Selected Constitutional Decisions
(1) Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137 (1803)The Courts, and particularly the United States Supreme Court, in the exercise of their power and duty to apply the governing law, may declare congressional enactments unconstitutional.
(2) Fletcher v. Peck, 6 Cranch 87 (1810)The courts, and particularly the United States Supreme Court, in the exercise of their power and duty to apply the governing law, may declare state enactments unconstitutional.
(3) Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, 1 Wheaton 304 (1816)The United States Supreme Court may review and set aside state court judgments.
(4) Cohens v. Virginia, 6 Wheaton 264 (1821)Asserts Supreme Court's sweeping and definitive interpretation of its right of appellate jurisdiction over decisions of the highest state courts.
(5) Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge, 11 Peters 420 (1837)Court ruled that grants by state legislatures might not be construed as exclusive unless they specifically state so. (Both of these bridges are no longer extant.)
(6) Wesberry v. Sanders, 376 U.S. 1 (1964)Art. I, Sec. 2, required that congressional districts be equal in population. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(7) Powell v. McCormack, 395 U.S. 486 (1969)The House may not exclude a person elected to the House who possesses the constitutional qualifications despite its power under Art. I, Sec. 2, to determine the qualifications of its members. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(8) McGrain v. Daughterty, 273 U.S. 135 (1927)Congress has power to investigate as an incident of its power to legislate, and to compel the testimony of private citizens in connection with its investigations. (No sites found.)
(9) Immigration & Naturalization Service v. Chadha, 462 U.S. 919 (1983)Provisions for legislative veto of executive action, save by enactment of legislation, are unconstitutional. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(1) IN GENERAL
(10) McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheaton 316 (1819) Congress has the power, as necessary and proper to carry out its express powers, to incorporate the Bank of the United States.
(2) DELEGATION OF CONGRESSIONAL POWER
(11) A. L. A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935)The National Industrial Recovery Act, giving the President "virtually unfettered" discretion to approve codes of fair competition, was an unconstitutional delegation of legislative power.
(3) THE COMMERCE POWER
(12) Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wheaton 1 (1824)Chief Justice John Marshall defines the congressional power to regulate interstate commerce and, invalidating New York's grant of a steamboat monopoly, establishes that by its own force the commerce clause limits the power of the states to regulate interstate commerce.
The issue involved two steamboats Stoudinger and Bellona traveling between New York and Elizabethtown, New Jersey.
Unable to locate any appropriate site associated with the facts of this case.
(13) Champion v. Ames, 188 U.S. 321 (1903)Congress may prohibit the interstate transportation of lottery tickets.
(14) Shreveport Rate Case, 234 U.S. 342 (1914)Congress may authorize setting aside an intrastate railroad rate that burdens interstate commerce by discriminating against it.
Unable to locatenot meaningful.
(15) Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (1942)Congress can constitutionally provide for penalizing Mr. Roscoe E. Filburn for growing wheat to feed his own hogs .
(16) Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, 379 U.S. 241 (1964)The commerce clause empowers Congress to forbid a local motel to discriminate against people on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(4) THE TAXING AND SPENDING POWER
(17) United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936)The power to tax and spend for the general welfare is not limited by the list of express substantive powers .
(5) THE WAR POWER
(18) Woods v. Cloyd W. Miller Co., 333 U.S. 148 (1948) Congress may regulate rents even after the cessation of hostilities, pursuant to the war power. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(19) Pollock v. Farmer's Loan & Trust Co., 157 U.S. 429, 158 U.S. 601 (1895)Income tax is ruled unconstitutional as a direct tax, not apportioned among the states by population, insofar as it reaches income from real or personal property.
Unable to locate.
(20) Ex parte Milligan, Wallace 2 (1866)Martial law may not be constitutionally imposed where civil courts are open.
