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Field Division of Education
The History of Scotts Bluff Nebraska
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A series of great movements through the Scotts Bluff area resulted in the passage of countless thousands during the period 1810-1870. Most of the migration took place between 1824 (when the Great Platte route was adopted by the fur traders) and 1862 (when Indian troubles forced the Overland mail and stage south into the South Platte "Overland Trail" proper). The extent of these movements prior to the coming of the railroad, 1866-69, has been estimated at many thousands. Most of the individuals who passed by Scotts Bluff have remained anonymous or inconspicuous. There were, however, a number who attained a lasting fame. This check list seeks to include only those whose outstanding achievements or historic connections with the Overland Route or with Scotts Bluff indicate a deserved need for special mention.

The biographic notes here presented have been obtained from standard biographic references and from the special histories of the region and times involved. Where possible the outstanding authority for each has been indicated. The general works of greatest value were:

  1. American Council of Learned Societies: Dictionary of American Biography, 1928-33, Vols. 1-12, A - M.

  2. National Cyclopedia of American Biography, James T. White Co., 1898-1932, Vols. 1-22.

  3. Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, 1887-1928, Vols. 1-11.

1. Applegate, Jesse. Born Kentucky, 1811. Surveyor in Missouri. Joined Oregon Great Emigration of 1843, and was captain of the "Cow-column," whose history he related. Farmed on the Willamette and had cattle ranch on the Umpqua in Oregon. Member of legislative committee of Oregon Provisional Government. Died, Oregon, 1888. (Rucker: The Oregon Trail and Some of its Blazers (1930) is a story of the Applegates, and contains portraits.)

2. Ashley, William Henry. Born Virginia, 1778. Mined Missouri lead and saltpeter with Henry. Lt. Governor of Missouri in 1820. General of Militia in 1822. Active fur trader 1822-26; instituted annual rendezvous; used mules and horses over direct Platte route. Congressman, 1831-37. Died, Missouri 1838. (Dale: Ashley-Smith Explorations (1918) has best account of Ashley's activities.)

3. Baker, James. Born, Illinois, 1818. Trapper, guide, and pioneer rancher. Joined Bridger and the American Fur Company in 1838 and was trapper until 1853. Chief of Scouts for Gen. Harney at Ft. Laramie, 1855. Guided army against Mormons in 1857 and Marcy across Colorado, 1857-8. Settled in Wyoming in 1873. Died, Wyoming, 1898. (See Mumey: The Life of Jim Baker (1931) for biography and portraits.)

4. Ball, John. Born, New Hampshire, 1794. Attended Dartmouth. Accompained N. Wyeth in 1832. Lived with Dr. McLoughlin at Ft. Vancouver. Taught school and farmed in Oregon. Traveled extensively, and finally settled in Michigan. Died, Michigan, 1884. (Portrait as frontispiece in "Autobiography of John Ball," compiled by his daughters (1925).)

5. Beckwourth, James. Born, Virginia, 1798. Quadroon hunter, trapper, and squawman. Groom and horse-wrangler for Ashley, 1823. Lived with the Crows for a time. Under Kearney in California. Joined Colorado stampede in 1859. Died, Colorado, 1867. (Portrait as frontispiece in Bonner: Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth (several editions). Also in Hafen & Ghent: Broken Hand.)

6. Bidwell, John. Born, New York, 1819. Pioneer and politician. Teacher in Ohio and Missouri. Went to California with first overland party of 1841. Worked for Sutter; member of "Bear Flag" revolt of 1846; soldiered under Fremont and Stockton. Ranched at Chico. Congressman, 1864-66. Was Prohibition candidate for President, 1892. Died, California, 1900. (C. C. Royce: John Bidwell, has portrait and reprints of Bidwell's writings.)

7. Bonneville, Benj. L. E. de Born, France, 1796. U. S. Army officer, 1815-1866. At western posts 1821-30. Aide to Lafayette in 1825. Explored in the West, 1832-35. Fought in Mexican War. Commanded post of Ft. Kearny in summer of 1849. Retired as Brigadier-General in 1866. Died, Arkansas, 1878. (Best general account is Irving: Adventures of Captain Bonneville. Morton: History of Nebraska, has portrait and biogrphy; and Chittenden: American Fur Trade, gives brief biography.)

