3. One result of this tide of immigration was the passage by Parliament of an act in 1740 providing for naturalization of foreign Protestants in the American Colonies. This law, which required 7 years' residence and certain oaths (or affirmations), formed the basis of the first naturalization act of the United States. Ibid., II, 414-15.
5. Imperial and colonial authorities attempted to give the appearance of legality to all their dealings with the frontier problem, particularly with regard to the acquisition of Indian land. A succession of treaties negotiated by colonial and imperial authorities delivered to the whites vast tracts of Indian territory extending from southwestern New York to Tennessee. Whether the Indians who disposed of this land had clear title was of little concern to the land companies and the colonial administrators, who worked closely with, and sometimes for, the speculators. The fiction of honorable negotiation was upheld, although neither Indians nor whites had illusions about the justice or legality of the treaties.
6. The significance of Clark's campaigns in the winning of the Northwest is controversial. As some histories have pointed out, much that he won was later lost, and postwar diplomatic negotiations did not recognize Clark's operations as a successful conquest. Nevertheless, Clark kept alive American claims to the Northwest and protected the new frontier in its most critical period. See John Bakeless, Background to Glory: The Life of George Rogers Clark (New York, 1957).
7. Webb House, Conn.: Henry Steele Commager and Richard B. Morris, The Spirit of 'Seventy-Six: The Story of the American Revolution as Told by Participants (2 vols. Indianapolis, 1958), II; Historic American Buildings Survey (hereafter HABS), one photograph, 1938; Henry P. Johnston, The Yorktown Campaign and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781 (New York, 1881), reprinted June 1958; Benson J. Lossing, The Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution (2 vols. New York, 1859), I; "Webb House Built in 1752, Wethersfield, Connecticut": pamphlet published by Connecticut Society of the Colonial Dames of America (n.p., n.d.).
10. John Dickinson House, Del.: Roy E. Appleman, "The John Dickinson House, Kent County, Delaware," MS. report, National Park Service, Oct. 31, 1950; Jeannette Eckman, Delaware, A Guide to the First State, American Guide Series (Rev. ed. New York, 1955); Ford, "Writings of John Dickinson"; Stille, "Life and Times of John Dickinson"; Moses C. Tyler, The Literary History of the American Revolution, 1763-1783 (2 vols. New York, 1897), I; Memorandum of Daniel J. Breslin, Architect, National Park Service, to Regional Director, Region One, National Park Service, Dec. 19, 1952; "The Home of John Dickinson, 'Penman of the Revolution,'" Information Leaflet (n.p, n.d.); HABS, one photograph, 1936.
11. Gundelo Philadelphia, D.C.: L. F. Hagglund, "A Page from the Past: The Story of the Continental Gundelo Philadelphia on Lake Champlain1776-1949," pamphlet (Lake George, N.Y., 1949); Alfred T. Mahan, Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence (Boston, 1913); R. G. Skerrett, "Another Revolutionary War Vessel Re covered," Compressed Air Magazine, vol. 41, no. 7 (July 1936), 5072-75.
14. Hammond-Harwood House, Md.: ibid.; Rosamond Randall Beirne and Edith Rossiter Beran, The Hammons-Harwood House and Its Owners (Annapolis, 1954); Deering Davis, Annapolis Houses, 1700-1775 (n.p., 1947); HABS, seven photographs, 1936-37.
16. Buckman Tavern, Mass.: Interim Report of the Boston National Historic Sites Commission Pertaining to the Lexington-Concord Battle Road, House Docs., 86th Cong., 1st sess., no. 57 (Washington, 1959).
17. Bunker Hill Monument, Mass.: J. R. Alden, The American Revolution, 1775-1783 (New York, 1954); Final Report of the Boston National Historic Sites Commission to the Congress of the United States (June 16, 1960) (hereafter Boston NHSC Report); Christopher Ward, The War of the Revolution (2 vols. New York, 1952), I.
18. Christ Church, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; HABS, eight sheets and four photographs, 1934; George F. Marlowe, Churches of Old New England (New York, 1947); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Edward F. Rines, Old Historic Churches of America (New York, 1936).
19. Faneuil Hall, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; HABS, three sheets and six photographs, 1935 and 1937; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Rogers W. Young, "Preliminary Survey of Historic Sites in Boston," MS. report, National Park Service, July 17, 1951.
21. Isaac Royall House, Mass.: Boston NHSC Report; Fiske Kimball, Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and of the Early Republic (New York, 1922); HABS, five photocopies; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Northend, Historic Homes of New England.