(21) Ex parte Garland, 4 Wallace 333 (1867)Requirement for admission to practice law in the federal courts of an oath that a lawyer had not taken part in the rebellion was invalid as a bill of attainder. (Unable to identify any site associated with this case.)
(22) Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 4 Wheaton 518 (1819) The contract clause bars legislative impairment of corporate charter.
(23) Home Bldg. & Loan Ass'n v. Blaisdell, 229 U.S. 398 (1934)The contract clause does not invalidate a state mortgage moratorium law relieving homeowners of the threat of foreclosure.
(24) Brown v. Maryland, 12 Wheaton 449 (1827)A license fee on importers violates the import-export and commerce clauses; "original package" doctrine expounded. (No site identified.)
(25) Michelin Tire Co. v. Wages, 423 U.S. 276 (1976) Non-discriminatory state property tax on imported goods is sustained, overruling Low v. Austin, which had established the rigid "original package" rule. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(1) THE COMMERCE CLAUSE
(26) Cooley v. Board of Wardens, 12 Howard 299 (1851) Subjects requiring national uniformity may be regulated only by Congress under the commerce clause, but states may regulate subjects of local concern even though in commerce.
The facts of this case involved a ship leaving Philadelphia engaged in interstate commerce. (No site identified.)
(27) Edwards v. California, 314 U.S. 160 (1941)A California law prohibiting bringing indigents into the state is invalid under the commerce clause. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(28) Southern Pac. Co. v. Arizona, 325 U.S. 761 (1945) Arizona's law limiting the length of trains is invalid under the commerce clause because it burdens interstate commerce, trains longer than what Arizona allows being the rule in other states, and does not serve a serious safety purpose.
(29) Pike v. Bruce Church, Inc., 397 U.S. 137 (1970)The commerce clause prevents Arizona from requiring that Arizona cantaloupes be packed in Arizona, thereby keeping a company from shipping cantaloupes to its California plant for packing; the opinion states the modern test case for consistency of state laws with the commerce clause, quoted in every subsequent case.
Too recent to determine national significance.
(30) In re Raher, 140 U.S. 545 (1891)Congress can allow state regulation that the commerce clause, in absence of federal legislation, would prohibit, in this case the regulation of alcoholic beverages. (No site identified.)
(31) McGoldrick v. Berwind-White Coal Mining Co., 309 U.S. 37 (1940)A state sales tax on sales in a state commodity that comes from out of the state is sustained as consistent with the commerce clause in the opinion of Mr. Justice Stone that reflects the modern approach to state taxation. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(32) Northwestern States Portland Cement Co. v. Minnesota, 358 U.S. 450 (1958)An apportioned state income tax on the proceeds of interstate commerce is constitutional, consistent with the commerce clause. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(33) Complete Auto Transit, Inc. v. Brady, 430 U.S. 274 (1977)A state tax on the privilege of doing business is constitutional, consistent with the commerce clause. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(34) Crandall v. Nevada, 6 Wallace 35 (1867)Capitation tax on interstate passengers is ruled unconstitutional.
(1) DOMESTIC AFFAIRS
(35) Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952)President
Truman's order directing the seizure of steel mills in the midst of the Korean Conflict was invalid for the lack of statutory authority.
(2) FOREIGN AFFAIRS
(36) United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corporation, 299 U.S. 304 (1936)A presidential arms embargo, authorized by congressional joint resolution, is sustained; Justice Sutherland's opinion expounds the foreign affairs power as independent of the Constitution and centered in the President.
(37) Geofroy v. Riggs, 133 U.S. 258 (1890)The treaty-making power is defined. (No site identified.)
(38) Missouri v. Holland, 252 U.S. 416 (1920)A treaty may enlarge federal power to extend into what would be, in the absence of a treaty, the states' domain.
Site: Stultz Lake, Vernon County, Missouri, located near Nevada, Missouri. (Not appropriate.)