8. Bridger, James. Born, Virginia, 1804. Fur trader and scout. Rated with Fitzpatrick and Carson as greatest of the mountainmen of the period 1820-1860. Joined Ashley in 1822. Discovered Great Salt Lake in 1824. Built Ft. Bridger in 1843. Guided Stansbury 1849, A. S. Johnson 1857-8, Reynolds Yellowstone Expedition 1859-60, Berthoud party 1861, Powder River expeditions 1865 and 1866. Died, Missouri, 1861. (Best biography is Alter: James Bridger, which has portraits.)

9. Bryant, Edwin. Born, 1805. California pioneer of 1846, whose "What I Saw in California" was translated into several foreign languages and made known the riches of California to the world. His description of Scotts Bluff is excellent. Died, 1869.

10. Burnett, Peter H. Born, Tennessee, 1807. Missouri storekeeper and lawyer. Member of 1843 Great Emigration to Oregon. Went to California in 1848, where he became the first governor, 1849-1851. Recounted his trip west in "Recollections of an Old Pioneer." Died, California, 1895. (Portrait in Ghent: Road to Oregon).

11. Burton, Richard F. Born, 1821. Noted British knight, traveler, and author. Edited Marcy's "Prairie Traveler," and wrote up his own trip over Platte route, 1860, in "The City of the Saints." (His biography, with portraits, is given in Isabel Burton: "The Life of Captain Sir R. F. Burton" (1893); and F. D. Downey: "Burton, Arabian Nights Adventurer" (1931).)

12. Campbell, Robert. Born, Ireland, 1804. Trapper and capitalist. Joined Ashley in 1825. Partner with Sublette, 1832-42. Became Missouri banker and colonel of militia. Was Indian commissioner to Ft. Laramie in 1851. Died, Missouri, 1879. (Biographic note in Schaef's "History of St. Louis," and portrait in Neihardt's "The Splendid Wayfaring.")

13. Carson, Christopher. Born, Kentucky, 1809. Made most famous of mountain men by Fremont's reports. Carson began as "cavvy boy" on a Santa Fe expedition. Joined Fitzpatrick 1831-33. Guide for Fremont in 1842, 1843-1844; and for Kearney in 1846-7. United States Indian Agent 1853-60. Rose to brigadier-general of New Mexico volunters, 1861-65. Died, Colorado, 1868. (History recounted in Sabin: Kit Carson Days; Peters: Life and Adventures of Kit Carson; Vestel: Kit Carson; and Grant: Kit Carson's Own Story. Excellent portraits in Sabin, also original M.SS in Bancroft Library, University of California.)

14. Chiles, Joseph B. Born in Kentucky, 1810. Took part in the Florida war in 1836. In 1841 came overland to California. In 1843 he came to California with a party which bore his name. Did much to aid Fremont with supplies and information. In 1847 went east as a guide and hunter in Stockton's party. Died in Lake County, California, in 1885. (See Bancrofts Works - Vol XIX - Page 758.)

15. Clyman, James. Born Virginia, 1792. Trapper and California pioneer. Joined Ashley in 1823. Walked from the Sweetwater to the Missouri in 1824. Soldiered with Lincoln in Black Hawk War. Went with emigrant train to Oregon in 1844, and on to California in 1845. Guided emigrant train to California in 1848, where he settled. Died in California, 1881. (See C. L. Camp: James Clyman, for biography and portrait.)

16. Cody, William F. Born, Iowa, 1846. Scout and showman. Began as "cavvy boy" on Russell, Majors and Waddell supply train into Utah in 1857. Denver gold rush in 1859. Pony Express rider in 1860. Army Scout 1863-65. Supplied buffalo meat to Kansas Pacific, 1867-8. Chief of scouts, 5th Cavalry, 1868-72, 1876. On the stage, 1872-1883; and began "Wild West" exhibitions in 1883. Died, Colrado, 1917. (Best accounts are R. J. Marsh: The Making of Buffalo Bill, 1928; and Cody: Autobiography.)

