ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
OFFICE OF ARCHEOLOGY AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION
HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL SURVEYS DIVISION
HISTORIC SITES SURVEY
Assistant Editor: James H. Charleton
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
In the celebration of the Bicentennial of the United States of America, we turn once more to examination and contemplation of our Nation's origins. One of the basic contributions to the strength and character of this country is our Constitution, which provides the framework and guidance for the conduct of our Government. Its creation, ratification, and evolution is one of the thrilling chapters in the history of government, not only in the United States but throughout the world. This charter document and its amendments, particularly the Bill of Rights, mold our governmental system and undergird our liberties.
This volume not only tells the story of the Constitution, recounts the lives of the men who conceived it, and describes the sites and buildings commemorating them, but also outlines the fundamental principles upon which our Nation is based.
Believing as I do that this book will contribute to understanding of what it means to be an American, I heartily recommend it to every citizen.
THOMAS S. KLEPPE
The extant residences and buildings associated with the men who signed the Constitution illuminate the events surrounding the conception of this bulwark of human rights, as well as the careers and lifestyles of the Founding Fathers. Although visits to these places are always stimulating, they should be specially so during the Bicentennial era. I encourage all Americans to enjoy these hallowed structures.
Credit for the preparation of this volume is shared widely by persons both in and out of the National Park Service. The Service appreciates the assistance of the many individuals and institutions who contributed. The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, which is cosponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, is authorized by the Historic Sites Act of 1935.
Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and MonumentsHon. E. Y. Berry, Rapid City, S. Dak.
Hon. Alan Bible, Reno, Nev.
Laurence W. Lane, Jr., Menlo Park, Calif.
A. Starker Leopold, University of California, Berkeley.
Mrs. Rogers C. B. Morton, Alexandria, Va.
Linden C. Pettys, Ludington, Mich.
Mrs. Paul T. Rennell, Greenwich, Conn.
Steven L. Rose, La Canada, Calif.
Douglas W. Schwartz, School of American Research.
William G. Shade, Lehigh University.
Edgar A. Toppin, Virginia State College, Petersburg.
Consulting Committee for the National Survey of Historic Sites and BuildingsJames Biddle, National Trust for Historic Preservation.
John O. Brew, Harvard University.
Walter L. Creese, University of Illinois.
Richard H. Rowland, Smithsonian Institution.
John W. Huston, U.S. Naval Academy.
Herbert E. Kahler, Alexandria, Va.
Charles E. Lee, South Carolina Department of Archives and History.
Henry A. Millon, American Academy in Rome.
Frederick D. Nichols, University of Virginia.
Dorothy B. Porter, Moorland Foundation, Howard University.
National Park ServiceEdwin C. Bearss, Supervisory Historian, Historic Preservation-East, Denver Service Center.
Frederick R. Bell, Picture Librarian, Office of Public Affairs.
Jack E. Boucher, Supervisor of Photography and Pictorial Records, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation.
Mary O. Callander, Secretary, Historic Sites Survey.
Mark S. Carroll, Chief, Professional Publications Division.
James Dillon, Architectural Historian, Historic Sites Survey.
Virginia S. Fairman, Secretary, Historic Preservation-East, Denver Service Center.
Mary Farrell, Writer-Editor, Historic American Buildings Survey.
David K. Hansen, Curator, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Wash.
Sarah S. Hawkins, Printing Specialist, Division of Organization and Methods.
Patrick A. Hurley, Design-Production Specialist, Professional Publications Division.
Al James, Unit Manager, Hamilton Grange National Memorial, N.Y
Henry A. Judd, Chief Historical Architect, Park Historic Preservation.
Herbert E. Kahler, Chief retired), Division of History and Archeology.
Benjamin Levy, Senior Historian, Historic Sites Survey.
John Luzader, Manager, Historic Preservation Team, Denver Service Center.
Warren A. McCullough, Management Assistant, Independence National Historical Park, Pa.
Joseph S. Mendinghall, Historian, Historic Sites Survey.
John C. Milley, Supervisory Curator, Department of Museums, Independence National Historical Park, Pa.
Robert Nash, Unit Manager, Manhattan Sites, New York Group.
J. Leonard Norwood, Associate Director, Administration.
Mary Carolyn Pitts, Architectural Historian, Historic Sites Survey.
John D. R. Platt, Historian, Independence National Historical Park, Pa.
Charles W. Porter III, Chief Historian (retired), Division of History.
Karen P. Ross, Professional Assistant, Historic Sites Survey.
Christine L. St. Lawrence, Writer-Editor, Historic American Buildings Survey.
William J. Savannah, Printing Officer, Division of Organization and Methods.
Blanche H. Schroer, Historian, Historic Sites Survey.
Charles W. Snell, Historian, Historic Preservation-East, Denver Service Center.
Robert M. Utley, Assistant Director, Park Historic Preservation.
Marilyn D. Williams, Clerktypist, Historic Sites Survey.
Martin I. Yoelson, Supervisory Interpretive Specialist, Independence National Historical Park, Pa.
Other IndividualsWilliam R. Best, Director, Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa.