(39) Myers v. United States, 272 U.S. 52 (1926)The President may discharge his appointees even in the face of a statute providing for removal only with the advice and consent of the Senate. (No site identified.)
(40) United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974)A President's privilege to withhold records of private consultations with his advisors is recognized but yields to a subpoena in aid of a criminal prosecution.
(41) Hayburn's Case, 2 Dallas 409 (1792)Federal courts may not render judgments that are subject to review by the Executive. (No site identified.)
(42) Luther v. Borden, 7 Howard 1 (1848)Federal Courts, confronted with two rival governments in Rhode Island, do not adjudicate which is the legitimate government .
Property not meaningful to the facts of the case.
(43) Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 169 (1962)Federal Courts may adjudicate the constitutionality of apportionment of state legislatures.
(44) Murray's Lessee v. Hoboken Land & Improvement Co., 18 Howard 272 (1855)"Public rights" may be adjudicated outside of courts, in administrative agencies. (No site identified.)
(45) Ex parte McCardle, 7 Wallace 506 (1869)Congress may remove cases from Supreme Court's jurisdiction, in the case at hand an appeal from a denial of habeas corpus.
(46) Panama R.R. v. Johnson, 264 U.S. 375 (1924)Admiralty clause of Article III empowers Congress to legislate in respect of admiralty matters. (No site identified.)
(47) Milwaukee County v. White, 296 U.S. 268 (1935)Full faith and credit must be given to judgments of sister-state courts, even judgment for taxes. (No site identified.)
(48) Corfield v. Coryell, 6 Fed. Cas. 546 (No. 3, 230) (C.C.E.D. Pa. 1823)Bushrod Washington, J., on Circuit: Privileges and immunities of state citizen ship cataloged. (No site identified.)
(49) Kentucky v. Dennison, 24 Howard 66 (1861)The governor of a state has a duty on the request of a fellow governor to deliver up a fugitive, but this duty cannot be enforced. (No site identified.)
(50) Coyle v. Smith, 221 U.S. 599 (1911)New states are admitted on an equal footing with their sister states so that Congress may not in admitting Oklahoma restrict its right to move its capital.
(51) Florida Lime & Avocado Growers v. Paul, 373 U.S. 132 (1963)California standards for avocadoes are not pre-empted by inconsistent federal standards; modern preemption doctrine explicated. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(52) Barron v. Baltimore, 7 Peters 243 (1833)The first eight Amendments do not apply to the states by their own terms.
(53) Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319 (1937)Due process does not include at least some aspects of the double jeopardy prohibition of the Fifth Amendment.
(54) Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 145 (1968)The Sixth Amendment guarantee of a jury in criminal trials is applicable to the states (contrary to a Palko dictum) because it "is fundamental to the American scheme of justice" and thus encompassed by due process. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(1) FREEDOM OF SPEECH, PRESS, PETITION, AND ASSEMBLY
(55) Schenk v. United States, 249 U.S. 47 (1919)Conviction for violation of the Espionage Act is affirmed; the Court, per Holmes, J., first states the "clear and present danger" test.
(56) Gitlow v. New York, 268 U.S. 652 (1925)The Court assumes the first amendment applies to the states; Holmes, J., dissents from a conviction by a state court of criminal anarchy based on the defendant's publications.
(57) Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357 (1927)Conviction of violating criminal syndicalism act is sustained; Brandeis, J., joined by Holmes, J., concurs with a much-quoted testimonial to the values of free speech. (Not believed to be nationally significant.)
(58) Near v. Minnesota, 283 U.S. 697 (1931)The free speech and free press clause of First Amendment is held applicable to the states; prior restraint of scandalmongering, mean publication is unconstitutional.
(59) Grosjean v. American Press Co., 297 U.S. 233 (1936)A Louisiana tax on large newspapers, imposed during Huey Long's governorship, violates the First Amendment. (Not believed to be nationally significant.)
(60) De Jonge v. Oregon, 299 U.S. 353 (1937)Peaceable assembly for a lawful purpose cannot be made a crime .