17. Cooke, Philip St. George. Born, Virginia, 1809. Soldier and author. In many western campaigns and expeditions 1827-45. Served with Kearny in Mexican War, and commanded the Mormon Battalion, Utah expedition of 1857-8. Brigadier-General in Union forces, although his son-in-law was J. E. B. Stuart. Commanded successively the Army departments of the Platte Cumberland, and Lakes. Wrote "Scenes and Adventures," etc. Died, 1895. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol IV: page 389.)

18. Crazy Horse. Born, 1841. Greatest military genius of the Sioux Confederacy. He was an Ogallala, and fought under Red Cloud, 1865-8. Commanded 1,2000 Ogallals and Cheyennes, 1876-77; won distinctions in battles of Rosebud and Little Big Horn. Killed when arrested at Ft. Robinson, Nebraska, 1877. (See Moorehead: The American Indian, page 184.)

19. Creighton, Edward. Born, Ohio, 1820. Telegraph builder and banker. Surveyed transcontinental telegraph routes in winter of 1860, and handled construction of Julesburg-Salt Lake City section of Pacific Telegraph, July-October, 1861. Died, Nebraska, 1874. (Best biography is P. A. Mullins: Creighton, 1901.)

20. Crook, George. Born, Ohio, 1829. Soldiered from 1852 until his death. Served in the northwestern plains, 1852-61; Major-General in Civil War; in Idaho 1864-7; campaigned against Apaches, 1871-5; commanded Platte Department, 1875-82; subjugated Apaches, 1882-6; and commanded Platte's Department 1886-88. Commander, Division of Missouri, 1888-1890. Died, Illinois, 1890. (J. Bourke: On the Border with Crook, 1891; and C. King: Campaigning with Crook, 1890, are two of the many books dealing with this great Indian fighter.)

21. Crooks, Ramsay. Born, Scotlnd, 1787. Fur trader. Parner 1810-12 in Pacific Fur Co., but sold out and returned with Stuart in 1812-13. Became general manager of American Fur Co., in 1817, and was president from 1834-59. He maintained that the Stuart party discovered the South Pass. Died, New York, 1859. (See Chittenden: American Fur Trade; and J. W. Ruckman: "Ramsay Crooks and the Fur Trade" in Minn. Hist., Vol. 7.)

22. Cross, Osborne. Quartermaster for the Western Army in 1849. Accompanied Mounted Rifle Regiment to Oregon in 1849, via Ft. Kearny, where he conversed with Colonel Bonneville, Scotts Bluff and South Pass. His journal report is quite valuable (31 Cong. 2 Sess; House Doc. 1, 1850.)

23. DeSmet, Pierre Jean. Born, Belgium, 1801. Jesuit missionary to Western America, 1838-73. During period 1840-46 Father DeSmet surveyed Catholic opportunities in the Northwest. This "Blackrobe" was the white man most trusted by the Indians. He was very influential at Ft. Laramie conference of 1851 and others. Died, Missouri, 1873. (Chittenden & Richardson: Life, Letters and Travels of Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet, 1905; E. Laveille: Life of Father DeSmet, 1915, are best biographies of this great traveler, writer, and peacemaker.)

24. Dodge, Grenville M. Born, Massachusetts, 1831. Soldier and civil engineer. Major General in Civil War. Chief engineer of Union Pacifc, 1866-70. Surveyed South Platte-Cheyenne Pass route after investigating North Platte route via Scotts Bluff (which he sketched). Associated with many railroads in later life. Died, 1916. (Best biography is J. R. Perkins: Trails, Rails and War 1929).

25. Dodge, Richard. Born, Huntsville, North Carolina, May 19, 1827. Graduated from U. S. military academy, 1848, assigned to the 8th infantry, and after serving various posts was promoted to captain. Promoted to Lieutenant-colonel, Oct. 29, 1873. Afterwards served against hostile Indians in the west. Made colonel, 11th infantry in 1882. Published many books, such as "The Black Hills," and "Our Wild Indians." (See Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 2: Page 194.)

26. Eells, Cushing. Of Massachusetts birth; one of a family of clergymen. Settled at Forest Grove in 1848, and helped build up the Pacific University. He also did much to help build the Whitman Seminary at Walla Walla, Washington. He was last survivor of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to the Indians of the North-west Coast. (See Marcus Whitman; pp. 105; 291; 165; 184.)

