Civil War Defenses of Washington
Historic Resource Study
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1 Cyril Falls, The Art of War from the Age of Napoleon to the Present Day (London, England: Oxford University Press, 1961), 113; Horst De La Croix, Military Considerations in City Planning: Fortifications (New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1972), 8.

2 U.S., Engineer School, Pamphlet on the Evolution of the Art of Fortification, Engineer School Occasional Papers No. 58 Prepared Under the Direction of William M. Black (Washington, DC: The Government Printing Office, 1919), 16-17.

3 De La Croix, Military Considerations, 32-57; George Sydenham Clarke (Sydenham), Fortification: Its Past Achievements, Recent Developments, and Future Progress Second Edition. 1907 (Reprint edition, Liphook, Hants, Beaufort Publishing Ltd., 19–), 151.

4 Antoine Henri Jomini, The Art of War Translated from the French by G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill (Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott, 1862) [1971 Greenwod Press reprint edition], 87.

5 Clarke (Sydenham), Fortification, 15.

6 Jomini, The Art of War, 107.

7 William A. Mitchell, Outlines of the World's Military History Fourth Edition [1940] (Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Company, 1931), 353.

8 James Quentin Hughes, Military Architecture: The Art of Defence from Earliest Times to the Atlantic Wall Second Edition (Liphook, Hants, England: Beaufort Publishing Ltd., 1881), 123-24; Christopher Duffy, The Fortress in the Age of Vauban and Frederick the Great, 1660-1789 (Boston, MA: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985), 78-81; De La Croix, Military Considerations, 56- 57; Henry Guerlac, "Vauban: The Impact of Science on War," Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age Edited by Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986), 64-90.

9 Hughes, Military Architecture, 133-36.

10 Richard B. Morris, Encyclopedia of American History Updated & Revised Edition (New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1965), 83, 84, 86, 94, 95, 110-11, 113; Sol Holt, The Dictionary of American History Paperback edition (New York, NY: MacFadden-Bartell Corporation, 1964), 72; Robert B. Roberts, Encyclopedia of Historic Forts: The Military, Pioneer, and Trading Posts of the United States (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1988), 511- 12, 686-87.

11 Pamela Scott and Antoinette J. Lee, Buildings of the District of Columbia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 16-19; Constance McLaughlin Green, Washington: A History of the Capital, 1800-1950 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962) [consulted Princeton University Press paperback edition first printed in 1976], 8; Morris, Encyclopedia of American History, 120, 122-23; Albert E. Cowdrey, A City for the Nation: The Army Engineers and the Building of Washington, D.C., 1790-1967 (Washington, DC: The Government Printing Office, 1978), 2-3.

12 Cowdrey, A City, 3-6; Taylor Peck, Roundshot to Rockets: A History of the Washington Navy Yard and U.S. Naval Gun Factory (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1949), 4.

13 Cowdrey, A City, 7-9; Scott and Lee, Buildings, 19; "A Brief History of the U.S. Naval Hospital, Washington, D.C., 23rd and E Streets, N.W.," Edited by E. Caylor Bowen, Transplantation Research Program Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Naval Medical Command, National Capital Region, Bethesda, Maryland., n.d. Navy Department Library, Vertical File, Navy Yards and Stations, 7; Peck, Roundshot to Rockets, 4.

14 "Capsuled History of Post, 1791-1948," The Passing Review, (August 18, 1964); "A Brief History of Fort McNair: Part 1," The Passing Review, (September 1967); Barbara Goddard and Palmer D. Wells, Fort Lesley J. McNair: An Historical Landmark (Washington, DC [1964] NWC), 1-2; Phyllis I. McClellan, Silent Sentinel on the Potomac: Fort McNair, 1791-1991 (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1993), 1, 5, 7-9.

15 E.W. Roe, "Brief Historical Sketch of the Navy Yard at Washington, D.C," The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Historical Transactions 1893-1943 (New York: The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 1945), 34-35; U.S. Navy, Chesapeake Division, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Draft Report: Underwater Archaeological Investigations, Washington Navy Yard, Anacostia Waterfront, Washington, D.C. Prepared by Panamerican Consultants, Inc., Bartlett, Tennessee. Contributing Authors Stephen R. James, Jr., Michael A. Cinquino Argana and James A. Duff. (Washington, D.C.: October 1994), 1, 5; "District of Columbia, Washington Navy Yard, 1800-," United States Navy and Marine Corps Bases, Domestic Edited by Paolo E. Coletta (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985), 181-82; U.S. Navy, Engineering Field Activity, Chesapeake Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Special Study: Cultural Resources Management of Historic Washington Navy Yard Building Drawings, November 1994. Prepared by ONYX (Washington, DC: The Division, 1994), 1; CDR Diane Vosilus, USNR, "General History of the Washington Navy Yard and Its Quarters," Navy Department Library, Vertical File, Navy Yards and Stations, 1-2; Linda E. Constantine, [History 491, Independent Historical Research, for Dr. Joseph Vance, April 28, 1977] "The Invasion of Washington and Burning of the Navy Yard, August 24, 1814," Navy Department Library, Vertical File, Navy Yards and Stations, 1; Katherine Ainsworth Semmes, for the Naval Officer's Wives Club of Washington, D.C., A Historic Heritage: The Washington Navy Yard (Washington, DC: the Club, 195-), 1; Peck, Roundshot to Rockets, 4-10; Tom Bartlett, "Post of the Month: Marine Barracks and USMC Headquarters, Washington, D.C.," U.S. Lady, (November 1967), 10-11; Robert Debs Hienl, Soldiers of the Sea: The United States Marine Corps, 1775-1962 (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1962), 12; Michael D. Visconage, "A Living Monument to Marine History," Marine Corps Gazette, 71 (December 1987), 54; Joel D. Thacker, "Highlights of U. S. Marine Corps Activities in the District of Columbia," Records of the Columbia Historical Society of Washington, D.C., Volumes 51-52 (1951-52), 78-79; Home of the Commandants (Washington, DC: Leatherneck Association, 1956), 34.