22. Jeremiah Lee Mansion, Mass.: Kimball, Domestic Architecture; "Lee Mansion, Marblehead, Massachusetts" (pamphlet, n.p., n.d.); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Northend, Historic Homes of New England.
26. Massachusetts Hall, Mass.: Samuel E. Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636-1936 (Cambridge, 1936); Edwin W. Small, Boston NHSC survey card, Aug. 17, 1956. The quotation is from Morrison, Early American Architecture, p. 463.
27. Old North Church, Mass.: Alden, American Revolution; Esther Forbes, Paul Revere and the World He Lived In (Boston, 1942); Boston NHSC Report; HABS, two photographs, 1941; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Edwin W. Small, "Old North Church," MS. report, National Park Service, Dec. 19, 1940.
33. MacPheadris-Warner House, N.H.: Howells, Architectural Heritage of the Piscataqua; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Northend, Historic Homes of New England; "The Warner House, Portsmouth, New Hampshire," leaflet (n.p., n.d.).
34. Monmouth Battlefield, N.J.: Douglas S. Freeman, George Washington, vol. 5, Victory with the Aid of France (New York, 1952); Leonard Lundin, Cockpit of the Revolution: The War for Independence in New Jersey (Princeton, 1940); W. S. Stryker, The Battle of Monmouth (Princeton, 1927).
35. Nassau Hall, N.J.: HABS, two photographs, 1936; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Princeton University Department of Public Information, "Facts About Princeton," 1957-58; Henry L. Savage (ed.), Nassau Hall, 1756-1956 (Princeton, 1956).
36. Princeton Battlefield, N.J.: Alfred H. Bill, The Campaign of Princeton, 1776-1777 (Princeton, 1948); Alden T. Cottrell, "The Trenton Battle Monument and Washington's Campaign, December 26, 1776, to January 3, 1777," pamphlet (New Jersey Department of Conservation and Economic Development, Trenton, 1951); Lossing, Field-Book, II; Lundin, Cockpit of the Revolution; Ward, War of the Revolution, I.
37. Washington Crossing, N.J. and Pa.: Bill, Campaign of Princeton: George Athan Billias, General John Glover and His Marblehead Mariners (New York, 1960); Cottrell, "Trenton Battle Monument"; "Washington Crossing State Park," leaflet (Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, n.p., n.d.); Lundin, Cockpit of the Revolution; Ward, War of the Revolution, I.
38. Bennington Battlefield, N.Y.: "Historic Sites of New York State," pamphlet (New York State Education Department, n.p., n.d.); Edward J. Lowell, The Hessian and Other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War (New York, 1884); Howard P. Moore, The Life of General John Stark (New York, 1949); Hoffman Nickerson, The Turning Point of the Revolution (Boston, 1928).
39. Fort Stanwix, N.Y.: "Historic Sites of New York State"; Nickerson, Turning Point; The American Revolution in New York: Its Political, Social and Economic Significance, New York State Division of Archives and History (Albany, 1926); Melvin J. Weig and Charles S. Marshall, "Historic Sites Connected with the Siege of Fort Stanwix and the Battle of Oriskany," MS. report, National Park Service, Aug. 15, 1938.
40. Fort Ticonderoga, N.Y.. S. H. P. Pell (ed.), Fort Ticonderoga: A Short History (1951); Guide Book to Fort Ticonderoga (n.p., n.d.); Nickerson, Turning Point; Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe (2 vols. Boston, 1893), ch. 32.
41. Johnson Hall, N.Y.: Melvin J. Weig, "Johnson Hall, New York," MS. report, National Park Service, Oct. 1, 1937; HABS, 16 photographs, 1936 and 1940; Arthur Pound and Richard Day, Johnson of the Mohawks (New York, 1930).
42. Morris-Jumel Mansion, N.Y.: Lossing, Field-Book, II; Morrison, Early American Architecture; John Kent Tilton, "Roger Morris-Jumel Mansion Built in 1765: Washington Headquarters in New York," pamphlet (New York, n.d.); Ward, War of the Revolution, I.
48. Valcour Bay, N.Y.: Richard M. Ketchum (ed.), The American Heritage Book of the Revolution (New York, 1958), pp. 132-33, has a contemporary map of the action and a watercolor sketch of the battle; Hagglund, "Page from the Past"; Lossing, Field-Book, I; Mahan, Navies in the War of American Independence; letter from William G. Tyrrell, Historian, New York State Education Department, to National Park Service, Region Five, April 14, 1960.