(61) West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943)Schoolchildren, Jehovah's Witnesses, have a First Amendment right not to salute the flag. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(62) Dennis v. United States, 341 U.S. 494 (1951)Conviction of top Communist leaders is sustained over First Amendment claims, the clear and present danger test is reframed to allow conviction for subversive teaching that seemed to pose no imminent threat. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(63) Yates v. United States, 354 U.S. 298 (1957)In the review of the convictions of second-string Communist leaders, the convictions are reversed and the lenient standard of Dennis is abandoned. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(64) New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254 (1964)State libel actions are subject to First Amendment restrictions; public officials may not recover for libel without proof of actual malice. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(65) Bond v. Floyd, 385 U.S. 116 (1966)The First Amendment prevents a state legislature from refusing to seat one duly elected to membership on account of his political utterances and views. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(66) Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969)Whitney is overruled, a conviction of violating criminal syndicalism statute is overturned, and a new free-speech standard building on a clear and present danger is enunciated. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(67) Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 (1976)Campaign expenditure limitations violate First Amendment, but contribution limitations are constitutional.
Too recent to determine national significance.
(2) FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION
(68) Reynolds v. United States, 98 U.S. 145 (1878)Federal law making bigamy a crime in the territories may be applied to a Mormon claiming polygamy is a religious duty. (Not believed to be nationally significant.)
(69) Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296 (1940)Jehovah's Witness may not be convicted of breach of the peace for proselytizing on the streets; the free exercise of religion clause of the First Amendment is held applicable to the states .
Woman living at 10 Cassius Street called the police and had Mr. Newton Cantwell arrested. (Property not suitable for designation.)
(3) ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE
(70) Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1 (1947)The establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment is held applicable to the states; New Jersey law providing public transportation for children attending parochial schools is not a law respecting the establishment of religion. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(71) Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962)Official prayer in public schools is unconstitutional. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(72) Weeks v. United States, 232 U.S. 383 (1914)Evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment is inadmissible in a federal trial.
Mr. Weeks was arrested while working here. (Not an appropriate site for designation.)
(73) Wolf v. Colorado, 338 U.S. 25 (1949)Fourth Amendment strictures in searches and seizures are applicable to the states but not the exclusionary rule. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(74) Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961)The exclusionary rule is applicable to the states.
Too recent to determine national significance. Should be rexamined in the future.
(1) GRAND JURY INDICTMENT
(75) Ex parte Bain, 121 U.S. 1 (1887)Absent waiver, a defendant in federal court can be tried only on indictment. (No site identified.)
(2) DOUBLE JEOPARDY
(76) Kepner v. United States, 195 U.S. 100 (1904)Double jeopardy bars government appeal of a judgment of acquittal. (No site identified.)
(77) Green v. United States, 355 U.S. 184 (1957)Defendant cannot, consistent with prohibition of double jeopardy, be convicted of first degree murder on retrial after his second degree murder conviction was set aside. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(78) Counselman v. Hitchcock, 142 U.S. 547 (1892)The privilege against self-incrimination extends to testimony before a grand jury. (No site identified.)
(79) Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966)Police interrogations of persons in custody cannot be carried out in the absence of warnings and advice to the person being questioned concerning his right to remain silent and to have counsel .
Too recent to determine national significance. Should be reexamined in the future.
(4) DUE PROCESS
(80) Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. (1954)Segregated schools in the District of Columbia are unconstitutional; the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment comprehends principles of equal protection. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(81) Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393 (1922)Statute prohibiting mining coal so as to cause subsidence of neighboring improved property effects a taking for which compensation must be paid.
(82) Miller v. Scheone, 276 U.S. (1928)Virginia may order ornamental red cedar trees destroyed to save apple orchards from cedar rust without compensating the owners of the cedar trees. (No site identified.)