16 Emanuel Raymond Lewis, Seacoast Fortifications of the United States: An Introductory History Fifth Printing (Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company), 1979, 21; Robert S. Browning, III, Two If By Sea: The Development of American Coastal Defense Policy (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983), 6-8; Michael T. Miller, "Jones Point: Haven of History," Yearbook: The Historical Society of Fairfax County, Virginia, Volume 21—1986-1988, 23-24; James R. Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses," 2—3.

17 Governor Lighthorse Harry Lee to Colonels Fitzgerald and Little, 19 April 1794, and Governor to Secretary of War, 2 July 1794, Executive Letter Books, pages 408 and 454-55, Microfilm Reel 4, Virginia State Archives; Miller, "Jones Point," 25-26; Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses," 2-3; Browning, Two If By Sea, 8-9; Dale E. Floyd, "Introduction: The Corps of Engineers' Role in Coast Defense." Defending America's Coasts, 1775-1950: A Bibliography. Washington, DC: The Government Printing Office, 1997, xii.

18 Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses," 3; Miller, "Jones Point,"26; Floyd, "Introduction," xii-xiii; Browning, Two If By Sea, 9-10; Jonathan Williams, Chief Engineer, to Secretary of War Henry Dearborn, 6 February 1808, W-446, Letters Received, and Report of Secretary of War, November 28, 1794, pages 505-18, frames 286-94, Entry 1, Letters Sent and Received, 1791-97, Microcopy M1062, Roll 1, Record Group 107, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, National Archives; John Fitzgerald, Agent for Erecting Fortifications at Alexandria, In Account with the United States, #9429, Miscellaneous Treasury Accounts, 1790-1894, Microcopy M235, Roll 34, Record Group 217, Records of the United States General Accounting Office, National Archives; U.S. Congress, American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, 1789—1838 (38 Volumes, Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, 1832—61), Military Affairs, Volume 1, 115-16, 152-53, 197.

19 Floyd, "Introduction," xiii; Miller, "Jones Point," 24; Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses," 2-4; U.S., National Park Service, Fort Washington, Maryland (Washington, DC: The Government Printing Office, 1966); Cowdrey, A City, 11.

20 U.S., National Park Service, Fort Washington, Maryland; Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses,"4-7; Cowdrey, A City, 11-12.

21 Some authors argue that the Army changed the name to Fort Washington but for this report, the fort will be called Fort Warburton until construction of a new fort begins in 1814. Cowdrey, A City, 11; David L. Salay. "Very picturesque, but regarded as nearly useless": Fort Washington, Maryland, 1816-1872. Maryland Historical Magazine, 81 (Spring 1986), 67.

22 Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses, 4-6; U.S., National Park Service, Fort Washington, Maryland; Cowdrey, A City, 11-12; James Dudley Morgan, "Historic Fort Washington on the Potomac," Records of the Columbia Historical Society of Washington, D.C., 7 (1904), 10; Salay, "Very picturesque," 67.

23 Green, Washington, 60-63; Cowdrey, A City, 12-13; Peck, Roundshot to Rockets, 47-48.

24 Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses," 6; Peck, Roundshot to Rockets, 48-50; Charles G. Muller, The Darkest Day: 1814, the Washington-Baltimore Campaign (New York: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1963), [actually consulted Curtis Books paperback edition], 90.

25 One of the reasons that the British wanted to destroy the U.S. capital was in retaliation for the American's burning York, which would become Toronto, the year before, in 1813. Anthony S. Pitch, The Burning of Washington: The British Invasion of 1814 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 16.

26 Peck, Roundshot to Rockets, 50-52; Walter Lord, The Dawn's Early Light (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1972 [consulted Dell 1973 paperback copy], 44-45; Pitch, The Burning, 30-38, 51-85; Muller, The Darkest Day, 99-103; David Eggenberger, A Dictionary of Battles from 1479 B.C. to the Present (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1967), 54.

27 Pitch, The Burning, 99-144; Peck, Roundshot to Rockets, 52-66; Green, Washington, 61-62; Lord, Dawn's Early Light, 106-39; Muller, The Darkest Day, 163-87; McClellan, Silent Sentinel, 12-13; "District of Columbia, Washington Navy Yard, 1800-," 183.

28 Muller, The Darkest Day, 188-95; Pitch, The Burning, 152-60; Lord, Dawn's Early Light, 145-53; U.S., National Park Service, Fort Washington, Maryland; Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses," 7-8; Cowdrey, A City, 12.

29 Pitch, The Burning, 162-79; U.S., National Park Service, Fort Washington, Maryland; Hinds, "Potomac River Defenses,"8-10; Morgan, "Historic Fort Washington," 11-15; Salay, "Very picturesque," 67; Cowdrey, A City,12-13.

30 Salay, "Very picturesque," 69-70; U.S., National Park Service, Fort Washington, Maryland; Cowdrey, A City,12-13.

31 Salay, "Very picturesque," 68-69.

32 Salay, "Very picturesque," 70-71; U.S., National Park Service, Fort Washington, Maryland; Cowdrey, A City, 12-13.

33 Salay, "Very picturesque," 70-71, 78-80; U.S., National Park Service, Fort Washington, Maryland; Cowdrey, A City, 12-13.

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Last Updated: 29-Oct-2004