49. Washington's Headquarters, N.Y.: Freeman, Washington, V; E. Irvine Haines, "When Washington Sealed the Republic," New York Times Magazine, March 19, 1933; "Historic Sites of New York State"; HABS, 26 photographs and 3 sheets, 1940; Melvin J. Weig, "Historic Sites and Buildings of the Colonial-Revolutionary Period Located in and Around Newburgh, New York," MS. report, National Park Service, Feb. 25, 1937.
50. Brandywine Battlefield, Pa.: "The Brandywine Story, 1777-1952," published by Brandywine Battlefield Park Commission (n.p., 1952); Willard M. Wallace, Appeal to ArmsA Military History of the American Revolution (New York, 1951); Melvin J. Weig, Historic Sites Survey report, 1938.
51. Bushy Run Battlefield, Pa.: "Brief History of Battle of Bushy Run, 1763," pamphlet issued by Bushy Run Battlefield Historical Park Commission (n.p., n.d.); Ray A. Billington, Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier (New York, 1949); Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (Princeton, 1947)
55. Conrad Weiser House, Pa.: Carl Bridenbaugh, "Johann Conrad Weiser," Dictionary of American Biography, XIX (New York, 1936), 614- 615; Conrad Weiser Park, pamphlet issued by Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, 1956); J. S. Walton, Conrad Weiser and the Indian Policy of Colonial Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1900).
56. Forks of the Ohio, Pa.: John P. Cowan, "Fort Pitt, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania," MS. report, National Park Service, 1937; letter from John J. Grove, Coordinator, Point State Park, Pittsburgh, Pa., to Region Five, National Park Service, Dec. 28, 1961; Alfred P. James and Charles M. Stotz, Drums in the Forest (Pittsburgh, 1958); "Part One of the Report of the Point Park Commission" (Mimeo. Pittsburgh 1943); "Report on Forests and Waters: Land and People," brochure of Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters (n.p., 1958).
57. Graeme Park, Pa.: Harold D. Eberlein and Horace M. Lippincott, The Colonial Homes of Philadelphia and Its Neighbourhood (Philadelphia, 1912); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Nancy V. Wosstroff, "Graeme Park, an 18th Century Country Estate in Horsham, Pennsylvania," MS. thesis, University of Delaware, June 1958.
58. John Bartram House, Pa.: Emily Read Cheston, John Bartram, 1699-1777, His Garden and His House (2d ed. N.p., 1953); Brooke Hindle, The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789 (Chapel Hill, 1956).
59. Mount Pleasant, Pa.: Eberlein and Lippincott, Colonial Homes of Philadelphia; Luther P. Eisenhart (ed.), "Historical Philadelphia from the Founding until the Early 19th Century," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 43 (1953); HABS, 6 photographs, 1938-39, 31 sheets, 1940; Morrison, Early American Architecture.
60. Valley Forge, Pa.: Alden, American Revolution; Roy E. Appleman, "Historical Report, Valley Forge Proposed National Park," MS. report, National Park Service, n.d., HABS, seven photographs, 1937; Harry E. Wildes, Valley Forge (New York, 1938)
61. Brick Market, R.I.: Bridenbaugh, Peter Harrison; Antoinette F. Downing and Vincent J. Scully, Jr., The Architectural Heritage of Newport, Rhode Island, 1640-1915 (Cambridge, 1952); HABS, one photo, 1937; Morrison, Early American Architecture.
62. First Baptist Meeting House, R.I.: Brown Alumni Monthly, vol. 58 (May, 1958); Embury, Early American Churches; Marlowe, Churches of Old New England; Morrison, Early American Architecture; Rines, Old Historic Churches of America; HABS, 28 photographs, ca. 1900, 1937, 1939, and including copies of drawings of 1774 and 1789.
63. Old State House, R.I.: Downing and Scully, Architectural Heritage of New port; John H. Green, The Building of the Old Colony House at Newport, Rhode Island (Newport, 1941); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Roderick Terry, "History of the Old Colony House at Newport," Newport Historical Society Bulletin, No. 63 (October, 1927)
65. Camden Battlefied, S.C.: H. L. Landers, The Battle of Camden, South Carolina, August 16, 1780, House Docs., 71st Cong., 1st sess., no. 12 (1929); Thomas J. Kirkland and Robert M. Kennedy, Historic Camden (2 vols. Columbia, 1905 and 1926), I.
66. Drayton Hall, S.C.: Morrison, Early American Architecture; Samuel G. Stoney, Plantations of the Carolina Low Country (Charleston, 1938); Elise Lathrop, Historic Houses of Early America (New York, 1936).