(83) Berman v. Parker, 348 U.S. 26 (1954)Government may take private land, with compensation, for development by other private parties. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(84) Powell v. Alabama, 287 U.S. 45 (1932)Due process required the appointment of counsel in Alabama trial of indigent, friendless black youths for capital offense of rape.
Site: Jackson County Courthouse, Public Square, Scottsboro, AlabamaLocated in a National Register historic district. (No integritythe courtroom was demolished in 1954.)
(85) Johnson v. Zerbst, 304 U.S. 358 (1938)The Sixth Amendment requires the appointment of counsel for indigents in all federal cases. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(86) Gideon v. Wainright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963)Counsel must be appointed for indigent defendants in all state felony cases.
(87) Irvin v. Dowd, 366 U.S. 717 (1964)Prejudicial publicity deprived a criminal defendant of an impartial trial. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(88) Minneapolis & St. Louis Ry. v. Bombolis, 241 U.S.
211 (1916)The Seventh Amendment guarantee of jury in civil cases does not apply to the states. (No site identified.)
(89) Weems v. United States, 217 U.S. 349 (1910)A penalty disproportionate to an offense15 years incarceration at hard labor with chains on one's ankle, loss of all civil liberties, and perpetual surveillance for falsifying public recordsis cruel and unusual punishment.
(90) Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976)Certain state statutes that provide for the death penalty are unconstitutional. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
The theory that any important liberty not specifically safeguarded by the Bill of Rights can be found in the penumbra, or shadow, of a specific guarantee and thus be constitutionally protected as part of that guarantee.
(91) Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965)A state statute prohibiting use of contraceptives is unconstitutional.
Too recent to determine national significance. Should be reexamined in the future.
(92) Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973)A state statute prohibiting abortion is unconstitutional.
Too recent to determine national significance. Should be reexamined in the future.
(93) Slaughter-House Cases, 16 Wallace 36 (1873)The Fourteenth Amendment does not prohibit a state's authorizing a slaughterhouse monopoly.
(94) Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883)The Civil War amendments do not reach private racial discrimination. (The sites associated with these cases are no longer extant.)
U.S. v. Stanley
U.S. v. Ryan
U.S. v. Nichols
U.S. v. Singleton
Robinson v. Memphis & Charleton Railroad Company
U.S. v. Hamilton
(1) PROCEDURAL DUE PROCESS
(95) Londoner v. Denver, 210 U.S. 373 (1908)A hearing is required before land can be assessed a tax to pay for paving an abutting street. (No site identified.)
(96) Bi-Metallic Investment Co. v. State Bd. of Equalization, 239 U.S. 441
(1915)No hearing is required before the adoption of an order increasing the valuation for tax purposes of all property in Denver. (No site identified.)
(97) Pennoyer v. Neff, 95 U.S. 714 (1878)Due process requires notice and opportunity to participate before anyone's property or liberty interests may be impaired by a state tribunal. (No site identified.)
(98) Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963)A prosecutor is bound to disclose exculpatory evidence to the defendant. (No site identified.)
(99) Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 U.S. 365 (1926)A comprehensive municipal zoning ordinance is consistent with due process.
(100) Lane v. Wilson, 307 U.S. 268 (1939)Oklahoma's law perpetually disfranchising black voters who failed to register between April 30, 1916, and May 11, 1916, is ruled unconstitutional.
Oklahoma added the grandfather clause to its state constitution in 1910 to disfranchise the black voters of Boley and other black towns in the state.
(101) Terry v. Adams, 345 U.S. 461 (1953)A private body sponsoring a pre-primary election may not prevent blacks from participating.
(102) Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 U.S. 1 (1948)State courts may not be used to enforce a racially discriminatory contract. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(2) RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
(103) Strauder v. West Virginia, 100 U.S. 103 (1880)Blacks may not be excluded from petit juries. (No site identified.)
(104) Ex parte Virginia, 100 U.S. 339 (1880)Blacks may not be excluded from grand juries.
