The Early Years,
Defining The System,
The New Deal Years,
The Poverty Years,
The Ecological Revolution,
A System Threatened,
Appendix: Summaries of Lengthy Documents
ALASKA NATIONAL MONUMENT
December 1, 1978 (Federal Register, Vol. 43, No. 234,
After several decades of sparse and careful usage of the Antiquities Act reflecting the unwillingness of Congress to allow the president to unilaterally shape conservation policy, Jimmy Carter took abrupt and sweeping action to preserve seventeen enormous and endangered areas of Alaska. Each individual monument proclamation repeated the following key statements after defining and justifying a particular area:
"Now, therefore, I, Jimmy Carter, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by section 2 of the Act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225, 16 U.S.C. 431), do proclaim that there are hereby set apart and reserved as the [see list below] all lands, including submerged lands, and waters owned or controlled by the United States within the boundaries of the area described on the document entitled [Monument title], attached to and forming a part of this Proclamation.
"All lands, including submerged lands, and all waters within the boundaries of this Monument are hereby appropriated and withdrawn from entry, location, selection, sale or other disposition under the public land laws, other than exchange. There is also reserved all water necessary to the proper care and management of those objects protected by this Monument and for the proper administration of the Monument in accordance with applicable laws.
"The establishment of this Monument is subject to valid existing rights, including, but not limited to, valid selections under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and under or confirmed in the Alaska Statehood Act (48 U.S.C. Note preceding Section 21).
"Nothing in this Proclamation shall be deemed to revoke any existing withdrawal, reservation or appropriation, including any withdrawal under section 17 (d)(l) of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1616 (d)(l); however, the National Monument shall be the dominant reservation. Nothing in this Proclamation is intended to modify or revoke the terms of the Memorandum of Understanding dated September 1, 1972, entered into between the State of Alaska and the United States as part of the negotiated settlement of Alaska v. Morton, Civil No. A-48-72 (D. Alaska, Complaint filed April 10, 1972)."
Aside from vastly increasing park system acreage, these proclamations greatly expanded the use of the Antiquities Act to block resource exploitation and at least temporarily preserve areas until the slow legislative process could act.
The proclamations and areas are as follows:
CFR Title 3, 1978 Compilation, 69-104.