68. Miles Brewton House, S.C.: Morrison, Early American Architecture; Waterman, Dwellings of Colonial America; Beatrice St. Julien Ravenel, Architects of Charleston (Charleston, 1945); Albert Simons and Samuel Lapham, Charleston, South Carolina (Washington, 1927); HABS, six photographs 1938-40.
69. Mulberry Plantation, S.C.: Stoney, Plantations of the Carolina Low Country; Edward McCrady, The History of South Carolina, 1670-1783 (4 vols. New York, 1897-1902); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Waterman, Dwellings of Colonial America.
70. Robert Brewton House, S.C.: Samuel G. Stoney, This is Charleston (Charleston, 1944); Junior League of Charleston, Inc., Our Charleston, 1700-1860 (n.p., n.d.); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Ralston B. Lattimore, Historic Sites Survey card, July 10, 1937.
73. Long Island, Tenn.: Billington, Westward Expansion; Archibald Henderson (ed.), "The Treaty of Long Island on the Holston, July, 1777," North Carolina Historical Review, VIII (1931); Samuel C. Williams, Dawn of Tennessee Valley and Tennessee History (Johnson City, 1937); Williams, Tennessee During the Revolutionary War (Nashville, 1944); Williams, "Fort Robinson on the Holston," East Tennessee Historical Society Publications, no.4 (1932).
74. Greenway Court, Va.: Charles W. Porter, III, "Greenway CourtHome of Lord Fairfax," MS. report, National Park Service, June 3, 1936; HABS, six photographs, 1936-39; Leonidas Dodson, "The Fairfax Proprietary," Dictionary of American History, II, 240.
75. Mount Airy, Va.: Thomas T. Waterman, The Mansions of Virginia, 1706-1776 (Chapel Hill, 1946); HABS, 17 photographs, 1934-39; Edith T. Sale, Manors of Virginia in Colonial Times (Philadelphia, 1909); Morrison, Early American Architecture.
76. St. John's Episcopal Church, Va.: Roy E. Appleman, "National Historic Site Survey Report on St. John's Episcopal Church, Richmond, Virginia," MS. report, National Park Service, Oct. 4, 1946; HABS, 11 sheets and 7 photographs 1934-35; Joseph S. Moore, History of Henrico Parish and Old St. John's Church, Richmond, Virginia, 1611-1904 (Richmond, 1904).
77. Stratford Hall, Va.: Edmund J. Lee, Lee of Virginia, 1642-1892 (Philadelphia, 1895); F. W. Alexander Stratford Hall and the Lees Connected with its History (Oak Grove, 1912); E. M. Armes, Stratford on the Potomac (1928); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Waterman, Mansions of Virginia; Charles W. Porter, III, Historic Sites Survey card, Sept. 12, 1936; HABS, 45 photographs, 1932-40.
78. Westover, Va.: Morrison, Early American Architecture; Waterman, Mansions of Virginia; Sale, Manors of Virginia; Sale, Interiors of Virginia Houses of Colonial Times (Richmond, 1927); HABS, eight photographs, 1939.
80. Old Deerfield, Mass.: Samuel Chamberlain and Henry N. Flynt, Frontier of Freedom: The Soul and Substance of America Portrayed in One Extraordinary Village, Old Deerfield, Mass. (Rev. ed. New York, 1957); Francis Parkman A Half-Century of Conflict, pt. 6 of France and England in North America (2 vols. New York, 1915), I.
81. Huguenot Street, N.Y.: Harold D. Eberlein and Cortlandt van Dyke Hubbard, Historic Houses of the Hudson Valley (New York, 1942); HABSBevier-Elting House (11 sheets, 1934; 3 photographs, 1910, 1937, 1940), Freer House (8 sheets, 1934; 4 photographs, 1934, 1940), Jean Hasbrouck House (15 sheets, 1940; 20 photographs, 1937, 1940), Abraham Hasbrouck House (2 photographs, 1940); Morrison, Early American Architecture.
82. Elfreth's Alley, Pa.: Site descriptions from Hannah Benner Roach, "Elfreth's Alley, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania," MS. report, National Park Service, Region Five, 1961. Only recently has Elfreth's Alley received intensive historical research, although its architectural significance has long been recognized. Little of a definitive nature has been published on the alley, and the description given here is condensed from an authoritative summary generously supplied by the author, who is historian for the Elfreth's Alley Association.
84. Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., Colonial Williamsburg Official Guidebook (Williamsburg, 1957); Morrison, Early American Architecture; Colonial Williamsburg: The President's Report, 1960 (Williamsburg, 1961).
Last Updated: 09-Jan-2005