(105) Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)Separate transportation facilities for blacks and whites do not deny the equal protection of the law if they are equal.
(106) Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944)Wartime exclusion of citizens of Japanese descent from West Coast is sustained.
(107) Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950)Newly established state law school for blacks cannot be equal to an established law school and therefore a black denied admission to the established law school is denied equal protection of the law. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(108) Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)Segregation of the races in public schools is unconstitutional.
(3) SEX DISCRIMINATION
(109) Reed v. Reed, 404 U.S. 471 (1971)A statute preferring men over women to administer intestate estates is unconstitutional as a denial of equal protection. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(110) Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (1966)Voting instate elections may not constitutionally be conditioned on the payment of a poll tax. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(4) ELECTORAL DISTRICTING
(111) Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 (1964)Equal protection of the laws requires both houses of a bicameral state legislature to have districts equal in population.
(112) Wesberry v. Sanders, 376 U.S. 1 (1964)Constitution requires that congressional districts be equal in population. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(5) DISCRIMINATORY APPLICATION OF A STATUTE
(113) Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356 (1886)A San Francisco ordinance banning laundries in wooden buildings applied only to Chinese denies equal protection and is unconstitutional.
(6) ECONOMIC AFFAIRS
(114) Williamson v. Lee Optical Co., 348 U.S. 483 (1955)Statute restricting opticians but not others in fitting eyeglasses does not deny equal protection. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(115) Hans v. Louisiana, 134 U.S. 1 (1890)The Eleventh Amendment bars a suit in federal court by a citizen of a state against the state. (No site identified.)
(116) Gomillion v. Lightfoot, 364 U.S. 339 (1960)Gerrymander of Tuskegee, Alabama, to eliminate black voters violated the Fifteenth Amendment. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(117) Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 5 Peters 1 (1831)Chief Justice John Marshall holds that an Indian tribe was neither a state in the Union nor a foreign nation within the meaning of the Constitution and, therefore, could not maintain an action in the Federal Courts. Upholds Indians' right to their land until title is voluntarily given to United States by treaty.
(118) Worcester v. Georgia, 6 Peters 515 (1832)John Marshall holds that the Cherokee nation was a distinct political community within which "the laws of Georgia can have no force. . . .
Both of these cases are represented by existing National Historic Landmarks.
(119) Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 16 Peters 539 (1842)Court declares unconstitutional Pennsylvania personal liberty law designed to impose stringent requirements on persons claiming runaway slaves.
(120) Dred Scott v. Sandford, 19 Howard 393 (1857)Asserts positive constitutional right of Americans to take slave property into national territory.
(121) Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois, 118 U.S. 557 (1886)Supreme Court struck down an Illinois law prohibiting long-short haul rate discrimination as an intrusion on the federal commerce power.
The facts of this case involve the transportation of oil cake and corn on the Wabash Railroad from Peoria, Illinois, to New York State and Gilman, Illinois to New York City.
(122) United States v. Gettysburg Electric Railway Company, 160 U.S. 668 (1896)Supreme Court affirms the constitutionality of acquiring private property for Gettysburg National Military Park and established the principle that the preservation of nationally important historic sites and buildings is a legitimate purpose of the government of the United States.
(123) Delima v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 1 (1901); Downes v. Bidwell, 184 U.S. 244 (1901)Supreme Court held that the Constitution protected the inhabitants of colonial territories in their basic civil rights, but did not confer citizen ship on them.
(124) Northern Securities Company et al. v. United States, 193 U.S 197 (1904)First action under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act upheld by the Court. The decision of the Supreme Court in this case created a moral climate that permitted government to control the actions of business.
(125) Galvan v. Press, 347 U.S. 522 (1954)Large power of Congress over the removal of aliens sustained. (Too recent to determine national significance.)
(126) Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967)Congress may not strip a citizen of his citizenship. (Too recent to determine national significance.)