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Field Division of Education
The History of Scotts Bluff Nebraska
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1720 Villasur (Spaniard) attained Platte forks, via South Platte.
1739 Mallet brothers went up South Platte to Santa Fe. Named the Platte river.
1804 Louisiana officially occupied by U.S.; Lewis and Clark began Rocky Mountain explorations.
1812-13 Returning Astorians, down North Platte -- opened Oregon Trail.
1820 Long up South Platte.
1823-24 South Pass discovered. Ashley's men extend operations into Upper Platte country.
1824 Smith discovers Great Salt Lake. Fitzpatrick first attempts navigation of upper Platte. Furs taken overland down Platte route to St. Louis.
1825 First rendezvous in the mountains.
1827 Four-pound wheeled cannon -- first wheeled vehicle to ascend Platte route and cross the Rocky Mountains.
1830 W. Sublette and large party take first wagons over the Oregon Trail, into the Rocky Mountains.
1832 Invasion of the mountains by independent fur traders -- Bonneville, Wyeth, et al.
1834 First missionaries and scientists over the Trail into the Oregon country. Founding of several famous forts: Laramie, Hall, etc.
1835 First march of Army to the mountains, under Col. Dodge, up South Platte. Presbyterian missionaries enter Oregon (Whitman and Parker).
1836 More missionaries to Oregon -- first women over the Oregon Trail.
1840 Last rendezvous. Jesuit Father De Smet entered the mountains.
1841 First Oregon-California emigrant train.
1842 Lt. Fremont's first expedition.
1843 The Great Emigration to Oregon. First wagons to reach the Pacific -- 120 wagons, 694 oxen, 200 families, 775 loose cattle.
1844 Five Oregon-California parties.
1845 Kearny's dragoons up North Platte. First regular military campaign into the Great West.
1846 49° parallel boundary decides Oregon question with Britian. Bear Flag republic in California. War with Mexico. Donner disaster in California.
1847 Mormon "pioneers" reopen old Indian and fur trader route up north bank of the Platte. Salt Lake City founded. Post Route Bill passed.
1848 Gold discovered, January 24, in California. Treaty gives the southwest to the United States. Oregon territory created. Ft. Kearny founded.
1849 Overland rush to California. Government buys Ft. Laramie. Cholera on the plains. 25,000 use the Overland Trail. Roubidou's post founded at Scotts Bluff.
1850 California a state. First contract mail service over the Overland Trail to Salt Lake City.
1851 Great Indian Council of Ft. Laramie at mouth of Horse Creek.
1853 Overland Mail through to California. First of the five railroad surveys.
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act opened the Indian country west of the Missouri, and abrogated Missouri Compromise. Gratten Massacre.
1855 Brule Dakota slaughtered near Ash Hollow by General Harney.
1856 Handcart Mormon migration began; one disasterous company.
1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre of Fancher's company by Mormons. "Mormon War." Overland hauling of freight commenced.
1858 Gold discovered in Pike's Peak area. Washoe silver strike in Nevada.
1859 Oregon a state. Movement to Colorado gold mines. Stages run to Salt Lake City, on contract. Comstock (Virginia City) silver strike in Nevada. The year of the "Fifty-niners."
1860 Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company. Pony Express inaugurated. Gold strike in Idaho.
1861 Telegraph completed October 26. End of the Pony Express. Kansas a state.
1862 Gold found at Virginia City, Montana. Beginning of Civil War. Indian disorders. Overland Stage abandoned North Platte for South Platte "Overland Trail" roue.
1863 Great Indian War Council on Horse Creek.
1866 Union Pacific tracks opposite Ft. Kearny. "Bloody year on the plains". Fetterman Massacre.
1867 Union Pacific to Julesburg in spring; to Cheyenne in fall. Nebraska a state. Texas cattle drives to Abilene began.
1868 Ft. Laramie treaty. Victory for Red Cloud and his Teton Dakotas.
1869 Union Pacific-Central Pacific meet, May 10.
1871 Heavy cattle stocking of Horse Creek range.
1871-3 Red Cloud Agency at North Platte river, near Scotts Bluff.
1876 Final Indian treaty placing Dakotas on reservation and opening the Black Hills. Annihilation of Custer's troops.
1884 Peak of the range cattle business.
1886-87 Invasion of western Nebraska by Grangers.
1887 Deflation of an overcrowded range.
1888 Gering platted.
1899 Scotts Bluff platted.

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