Mary Kathleen Binns, Senior Secretary to Gov. Ray Blanton, Nashville.
Marion Converse Bright, Valdosta, Ga.
Lee H. Burke, Historian, U.S. Department of State.
Jeanne F. Butler, Administrator, American Institute of Architects Foundation; Curator, The Octagon, Washington, D.C.
John E. Byrnes, Assistant to the Executive Director, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
George C. Chalou, Archivist, Center for the Documentary Study of the American Revolution, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Elizabeth Taylor Childs, Curator of Collections and Head Registrar, Valentine Museum, Richmond.
Gary J. Christopher, Manuscript Assistant, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Helen R. Cline, Parish Recorder, The Parish of Trinity Church, New York City.
Beverly Jones Cox, Coordinator of Exhibitions, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Beth Crabtree, Editorial Assistant, Historical Publications, North Carolina State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh.
Virginia Daiker, Alexandria, Va.
Mona C. Dearborn, Keeper of the Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Gertrude Dempster, Furnishings Chairman, Blount Mansion Association, Knoxville.
Jeanne E. Donaldson, Registrar, Tennessee State Museum, Nashville.
Grose Evans, Adjunct Associate Professor, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
Alice F. Fullam, Reference Librarian, Trenton Public Library.
James L. Gear, Preservation Officer (Vault Custodian), National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Donald J. Gonzales, Vice President and Director of Public Affairs, Colonial Williamsburg.
Kenneth E. Harris, Chief, Center for the Documentary Study of the American Revolution, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Lilla M. Hawes, Director, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah.
Harriet Helmer, Secretary, J. G. Ferguson Publishing Company, Chicago.
Marcella Henry, Section of Antiquities, Oriental, and Decorative Arts, Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh.
Graham Hood, Director of Collections, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
Lucy H. Hrivnak, Manuscript Assistant, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
C. Jared Ingersoll, Philadelphia.
Doris Jackson, Director, Public Relations, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York City.
Jack Jackson, Assistant, Art Department, Library of the Boston Athenaeum.
Jane Katz, Assistant Librarian, John Work Garrett Library of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.
Jerry L. Kearns, Head, Reference Section, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.
William H. Leary, Archivist, Audiovisual Archives Division, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Jacqueline L. Lewis, Secretary to the Assistant Director, Baltimore Museum of Art.
Mary Walton Livingston, Archivist, Records Appraisal Staff, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Mary C. Long, Art and Reference Division, Office of the Architect of the Capitol, Washington, D.C.
William J. MacArthur, Jr., Head, McClung Historical Collection Knoxville-Knox County Public Library, Knoxville.
Charles S. Marshall, Executive Secretary, Eastern National Park and Monument Association, Philadelphia.
L. Porter Moore, Secretary/Executive Director, American Scenic and Historical Preservation Society, New York City.
Walter J. Mordaunt, Information Officer, New York State Court of Appeals, Albany.
Bridgett Paddock, Assistant Director, Lamont Gallery, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, N.H
Peter J. Parker, Chief of Manuscripts, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Marilyn K. Parr, Manuscript Reference Librarian, Library of Congress.
Alan F. Perry, Archivist, Center for the Documentary Study of the American Revolution, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
William M. Pillsbury, Curator of Collections, Albany Institute of History and Art.
Virginia Purdy, Chief, Office of Educational Programs, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Leonard Rapport, Deputy Director, Records Appraisal Staff, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Katharine M. Ratzenberger, Reference Librarian, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Bernard F. Reilly, Curator of Prints, Library Company of Philadelphia.
Lois S. Riggins, Curator of Extension Services, Tennessee State Museum, Nashville.
Ellen M. Rosenthal, Reference Assistant, Frick Art Reference Library, New York City.
Jane Sabersky, Curator, Office of Art Properties, Columbia University, New York City.
Mark S. Samuelson, Archives Technician, Office of Educational Programs, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Katharine B. Sanborn, Picture Consultant, Alexandria, Va.
Frieda Siedman, Secretary, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Barbara L. Sloan, Reference Assistant, Frick Art Reference Library, New York City.
Murphy D. Smith, Associate Librarian, American Philosophical Society; Philadelphia.
Louise Stockdale, Manager, Gunston Hall Plantation, Lorton, Va.
Keith D. Strawn, Curator of the Collections, North Carolina Museum of History, Raleigh.
Ronald Swerczek, Archivist, Diplomatic Branch, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Nancy R. Tarwater, former Furnishings Chairman, Blount Mansion Association, Knoxville.
Jean M. Thill, Assistant, Picture Collection, Virginia State Library, Richmond.
Katy Thomsen, Graphics Assistant, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.
Robert S. Williams, Executive Secretary, Sons of the Revolution, Fraunces Tavern Museum, New York City.
Howard W. Wiseman, Curator, New Jersey Historical Society, Newark.
Kathleen Zickler, Photography Department, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia.
The National Park Service gratefully acknowledges the assistance of agencies and individuals furnishing illustrations and granting permission to reproduce them. Except where otherwise indicated, all oil paintings are on canvas. Where available, names of photographers of historic sites and dates of photographs are indicated.
Last Updated: 29-Jul-2004