On-line Book
cover to
The CCC and the NPS
Cover Page




    Brief History of the CCC

     NPS Role

    NPS Camps


    Overall Accomplishments



The Civilian Conservation Corps and
the National Park Service, 1933-1942:

An Administrative History
Chapter Two:
The National Park Service Role
National Park Service Arrowhead

Support Personnel

In 1933, as the ECW became fully operational, the Park Service began using ECW funds to hire supervisory foresters selected by park superintendents to supervise the conservation work. At the same time the central offices began hiring additional landscape architects, engineers, and historians to research, design, review, and inspect projects. In 1934 some of these appointments were converted to permanent positions, with the result that some people gained career positions in the Park Service. The auxiliary help hired by the Park Service continued to rise until in 1935 nearly 7,500 employees had been hired by the Park Service using ECW funds. Hiring then leveled off for two years and later slowly declined until the termination of the CCC in 1942. [11]

In 1934 and later years Director Fechner authorized the temporary use of students during the summer months. The Park Service was allowed to recruit 135 students from college campuses to work in the Washington Office and in park areas. The Washington branch chiefs selected these student technicians, giving preference to students who had completed two or more years of college. The branch chiefs then gave the park superintendents the names and addresses of the students assigned to their parks; the park superintendents notified the Army corps commanders and the camp commanders as to the selected students. The students were subject to the same policies and procedures as regular CCC enrollees with minor exceptions. They were exempted from sending $25 of their $30 a month allotment to parents or dependents. Instead they were permitted to keep the full allowance to help defray college costs. Landscape architects, engineers, and architects were paid $75 a month instead of $30. The work assignment of the students was more technical and complementary to their college programs. Park superintendents were instructed to watch the progress of these students very carefully and to encourage them to select the Park Service as a career after completion of college work. The students selected were landscape architects, engineers, foresters, geologists, archeologists, historians, and science majors. They were assigned to complete historical research, archeological research, natural science research, mapping, and architectural design, besides conducting guided tours. [12] By 1938 the student technicians were paid as much as $85 a month and could be hired between June 16 and September 15. That year the four newly created Park Service regions were allocated 105 student positions. The remaining 70 student positions were in various branches in Washington, with the Branch of Recreational Planning and State Cooperation and the Branch of Operations being allocated the majority. Out in the parks, 11.3 percent of the former CCC enrollees were hired by the Park Service into technical jobs such as supervisory positions, facilitating personnel, and skilled workmen. [13]

In June 1940 the Park Service operations staff consisted of 7,340 employees and of this number, 3,956 were paid out of Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, and Public Works Administration funds. As the relief funds were reduced, the Park Service continued to lose the people hired using these funds, and it became increasingly difficult to maintain and operate the parks and monuments in accordance with congressional mandates. The Park Service sought to alleviate the situation by increasing civil service positions; however, the personnel reductions, exacerbated by the manpower requirements of World War II, plagued the agency for years to come. [14]

NEXT> National Parks and State Parks Program: ECW Land Rental or Purchase Authority


Last Modified: Tues, Apr 4 2000 07:08:48 am PDT

National Park Service's ParkNet Home