., "Focus on Interior History," typescript report prepared for Alaska Historical Commission (Anchorage), 1980.

Oswalt, Wendell H., "Historical Settlements Along the Kuskokwim River, Alaska," Alaska State Library Historical Monograph No. 7 (Juneau: Alaska Department of Education), 1980.

Pearson, Grant H., "A History of Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska," typescript administrative history prepared by the superintendent, 1953.

Plaskett, David Charles, "The Nenana River Gorge Site: a Late Prehistoric Athapaskan Campsite in Central Alaska," Master's Thesis, UAF, December 1977.

Sheldon, William G., "Biographical Notes on Charles Sheldon," MS in Charles Sheldon Papers, UAF.

Stanek, Ronald T., "Historical and Contemporary Trapping in the Western Susitna Basin," Technical Paper No. 134 (Anchorage: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Subsistence Division), 1987.

Stroud, George S., "History of the Concession at Denali National Park (formerly Mount McKinley National Park)," typescript report for the National Park Service (Anchorage), 1985.

Vint, Thomas C., "Report on Mt. McKinley National Park," December 26, 1929, at FARC San Bruno.

Washburn, Bradford, "Chronology of Events Related to the Exploration of the McKinley Massif, Alaska," draft typescript (Boston: Museum of Science), 1988.

Washburn, Bradford, "Guide to the Muldrow Glacier Route" (typescript), n.d., at DENA.

Washburn, Bradford, ed., "A Map of Mount McKinley" (Boston: The Museum of Science), 1977.

III. Public Documents

United States Documents - By Author

Berg, Henry C. and Edward H. Cobb, Metalliferous Lode Deposits of Alaska, USGS Bulletin 1246 (Washington: GPO), 1967.

Brooks, Alfred Hulse, "An Exploration to Mount McKinley, America's Highest Mountain," in the Smithsonian Report for 1903 (Washington: GPO, 1904), 407-425. Also published in the Journal of Geography 2 (November 1903), 418-421.

Brooks, Alfred Hulse, The Mount McKinley Region, Alaska, USGS Professional Paper 70 (Washington: GPO), 1911.

Brown, William E., "Cultural Resources Survey of Stampede Mine," May 14, 1987, typescript on file at Alaska Regional Office, NPS.

Capps, Stephen R., Geology of the Alaska Railroad Region, USGS Bulletin 907 (Washington: GPO), 1940.

Capps, Stephen R., The Kantishna Region, Alaska, USGS Bulletin 687 (Washington: GPO), 1919.

Cobb, Edward H., Placer Deposits of Alaska, USGS Bulletin 1374 (Washington: GPO), 1973.

Davis, J.A., "Coal Mining in the Nenana Field, Alaska," in Annual Report of the Mine Inspector to the Governor of Alaska (Juneau: Territory of Alaska), 1922.

Dessauer, P.F. and D.W. Harvey, "An Historical Resource Study of the Valdez Creek Mining District," typescript report for Bureau of Land Management (Anchorage), 1980.

Dixon, Joseph S., Birds & Mammals of Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska, National Park Service Fauna Series, No. 3 (Washington: GPO), 1938.

Ebbley, Norman, Jr. and Wilford S. Wright, "Antimony Deposits in Alaska," Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 4173 (1948), 3-20.

Fitzgerald, "Surveying and Mapping in Alaska," USGS Circular 101 (Washington: USGS), February 1951.

Glenn, E.F. (with subreports by William Yanert, George Vanschoonoven, George B. Thomas and H.G. Learnard), in Compilation of Narratives of Exploration in Alaska, Senate Reports, 56th Cong., 1st Sess., No. 1023, 1900.

Herron, Joseph S., Explorations in Alaska, 1899 (Washington, War Department), 1901.

Kauffmann, John M., "Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska, A History of its Establishment and Revision of its Boundaries," 1954, MS on file at Alaska Regional Office.

Mackintosh, Barry, The National Parks: Shaping the System (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service), 1985.

Olson, Sigurd F., "Report on Alaska," 1954, excerpt in DENA archive.