27. Fitzpatrick, Thomas. Trapper, guide and Indian agent. He was born in County Canon, Ireland. He was sometimes called "Broken Hand" or "Three Fingers," because of an accident suffered from the bursting of a rifle. He was for many years the most capable of mountain men. He guided Kearny's army to California, and his skill as a guide was highly praised by DeSmet. He died Feb. 7-1854. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. VI; also Hafen and Ghent: Broken Hand.)

28. Ford, Nathaniel. From North Carolina. A man of character and influence, leader of one of the parties to Oregon. He was supreme court judge for the districts south of the Columbia River in 1845, and State Senator for Oregon in 1866. Made his home in Polk County, Oregon. In 1870, Jan. 9, he died in Dixie, age 75. (See Bancroft's Works, History of Oregon, Vol. I; p. 450; 469; 496; Vol II; p. 666.)

29. Fremont, John. Born, Savannah Georgia, Jan. 21, 1813. Went to Charleston College, May 1829, remaining there until expelled. Went to South America in 1833. Fremont's first important exploration was a summer expedition in 1842 to the Wind River chain of the Rockies. In 1844 he went to California.

Fremonts third expedition was another trip to California. When he entered the heart of California, Mexican officials ordered him from the country. On July 10, 1846 he actively cooperated with Sloat and Stockton in the conquest of California. Fremont remained in California until the civil war.

In 1856 he ran for president, being defeated by Buchanan. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was in Europe. He returned and was appointed major general in charge of the department of the West in 1861. He was soon removed from office by Lincoln because of reckless expenditures.

Again nominated for president on May 31, 1864, in Cleveland by a convention of radical Republicans who disliked Lincoln, he later withdrew his nomination. After this Fremont played no further part in public life.

In 1887 he made his home in California, but death came to him July 13, 1890, while he as temporarily in New York. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. VII: Page 18.)

30. Gilliam, Cornelius. Nothing is known of Gilliam's antecedents. He was brave, obstinate, impetuous, and generous, with good natural abilities, and but little education. Served in the Black Hawk war, and also in the Seminole war, Florida, as captain. Closely connected with emigration in Oregon. Died March 20th, 1848. (See Bancroft's Works: History of Oregon, Vol. 1,: p. 449; 725.)

31. Hastings, Lansford. Born 1819; native of Ohio. A lawyer, he was leader of a party which crossed the plains to Oregon in 1842 and came to California in 1843. A year later he published a worthless book called "Emigrants' Guide." An intelligent, active man, never without some grand scheme on hand. Hastings lived at or near Sacramento till 1857; then went to Arizona. Died in Brazil about 1870. (See Bancrofts Works, Vol. XX: Page 778.)

32. Hickok, James. Commonly known as Wild Bill. Born at Troy Grove, La Salle County, Illinois, May 27, 1837. As a youth was a hunter and best shot in his part of Illinois. In 1855 made his way to Leavenworth, Kansas. In 1856 became a driver for a stage company operating over the old Santa Fe Trail; later transferred to the Overland Stage, on the Oregon Trail. Here at Rock Creek Station, Jefferson County, Nebr., July 12, 1861, had his famous battle with the notorious McCanles gang, in which he killed McCanles and two of his men. During the civil war served as a Union Scout and spy. In 1836 appointed deputy U. S. marshall at Fort Riley, Kan.

Wild Bill was an exceptionally handsome and fascinating man. He never killed a man except in self-defense or in the line of official duty. Toured the East with Buffalo Bill in 1872, 73, afterwards going to Deadwood, Dakota Territory, where he was murdered by Jack McCall, April 2, 1876. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. IX: Page 4.)

33. Holladay, Ben. Born, Carlisle County, Kentucky. In early boyhood removed with his parents to western Missouri. He had little schooling. With T. F. Warner as partner he launched a trade venture to Salt Lake City with fity wagon-loads of merchandise. Later re-organized, extended and improved the overland stage coach service until under him it reached its greatest extent. During Indian uprising in 1864-65, he suffered heavy losses. In 1867 formed the Northern Pacific Transportation Company from which he retired in 1876. Died, Portland, Oregon, on July 8, 1887. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. IX: Page 141.)

