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Field Division of Education
Mount Rainier: Its Human History Associations
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1774 First Spanish discovery along northwest coast of the United States. Voyage of Juan Perez.
1775 Voyage of Bruno Heceta and Bodega y Quadra. First landing by white men on soil of Washington: Destruction Island.
1778 Voyage of Captain James Cook in search of the northern strait. Named Cape Flattery.
1787 Straits of Juan de Fuca discovered by Captain Barclay. Named by Captain Meares.
1788 May 11, Captain Robert Gray, Yankee trader, discovered and named the Columbia River. Gray's Harbor also discovered.
1792 May 8. Captain George Vancouver made first record of discovery of "The Mountain" sighting the great peak and naming it Mt. Rainier.
1805 Exploration of Columbia River by Lewis and Clark Expedition.
1811-1813 Pacific Fur Company at Astoria and Eastern Washington.
1793-1821 The Northwest Fur Company in Northwest.
1819 Spain relinquished last claims to the Northwest Coast.
1824 The founding of Fort Vancouver by Hudson's Bay Company.
1833 May. Fort Nisqually the first settlement established at the base of Mount Rainier founded by Hudson's Bay Company.
1833 August 29-September 3. Dr. William Fraser Tolmie of Fort Nisqually entered northwest corner of what is now the park. He was the first white man to penetrate this region and to discover glaciers on the mountain.
1841 Spring. Lieut. Charles Wilkes of the U. S. Exploring Expedition observed the mountain from Nisqually House.
1841 May. Sent contingent under Lt. Robert E. Johnson to make trip over Naches Pass, the first recorded trip made by white men.
1845 First American settlers on Puget Sound found town of Tumwater under leadership of Michael T. Simmons.
1853 Territory of Washington established. First Governor, Isaac Ingalls Stevens.
1853 Theodore Winthrop made his memorable trip down Puget Sound to Nisqually House and over Naches Pass resulting in his classic, "The Canoe and the Saddle."
1853 First immigrants with wagons passed over Naches Pass. Among them was James Longmire and family.
1853-4 Examination of Naches Pass for a railroad by U. S. expedition under the immediate charge of Captain McClellan. Wagon road constructed.
1852-7 George Davidson conducted the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey of Puget Sound.
1856 George Davidson made the first observation of Mount Rainier for the purpose of obtaining its position.
1855-6 The Indian uprising. Massacre of White River.
1857 July. Lieut. A. V. Kautz of the U. S. Army garrison at Fort Steilacoom (founded 1849) and four companions made the first attempt to climb Mount Rainier. Lieutenant Kautz, however, did not reach the topmost point, as he was compelled to turn back at about 12,000 feet elevation due to the lateness of the hour.
1863 Theodore Winthrop's "The Cane and Saddle" published. Contains classical descriptions of Mount Rainier and country roundabout.
1861-2 Road survey via Cowlitz Pass and over southern slopes of Mount Rainier was accomplished by citizens of Pierce County.
1868-9 Railroad survey over Cowlitz Pass.
1867 James S. Lawson made observation of Mount Rainier for position.
1870 August 17. Hazard Stevens and P. B. Van Trump, of Olympia, Wash., made the first successful ascent of Mount Rainier (via the Gibraltar route).
1870 October. Samuel Franklin Emmons and Dr. A. D. Wilson of the United States Geological Survey reached the summit via the Emmons route. This was the second successful ascent.
1881-3 Bailey Willis explored and mapped the northern slope of Mt. Rainier.
1883 Bailey Willies supervised the construction of the Bailey Willis or Grindstone Trail between Ashford and Fairfax. This was a Northern Pacific Railroad venture designed to interest tourists in the north side.
1883 August. Messrs. P. B. Van Trump, James Longmire, and George Bayley made the third successful ascent, the springs later termed Longmire Springs being discovered by James Longmire upon the return journey. Several months later James Longmire established his homestead claim about the springs he discovered.
1883 Viscount James Bryce, author of the "American Commonwealth", visited Mt. Rainier with Prof. Zittel, a well-known German geologist. Made "very glowing reports of the beauty of the region."
1884 First trail constructed to Longmire Springs by the Longmires.
1885 August. Theodore Garrish and two companions made first known ascent from the north or northeast side of mountain.
1886 Paddock party established Camp of Clouds.
1887 Fred G. Plummer mapped the southern slopes.
1888 August. Mrs. Eclain Long mire visited Paradise Valley for the first time and gave it its name because of the beauty of the wild flowers.
1888 Ingraham party of nine make successful ascent. Among them are Van Trump, John Muir, and William Keith.
1889 Nicholas party of two.
1890-91 The Long mire family, assisted by several Indians, constructed the first road to Long mire Springs.
1890 The first woman, Fay Fuller, reached the summit of Mount Rainier.
1890 Hitchcock party of five.
1891 August. Ascent was made from west side by P. B. Van Trump and Dr. W. Riley of Olympia.
1892 August. The North Peak was scaled for the first time by Dr. Riley, and by George Bayley and P. B. Van Trump. This was Van Trump's 5th visit to the crater of the peak. From west side via Tahoma Glacier.
1892 Dickson party of six.
1892 The entire mountain was mapped by Fred G. Plummer.
1893 Washington Alpine Club organized.
1893 August 18. Jules Stampfler made his first ascent of Mt. Rainier. This was the first of his over 130 ascents.
1894 July 26. Hon. Watson C. Squire, United States Senator, introduced a bill for the creation of "Washington National Park." The name was later modified to Mt. Rainier National Park.
1894 Ethan Allen, Geo. Dickinson, Oscar Kuhn, and five other attempted ascent via Tahoma Glacier, but were forced back at 13,000 feet.
1895 First trail constructed to Paradise Valley. Built by Longmires.
1896-7 Professor I. C. Russell made geological survey, which was published in the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Unites States Geological Survey, 1897.
1897 The Mazama Club of Portland, Oregon, made expedition to Mt. Rainier.
1897 July. Professor Edgar McClure of the University of Oregon measured the elevation. His tragic death falling over a precipice occurred July 27, 1897.
1899 March 2. Mt. Rainier National Park created by Congress and approved by President McKinley.
1905 The Sierra Club of San Francisco made expedition to the park.
1904-5 U. S. Army Engineer Eugene V. Ricksecker surveyed route of present Paradise Valley highway. Construction begun in 1906.
1909 First daily stage operated between Ashford and Longmire.
1909 July 30. The Mountaineer Club of Seattle made ascent via north side.
1911 August 8. President Taft visited park and rode in first car to Paradise Valley. Car bogged down in mud above Narada Falls. Pulled into valley by team of mules.
1912 First car reached Paradise Valley under own power.
1913 August. U. S. Geological Survey party made ascent for purpose of mapping the summit and deter ming the true elevation of Mt. Rainier. Via Gibraltar route. Led by C. H. Birdseye. 14,408 feet determined upon as the elevation. The topographic map was completed.
1914 Women allowed to drive over park roads.
1916 National Park Service created and given full jurisdiction over park.
1917 Paradise Inn formally opened to public.
1920 Government surveyors of U. S. Geological Survey established elevation of Mt. Rainier as 14,408 feet above sea level.
1921 and 1924 Reconstruction of Kautz route by Joe Hazard. Reached summit. 1924. Hazard chocked this route. Reached summit and determined limit of Kautz's climb at 12,000 feet.
1930 Mather Memorial Parkway established.
1930 Approximately 75 square miles of additional territory east of the park and to the summit of the Cascade Range added to the area.
July 15. Yakima Park first opened to the public.

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