Orth, Donald J., Dictionary of Alaska Place Names, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 567 (Washington: GPO), 1967.

Prindle, L.M., "The Bonnifield and Kantishna Regions," in Progress of Investigations of Mineral Resources of Alaska in 1906, USGS Bulletin 314 (Washington: GPO), 1907.

Roosevelt, Franklin D., "Alaska—Its Resources and Development," Message from the President of the United States, House of Representatives, 75th Cong., 3rd Sess., Doc. 485, January 20, 1938.

Schneider, William, Dianne Gudgel-Holmes, and John Dalle-Molle, Land Use in the North Additions of Denali National Park and Preserve: An Historical Perspective, Research/Resources Management Report AR-9 (Anchorage: National Park Service), 1984.

Snow, Dave, Gail Evans, Robert Spude and Paul Gleeson, Historic Structure Report, Mt. McKinley Park Headquarters District & Wonder Lake, 3 vols. (Anchorage: NPS, Alaska Regional Office), 1987.

Swem, Theodore, "National Park Service Interest in Alaska," 1972, typescript in DENA archive.

Truman, Harry S., "Message to Congress on Development and Settlement of Alaska," DENA archive.

White, Donald E., "Antimony Deposits of the Stampede Creek Area, Kantishna District, Alaska," USGS Bulletin 936-N (Washington: GPO, 1942), 331-48.

Williss, G. Frank, "Do Things Right the First Time": The National Park Service and the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (Denver: National Park Service), 1985.

Wright, George M., Joseph S. Dixon and Ben H. Thompson, Fauna of the National Parks of the United States, National Park Service Fauna Series, No. 3 (Washington: GPO), 1933.

United States Documents - General

Alaska Road Commission, Annual Report for 1917, 1921 and 1922.

Federal Highway Administration, "McKinley Park Highway 1978 Study Report," in DENA archive.

Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission for Alaska, "The D-2 Book," Lands of National Interest in Alaska (Anchorage), 1977.

Joint Economic Committees, Canada-United States, "The North Pacific Planning Project, Report of Progress," May 1943, DENA archive.

Mount McKinley National Park, Superintendent's Monthly Report May 1923 through October 1943.

National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office, "Investigation Report: Stampede Mine, DENA," May 1987, in ARO files.

National Park Service, Director's Annual Report, 1919 (Washington: GPO), 1920.

National Park Service, Director's Annual Report, 1923 (Washington: GPO), 1924.

National Park Service, Proceedings of the National Park Conference, January 2-6, 1917 (Washington: GPO), 1917.

[NPS,] Southwest Regional Office, Division of History, "A History of the Civilian Conservation Corps," 1989.

Secretary of the Interior, Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1923 (Washington: GPO), 1924.

U.S. Code, Title 16 (1982 edition).

U.S. Congress. House. Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska. Report No. 1273, 64th Cong., 2nd Sess., January 10, 1917.

U.S. Congress. House. Subcommittee of the Committee on Public Lands. Hearing on a Bill to Establish Mount McKinley National Park, 64th Cong., 1st Sess., May 4, 1916.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Territories. Hearing on the Establishment of Mount McKinley National Park, 64th Cong., 1st Sess., May 5, 1916.

U.S. Congress. Senate Report 379 (Calendar No. 398), 72nd Cong., 1st Sess., March 2, 1932.

U.S. Statutes at Large, Mount McKinley National Park Act, February 26, 1917, 39 Stat. 938.

U.S. Statutes at Large, 46 Stat. 1043 and 90 Stat. 1342.

IV. Books

Albright, Horace M., The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years, 1913-1933 (Salt Lake City: Howe Brothers), 1985.

Albright, Horace M., "Oh, Ranger!" A Book About the National Parks (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.), 1947.

Arnold, Robert, et. al., Alaska Native Land Claims (Anchorage: Alaska Native Foundation), 1976.

Belt, Charles Banks, comp., History of the Committee on Conservation of Forests and Wildlife of the Camp Fire Club of America, 1909-1956, in DENA archive.