34. Johnston, Albert S. Born at Washington, Mason County, Kentucky, Feb. 2, 1803. Appointed to the U. S. military academy in 1822. Upon graduation, brevetted second lieutenant of the 2nd Infantry. After his wife's death in 1835, enlisted as private in the Texan army. In 1836 appointed senior brigadier-general. In 1838 appointed Secretary of War for the Republic of Texas. On Dec. 2, 1849, commissioned paymaster, U. S. Army. During the Civil War, appointed by Jefferson Davis general in the confederate army. In many battles, on April 6, 1863 he was struck, an artery being severed in his leg, and he bled to death. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. X: Page 135).

35. Kearny, Stephen. Born, Aug. 30, 1794, Newark, New Jersey. Entered Columbia College in 1811, but on the approach of the War of 1812 joined the army. In 1813 was made captain. His service was on the western frontier. In 1825 took part in General Atkinson's expedition to the mouth of the Yellowstone. In 1845 led an expedition to South Pass, and next year he began the building of the first Fort Kearny (Nebraska City, Nebraska).

In 1846 placed in command of the army of the West. Soon he reached California where he had disputes with Stockton and Fremont. He then proceeded to Mexico where he was for a time civil governor of Vera Cruz. He then returned east, dying October 31, 1848 at St. Louis. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol X: Page 272.)

36. Lee, Jason. Methodist missionary. Born on June 28, 1803; in Quebec, then considered part of Vermont. In 1830-32 served as minister to Wesleyan Methodists in Stanstead, Vermont. Went to Oregon and christianized many savages. In 1841 formed the plan that resulted in the founding of Oregon Institute, later renamed Williamette University. In 1844 returned East, where he died March 12, 1845. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XI: Page 111.)

37. Majors, Alexander. Born near Franklin, Simpson County, Kentucky. October 4, 1814. In youth worked on a farm and served as a miller's boy. He later married and bought a farm, but he did not make enough so he left the farm and started a business carrying freight. In 1855 he went into partnership with other men, and in time he had a freighting business which required more than four thousand men, forty thousand oxen, and one thousand mules. He lived in Nebraska City part of his life. In 1860 he and his partners established the famous pony express. It lasted only a few months, proving a financial failure.

In 1861, he purchased the interests of his partners and continued freighting until 1866. From 1869 to 1879 he lived in Salt Lake City. In 1893 he published "Seventy Years on the Frontier." For several years before his death he lived in Kansas City Mo. Died, Chicago, Jan. 12, 1900. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XII: Page 214.)

38. Marcy, Randolph. Born Greenwich, Mass., April 9, 1812. Graduated from Military Academy in 1832. Became second lieutenant in 1835, first lieutenant in 1837, and captain in 1846. In 1845 went to Texas, serving there during the military occupation and in the battle of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. For next twelve years he remained in the Southwest. Later was inspector-general of the Department of Utah. In 1859 he prepared a semi-official guidebook, called the "Prairie Traveler." IN 1866 he wrote a book called, "Thirty Years of Army Life on the Border". Appointed inspector-general of the army in 1878, serving in this capacity until his retirement to his death on November 22, 1887. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XII: Page 273.)

39. Marshall, James. Born Oct. 8, 1810, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Marshall received a fair education. When of age, started west seeking adventure and fortune. First settled at Fort Leavenworth, but fever and ague attacked him, and on advice of his physician he joined an emigrant train for the Far West. In July 1845 he arrived at Fort Sutter and started farming, later joining Fremonts' California Battalion. After being mustered out of service, he sought employment from Sutter and the two entered into partnership to build a sawmill near Sutter's Fort. It was there, on Jan. 24, 1848, that gold was discovered.

Discovery of gold brought only misfortune to Marshall. He lost most of his land, and his sawmill venture failed for lack of laborers. Marshall spent his later years as a gardener in the vicinity of Coloma, where he died Aug. 10, 1885. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XII: Page. 314.)

40. Meek, Joseph L. Born in Washington County, Virginia, in 1810. Claimed relationship with president Polk. A trapper and pioneer settler. Appointed by Polk as United States Marshal to Oregon. He lost his office when Pierce became president. His remaining years were mostly spent as a farmer on his Hillsboro tract, where he died June 20, 1875. (See Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XII: Page 494.)