Brooks, Alfred Hulse, Blazing Alaska's Trails (Fairbanks: University of Alaska and the Arctic Institute of North America), 1973.

Browne, Belmore, The Conquest of Mount McKinley (Boston: Houghton Muffin Co.), 1956. (First published in 1913.)

Cahn, Robert, The Fight to Save Wild Alaska (Special Issue of Audubon Magazine), 1982.

Cole, Terrence, ed., The Sourdough Expeditions, Stories of the Pioneer Alaskans Who Climbed Mount McKinley in 1910 (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest), 1985.

Cook, Frederick A., To the Top of the Continent (New York: Doubleday, Page & Co.), 1908.

Cruikshank, Moses, The Life I've Been Living (Fairbanks: University of Alaska), 1986.

Davis, Mary Lee, We Are Alaskans (Boston: W.A. Wilde Co.), 1931.

Dean, David M., Breaking Trail. Hudson Stuck of Texas and Alaska (Athens: Ohio University Press), 1988.

Dunn, Robert, The Shameless Diary of an Explorer (New York: The Outing Pub. Co.), 1907.

Greeley, Maj.-Gen. A.W., Handbook of Alaska: Its Resources, Products and Attractions in 1924 (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press), 1970.

Gruening, Ernest, The State of Alaska (New York: Random House), 1954.

Hall, George, Sometime Again (Seattle: Superior Pub. Co.), 1945.

Hartzog, George B., Battling for the National Parks (Mt. Kisco, NY: Moyer Bell, Ltd.), 1988.

Helm, June, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 6, Subarctic, Alaska Plateau and South of the Alaska Range sections (Washington: Smithsonian Institution), 1981.

Hinckley, Ted C., The Americanization of Alaska, 1967-1897 (Palo Alto, Calif.: Pacific Books), 1972.

Holmes, Charles E., Lake Minchumina Prehistory: An Archeological Analysis, in Aurora, Alaska Anthropological Association Monograph Series #2, 1986.

Hunter, Celia et al., "Alaska National Interest Lands," Alaska Geographic 8:4, 1981.

Ickes, Harold L., The Secret Diary of Harold Ickes, Vol. II (New York: Simon and Schuster), 1954.

Mackenzie, Clara Childs, Wolf Smeller (Zhoh Gwatsan), A Biography of John Fredson, Native Alaskan (Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press), 1985.

Moore, Terris, Mt. McKinley: The Pioneer Climbs (Fairbanks: University of Alaska), 1967.

Nelson, Richard K., Make Prayers to the Raven, A Koyukon View of the Northern Forest (Chicago: University of Chicago Press), 1983.

Pearson, Grant, My Life of High Adventure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.), 1962.

Pearson, Grant, "The Seventy Mile Kid," (Los Altos, Calif.: the author), 1957.

Pearson, Grant, The Taming of Denali (Los Altos, Calif.: the author), 1957.

Potter, Jean, Alaska Under Arms (New York: Macmillan Co.), 1942.

Prince, Bernadine L., The Alaska Railroad in Pictures, 1914-1964 (Anchorage: Ken Wray Print Shop), 1964.

Rand McNally and Co., Rand McNally Guide to Alaska and Yukon (New York: the author), 1922.

Randall, Frances Saunders, Denali Diary, Letters from McKinley (Seattle: Cloudcap Press), 1987.

Salmond, John A., The Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press), 1967.

Sheldon, Charles, The Wilderness of Denali (New York, Charles Scribner's Sons), 1930.

Sherwood, Morgan B., Big Game in Alaska: A History of Wildlife and People (New Haven: Yale University Press), 1961.

Sherwood, Morgan B., Exploration of Alaska, 1865-1900 (New Haven: Yale University Press), 1981.

Stuck, Hudson, The Ascent of Denali (New York: Scribner's), 1914.

Trefethen, James B., An American Crusade for Wildlife (Alexandria, VA: Boone and Crockett Club), 1975.

Trefethen, James B., Crusade for Wildlife (Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Co.), 1961.

VanStone, James, Athapaskan Adaptations, Hunters and Fishermen of the Subarctic Forests (Arlington Heights, IL: AHM Publishing Corp.), 1974.

Washburn, Brad, Mount McKinley and the Alaska Range in Literature, A Descriptive Bibliography (Boston: The Museum of Science), 1951.

Webb, Melody, The Last Frontier, A History of the Yukon Basin of Canada and Alaska (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press), 1985.

Weeden, Robert B., Alaska, Promises to Keep (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.), 1978.

West, Frederick Hadleigh, "Excavations at Two Sites on the Teklanika River, Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska" (Fairbanks: University of Alaska), 1965.

Wickersham, James, Old Yukon: Tales—Trails—and Trials (Washington, D.C.: Washington Law Book Co.), 1938.

Wilcox, Joe, White Winds (Los Alamitos, Calif.: Hwong Pub. Co.), 1981.

Williams, Howell, ed., Landscapes of Alaska (Berkeley, University of California Press), 1958.

V. Newspaper and Periodical Articles

Aigner, Jean, "Footprints on the Land," in Jean S. Aigner, et al., Interior Alaska, A Journey Through Time (Anchorage: The Alaska Geographic Society), 1986.

"Alaska Government Railroad, The," The Pathfinder 3:3 (January 1922), 1-6.

Albright, Horace, interview in Boone and Crockett News 4:2 (Spring 1987), 4.

Amesbury, E.G., "Erection of Hurricane Gulch Arch Bridge in Alaska," Engineering News-Record 88:4 (January 26, 1922), 144-46.

Baldwin, Ralph, "The Crisis on Denali," Off Belay (December 1976), 2-10.

Bates, Robert H., "Mt. McKinley 1942," The American Alpine Journal 5:1 (January 1943), 1-13.

Brown, C.M., "American Alaska," in Writing Alaska's History, Vol. I (Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission), 1974.

Browne, Belmore, "Hitting the Home Trail from Mount McKinley," Outing 62:4 (July 1913), 387-404.

Bundtzen, Thomas K., "A History of Mining in the Kantishna Hills," The Alaska Journal 8:2 (Spring 1978), 151-61.

Davidson, Sgt. C.E., "McKinley Park Recreation Camp," Alaska Life (March 1945), 52-53.

Dose, H.F., "Report on Trail from Nenana Watershed to End of Steel on Susitna River," Alaska Railroad Record, II; 14 (February 12, 1918), 110-11.

Drury, N.B., "National Park Policies," National Parks Magazine 23:97 (April-June 1948), 28-34.

Episcopal Church, "St. Mark's Mission, Nenana," Alaskan Epiphany I:1, 2, and 3 (1980). Fairbanks News-Miner, March 12, 1937, June 1, 1942 and November 29, 1955.

Farquhar, Francis P., "The Exploration and First Ascents of Mount McKinley," Sierra Club Bulletin. June 1949, 95-109.

Federal Register, June 28, 1958, 4811.

Fleming, P.B. [administrator, Federal Works Agency], "The Role of Construction in the Post War Period," The Constructor, July 1943.

Grant, Madison, "The Establishment of Mount McKinley National Park," in G.B. Grinnell and Charles Sheldon, eds., Hunting and Conservation: The Book of the Boone and Crockett Club (New Haven: Yale University Press), 1925.

Haley, Dorothy E., "The Steel Trail into the Heart of Alaska," The Pathfinder of Alaska 6:6 (April 1924), 19-20.

Kari, James, "The Tenada-Denali-Mount McKinley Controversy," Names 34:3 (September 1986), 347-350.

Loftus, Jule, "Corralling Caribou—a Wilder West Sport," Farthest-North Collegian 2:1 (1924), 20-21.

Lowney, Cpl. Paul B., "Soldier's Dreamland," Alaska Life (March 1944), 25-26.

Marchand, Leslie, "Mount McKinley," Farthest-North Collegian 5:1 (1927), 5-6, in UAF Archives.