41. Mitchell, Robert. Born Mansfield, Richland County, Ohio, April 4, 1823 of Scotch-Irish parents. Studied law in the office of John K. Miller at Mount Vernon, Ohio, admitted to the bar, and began practice at Mansfield. In 1855 went to Kansas territory. Elected to lowoer house, territorial legislature, 1857. Apr. 8, 1862, President Lincoln commissioned him brigidier-general. At battle of Perryville, Ky., commanded the 9th Division. Late in 1865 President Johnson nominated Mitchell governor of New Mexico territory. The nomination was confirmed Jan. 15, 1866, and he took office on the 16th of the following July. In 1872 nominated for Congress by Liberal Republicans and Democrats, but was defeated. Moved to Washington, D.C., and died on Jan. 26, 1862. (See Dictionary of American Biography Vol. XIII: Page 60.)

42. Palmer, Joel. Born near foot of Lake Ontario, Canada, 1810, ofr Quaker parentage. Early life lived in Pennsylvania. Later went to Indiana, where he as a large canal contractor, and then a farmer; also member of the legislature, winter of 1844-45.

Author of Palmer's Wagon Train. He expected to have this book ready to sell to the immigration and to realize from it enough to pay most, if not all, the expense of his second journey to Oregon. He was badly disappointed for he only sold a few copies. A State Senator in Oregon in 1864. (See Bancrofts' Works, Vol. I: Page 522; Vol. II: P. 665.)

43. Parker, Samuel. Born in Ashfield, New Hampshire, April 23, 1779. Became a missionary in western New York, and subsequently was in charge of Congregational churches in Massechusetts and New York. Mr. Parker originated the mission of the American Board in Oregon. It has been said that he was the first to suggest the possibility of constructing a railroad through the Rocky mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Died, Ithaca, New York, March 24, 1866. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 5: Page 654.)

44. Parkman, Francis. Born, Boston, Mass., Sept. 16, 1823. Graduate of Harvard, 1844. In 1846 set out to explore the Rocky mountains. Lived for several months among the Dakota Indians and the still wilder and remoter tribes, incurring hardships and privations that made him an invalid. Afterwards engaged in literary work almost exclusively, and notwithstanding impaired health, accompanied by partial blindness, attained high rank as historain and writer. Some of his publications are "The California and Oregon Trail"; "The Conspiracy of Pontiac"; and "Discovery of the Great West." (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 4: Page 658.)

45. Pratt, Orson. Born Hartford, New York, Sept. 19, 1811. Joined the Mormon Church in 1830; became one of 12 Apostles in 1835. Went on successful missions to Great Britian; twice president of the British and European missions; in 1865 went on a mission to Austria. In 1852, went on mission to WAshington, D.C., where he published "The Seer," eighteen monthly numbers. Member of the legislative assembly of Utah, first session. Wrote and published many books. Died Salt Lake City, Oct. 3, 1861. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 5: Page 103.)

46. Red Cloud. Makh - piya - luta or Red Cloud, says in his pictographic history of his life, that he was born in the year of 1822. His parents were not prominent among the tribe. Nothing is known of Red Cloud's extreme youth. Not a hereditary chief, he arose to disctinction through merit. A great fighter, he soon won fame, becoming chief of the Sioux. After the 1868-69 treaty Red Cloud himself went to war no more, but instead became a distinguished councilman and treaty maker. Red Cloud was altogether a different Indian than Sitting Bull: Red Cloud believed in making peace with the white man; Sitting Bull wanted to die fighting the white man. Red Cloud possessed more human kindness than any of his red contemporaries. Died at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, 1909. (See Moorehead: The American Indian, Pages 173, 189.)

47. Russell, William. Native of Kentucy, prominent in local politics. In 1845 member of Kentucky Legislature; also a U. S. Marshal. Served in the Florida War. Somewhat active in the Fremont-Kearny controversy, and was Secretary of State of Los Angeles, during Fremont's rule as governor in 1845. In 1854 practised law at Sacramento and San Francisco, and about 1861-62 he was U. S. Consul at Trinidad de Cuba, but resigned and returned to Kentucky, where he died. (See Bancroft's Works, History of California, Vo. V: Page 708.)

48. Ruxton, George. Born Kent, England, 1820. Educated at Sandhurst Military College. Left at he age of seventeen, volunteered in Spanish service during Carlist War, 1833-9. Commissioned as lieuenant, British Army, went with his regiment to Canada, where he resigned and spent several years among Indians and trappers of the west. In 1847 returned to England, but set out on a second trip to the far west. Died on the way at St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 29, 1848. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 5: Page 359.)

49. Slade, Joseph. Said to have come from Clinton County, Illinois. The most eminent desperado along the Oregon Trail. Real story of his career unknown. Though greatly feared, could act at times the courteous and kindly man of peace. Mark Twain speaks of him as "the most gentlemanly appearing, quiet and affable officer we had yet found along the road in the Overland company's service," although at the time he bore the reputation of having kiled twenty-six men. Some were doubtless desperadoes who badly needed killing, but it is certain others were inoffensive.

Remained with the stage company about two years; but took to drinking and became quarrelsome, whereupon, sometime in 1862, he was discharged. He turned up afterward in Montana, and after a short but lively career was hanged by vigilantes at Virginia City, March 10, 1864. (See Ghent: The Road to Oregon, Page 210.)

50. Spalding, Henry. Born in Bath, New York, 1804. Graduate from Western Reserve college in 1833, and entered the class of 1837 in Lane Theological Seminary. Labored fourteen years among Indians, using his translations of the Scriptures, and also acting as commissioner of common schools for Oregon. Several thousand Indians were civilized through his efforts. Died in Lapwai, Idaho, Aug. 3, 1874. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 5: Page 618.)

51. Spotted Tail. Chief of the Brule (Sioux) band. In youth fought with an Indian named Running Bear, over an Indian woman. Running Bear was killed and Spotted Tail nearly died. After this fight he won fame and was chosen band leader. Fought in many wars against the whites. He was captured, escaping after many months of imprisonment. Around 1880 he was killed by an Indian named Crow Dog. (See Seymour: The Story of the Red Man, Page 263.)

52. Stansbury, Howard. Born, New York City, Feb. 8, 1806. In early life became a civil engineer. In Oct. 1828, placed in charge of the survey of proposed canals to unite Lake Erie and Lake Michigan with the Wabash river. On July 7, 1836, he became first lieutenant of the U. S. topographical engineers. From 1849 till 1851 he was engaged in the Great Salt Lake expedition, and his report gave him wide reputation. Appointed Major on Sept. 28, 1861. Published "An Exploration to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah". Died in Madison, Wis., April 17, 1863. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 5: Page 647.)

53. Stuart, Robert. Born in Callender, Scotland, February 19, 1785. At age of 22 came to the United States. In 1810 he went out as one of the founders of Astoria, Oregon. He was the leader of the third party to cross the continent north of Mexico. Stuart was appointed by President Harrison as commissioner for all the Indian tribes of the northwest. Later he became Treasurer of Michigan, and held other offices of public trust and importance connected with the development of the Great Lake region. He was known as "the friend of the Indian." Stuart died in Chicago, Ill., on Oct. 28, 1848. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 5: Page 732.)

54. Sublett, William L. Born in 1799. The most distinguished of the four brothers, who engaged in the fur trade. In the fur trade with Jedediah Smith and David Jackson and made a fortune from the trade. Sublette with 250 trappers almost annihilated the Bannock Indians (this bad of Indians lived mostly by plunder) on the Green River in August 1826. With Ashley at the Aricara fight, June 2, 1823, and held the rank of Sergeant-Major. Died in 1845. (See Chittenden, American Fur Trade of the Far West.-Page-254.)

55. Sutter, John A. Born Feb. 28th, 1803, at Kandern, Baden. Of Swiss parentage, his family name was originally Suter. Graduated from the military college at Berne in 1823. In 1834 emigrated to this country and settled in St. Louis. Crossed the Rocky mountains, settling first in Oregon. Later sailed along the Pacific Coast, and on July 2, 1839, was stranded in San Francisco Bay. He then went into the interior amid great difficulties, and founded in the same year the earliest white settlement on the site of Sacramento. He then received a grant of land from the Mexican government, and in 1841, built a fort. The Mexican government appointed him governor of the northern frontier country, but he favored the annexation of California to the U. S., and the Mexicans regarded him with suspicion.