Mayse, Charley, "Scion of the Mountain Men," The Alaska Journal, a 1981 Collection (Anchorage: Alaska Northwest, 1981), 66-71.

McConnell, Grant, "The Conservation Movement—Past and Present," Western Political Quarterly 7:1 (September 1954), 463-78.

Merriam, C. Hart, "Introduction," in Charles Sheldon, The Wilderness of Denali (New York, Charles Scribner's Sons), 1930.

"Mount McKinley National Park, The," Field and Stream (April 1917), 171.

Murie, O.J., "Mount McKinley, Wilderness Park of the North Country," National Parks Magazine 37:187 (April 1963), 4-7.

Nash, Roderick, "Tourism, Parks, and the Wilderness Idea in the History of Alaska," Alaska in Perspective 4:1 (1981), 1-27.

Naske, Claus-M. and Don M. Triplehorn, "The Federal Government and Alaska's Coal," The Northern Engineer 12:3 (Fall 1980), 20-21.

Nelson, E.W., "Charles Sheldon," American Forests (November 1928), 659-60.

"Nenana, the Hub City of Interior Alaska," The Pathfinder 2:5 (April 1921), 1-9.

Norris, Frank, "Showing Off Alaska: the Northern Tourist Trade, 1878-1941," Alaska History 2:2 (Fall 1987), 1-18.

Parks, George A., "Alaska—A Record of Progress and Enterprise," Pan Pacific Progress, March 1930.

Roosevelt, Theodore, "The American Hunter-Naturalist," The Outlook 99:15 (December 9, 1911), 854-56.

Rusk, Claude E., "On the Trail of Dr. Cook," Pacific Monthly, issues of October and November 1910 and January 1911.

Schneider, William, "Chief Sesui and Lieutenant Herron: A Story of Who Controls the Bacon," Alaska History 1:2 (Fall-Winter 1985-86), 1-18.

Schneider, William, "On the Back Slough," in Jean S. Aigner, et al., Interior Alaska, A Journey Through Time (Anchorage: The Alaska Geographic Society, 1986), 147-194.

Secrist, T.W., "Alaska Railroad Surveys Through Broad Pass," Engineering News-Record 86:15 (April 14, 1921), 632-33.

Sheldon, Charles, "List of Birds Observed on the Upper Toklat River near Mount McKinley, Alaska" Auk 26 (January 1909), 66.

Shives, Jim, "The Sled Dogs of McKinley," Alaska Magazine 44 (October 1978), 6-8.

"Some Views Concerning the Development of Mount McKinley National Park," National Parks Magazine 37:192 (September 1963), 18-19, 21.

Steese, Col. J.G., "Across Alaska by Automobile," American Motorist (March 1923), 12-13, 24.

Steese, Col. J.G., "Road Construction Under the Alaska Road Commission," The Highway Magazine, January 1923, 11-12.

Steese, Col. J.G., "Building Roads to Develop Alaska," The Highway Magazine December 1924, 13-15.

Thompson, Paul E., "Who Was Hudson Stuck?" Alaska Journal 10:1 (Winter 1980), 62-65.

Thorson, Robert M., "The Ceaseless Contest," in Jean S. Aigner, et al., Interior Alaska, A Journey Through Time (Anchorage: The Alaska Geographic Society), 1986.

Tilden, Paul M. and Nancy L. Machler, "The Development of Mount McKinley National Park," National Parks Magazine 37:188 (May 1963), 10-15.

Washburn, Bradford, "Doctor Cook and Mount McKinley," American Alpine Journal (1958), 1-30.

Washburn, Bradford, "The First Ascent of Mount McKinley, 1913, A Verbatim Copy of the Diary of Harry P. Karstens," The American Alpine Journal (1969), 339-348.

Wilson, William H., "The Alaska Railroad and Tourism, 1924-1941," Alaska Journal 7:1 (Winter 1977), 18-24.

VI. Interviews

Campbell, Bruce, by author, September 23, 1987.

Harrison, Gordon, by author, May 14, 1987.

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Last Updated: 04-Jan-2004