During the Gold rush he lost most of his land, his homestead was burned and in 1873 he removed to Litiz, Pa. He died at Washington, D. C., on June 18, 1880. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 6: Page 2.)

56. Thorp, John. Captain of a company in the immigration of 1844. From Madison county, Kentucky. Settled in Polk county, Oregon, where he followed farming. A member of the House of Representatives for Oregon in 1850. Around 1854 he was a commissioner for the Willamette Valley Railroad Company. (See Bancrofts Works, Vol. II, History of Oregon:-Pages 143; 696; Vol. I: Page 450.)

57. Townsend, John. Born Philadelphia, Pa. Aug. 10, 1809. Developed a fondness for natural history. During 1833-7 made extensive journeys in the western states and across the Rocky mountains with Thomas Nuttall. Also visited the Sandwich Islands and South America. While in Washington he practised dentistry, and so acquired the title of doctor. Member, Philadelphia academy of natural sciences, and a contributor to its proceedings. Author of many books: "Sporting Adventures in the Rocky Mountains," "A Narrative of journey across the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River." etc. Died, Washington, D. C., February 16, 1851. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 6 - Page 148.)

58. White, Elijah. Born in Jefferson County, New York, April 3, 1806. Came to the Oregon country in 1836, among the first emigrants. Helped establish the first Methodist Espiscopal Church in Oregon. In 1850, White essayed to build upon Baker Bay a town which he named Pacific City, but which enjoyed an existence of only a year or two. (See Bancrofts Works, History of Washington: Page 331; - Page 33.)

59. Whitman, Marcus. Dr. Marcus Whitman, born at Rushville, Yates County, New York. September 4, 1802. His father was a native of Massachusetts. Dr. Whitman practiced medicine for 8 years, later becoming interested in the Northwest. He traveled to the Northwest many times, teaching the bible to the Indians. He also wrote many books on the Northwest. Died November 29, 1847. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography; Vol. 6: Page 485.)

60. Wislizenus, F. A. Adolph Wislizenus, born May 21, 1810, Koenigsee, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, German Empire. In 1830 went to the University of Zurich. Took his degree as doctor of medicine, and after spending sometime in Paris hospitals, came to New York in 1835. In 1836 moved to Mascoutah, St. Clair County, Illinois, near St. Louis. After practicing as country physician for three years, made a trip to the Rocky Mountains. On returning, practiced medicine in St. Louis. In 1846 joined an expedition to Santa Fe. From Santa Fe pushed on to Chihuahua, where was attacked by some Mexicans; but was rescued. In 1848 went to Washington; in 1850 to Europe. He there married and after birth of his first child, went to California by way of Panama. Author of many books. Died St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 23, 1889. (See Wislizenus: A Journey to the Rocky Mountains, Page 5.)

61. Wyeth, Nathaniel. Born, Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 29, 1802. Given classical education, intending to enter Harvard, but decided to enter into business enterprises. In 1831, his attention was attracted to the great Northwest. On March 11, 1832, he left Boston with a company of twenty-one men, fully armed and equipped, by way of Baltimore, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Independence, Mo., and reached Oregon, Oct. 29, 1832. He was left alone after a few months, for his men deserted him. In 1833 returned to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and from there went to Boston to start another expedition. On Aug. 14, 1834, he was again in Oregon, and started to build Forts. Nathaniel Wyeth lived to see Oregon a territory of the U. S., although he died before its admission as a State in 1859. He died Aug. 31, 1856. (See National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. VI: Page 74.)

62. Young, Brighman. Born, Whitingham, Vermont, June 1, 1801. April 14, 1832 he began to preach the Mormon Religion, advancing rapidly in the church. Feb. 14, 1835, chosen one of the twelve apostles, becoming their president the next year. In 1838 he purchased land in Missouri. On April 7, 1847, Young, with 142 men, set out in search of a suitable place to settle. They entered Salt Lake Valley. Later returning with 2000 followers. Young encouraged agriculture, manufacturing, opening of roads, and construction of bridges in Utah. Died in Salt Lake City, August 29, 1877. His funeral celebrated with impressive ceremonies, in which more than 30,000 persons participated. (See Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 6: Page 645.)


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