1 See Appendix II: Drawings
of Visitor Centers by Cecil Doty.
2 Conrad Wirth to Washington Office and
All Field Offices, memorandum, May 28, 1954, Box 12, Conrad Wirth Papers
(CWP), American Heritage Center (AHC), Laramie, Wyoming.
3 As his associate director, Wirth chose
Eivind T. Scoyen, superintendent of Glacier National Park during the
New Deal and superintendent of Sequoia and Kings Canyon since 1947.
The organization hired Cecil Doty for his first park work.
4 Eivind T. Scoyen, Acting Director, to
All Field Offices, memorandum, March 22, 1956, Box 6, CWP, AHC.
5 E. T. Scoyen to Washington Office and
All Field Offices, memorandum: "Advance Planning," April 12, 1956, Box
6, CWP, AHC; Scoyen to Washington Office and All Field Offices, memorandum:
"Contract Authority for Professional Services," April 12, 1956, Box
6 Conrad Wirth to Washington Office and
All Field Offices, memorandum, July 18, 1956, Box 12, CWP, AHC.
7 The work of Paul Phillipe Cret (1875-1945),
a French-born American architect, includes such Philadelphia landmarks
as the Delaware River Bridge (1920-1926) and the Rodin Museum (with
Jacques Greber, 1926-1930), as well as buildings in France, Belgium,
and Spain. Cret taught design at the University of Pennsylvania from
1903-1937 and influenced many future architects including Louis Kahn.
8 Three years later, these volumes were
published in a single book complied by Albert H. Good, Park and Recreation
Structures (National Park Service, 1938). Doty lists the following
references in Park and Recreation Structures as examples of his
early state park work: vol. I, A15, vol. 2, D6 (entrance way and shelter,
Turner Falls State Park); vol. 2, D19 (picnic shelters, Lake Guernsey,
Lake Okmulgee), E8 (refectory, Mohawk Metropolitan Park, Tulsa, Oklahoma),
H9 (bathhouse, Boiling Springs State Park, Oklahoma), K9 (museum, Custer
State Park, South Dakota) and K10, (museum, Lake Guernsey State Park,
9 Cecil Doty to Laura Soulliere, August
1976, Oklahoma State University Archives (OSU); Oral History Interview,
transcript, "Laura Soulliere Harrison interviews Cecil Doty," 1985,
10 Interview with Cecil J. Doty by Herbert
Evison, October 26, 1962, Western Office of Design and Construction,
San Francisco; Harpers Ferry Center archives.
11 Lovelady and Swatek had worked with
Doty at the office in Oklahoma City.
12 The final approved drawings are dated
February and March 1938 and March 1939. The completed building was influenced
by Carlos Vierra, the construction foreman, who painted the missions
of New Mexico in 1915, maintained a collection of photographs of local
buildings, and provided the architects with information about regional
construction techniques. According to Herbert Maier, "Vierra said: 'No
architect who has come to Santa Fe has more rapidly absorbed the native
style nor shown a keener appreciation for its detail.'" See Maier, Santa
Fe New Mexican (July 1, 1939), 6.
13 Doty to Soulliere, August 1976; Oral
History Interview, 1985.
14 "Early Spanish Architecture is Featured,"
Santa Fe New Mexican (July 1, 1939).
15 Lyle Bennett first worked for the Park
Service as a ranger in 1927. Although not trained as an architect, he
had a degree in fine arts from the University of Missouri. Bennett's
career, like Doty's, continued into the Mission 66 period; when the
Division of Design and Construction reorganized in June 1954, Bennett
became the WODC supervising architect. He was, in effect, Doty's supervisor.
16 Doty produced preliminary designs for
the lodge in May 1949. The design was altered over the next few years.
Doty's role in the changes, if any, is unknown. Although Doty takes
credit for the administration building at Joshua Tree, his name has
only been located in conjunction with the building's furniture.
17 Interview with Cecil Doty by Herbert
Evison, October 26, 1962.
18 "Public Service Building, Flamingo Marina,"
February 15, 1954; 7 sheets, drawing #NP-EVE-1006, TIC.
19 Lewis, Museum Curatorship, 142.
20 Doty's name does not appear on the preliminary
drawings dated December 1954 or the February 1956 revisions, but he
may have been responsible for the original schematic design of the Carlsbad
Caverns Public Use Building. In his interview with Laura Harrison, Doty
recalls his work on the visitor center at Carlsbad. Lyle Bennett and
Doty's colleague Lovelady visited the site in 1953.
21 Interview with Cecil Doty by Laura Harrison,
22 Interview with Cecil Doty by Herbert
Evison, October 26, 1962.
23 Cecil J. Doty, "Space Relationship Diagrams
of Lobby, Exhibit Room and Audio-Visual Facilities at Badlands National
Monument and Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park," in "Visitor
Center Planning," WODC February 4-6, 1958.
24 Wupatki National Monument archival photo
collection, classification # 069.5, negative number, W 51.
25 A panel entitled "Why is Such a Plan
Needed?" included the following photo caption under the old administration
building: "One of the most urgent needs is for visitor centers which
provide information, publications, exhibits, restrooms, and are manned
by rangers. These centers of information are woefully inadequate
26 Russell, L. Mahan, Superintendent's
Monthly Report, December 8, 1961.
27 Superintendent's Monthly Report, June
28 The construction contract was awarded
to the Frontier Construction Company of Tucson on June 9, 1964, for
29 Superintendent's Monthly Report, August
30 Interview with Doty by Harrison, 1985.
31 "Mission 66 for Zion National Park,"
(National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, n.d.), 8.
32 Dena S. Markoff, "An Administrative
History: Decision-Making that Shaped Zion National Park 1909 to 1981"
(Western Heritage Conservation, Inc., 1982).
33 Superintendent's Report, October 1956.
34 Markoff, Administrative History.
35 The firm was founded in 1908 as Cannon
and Fetzer. The name was changed to Cannon and Mullen in 1937.
36 Information on Cannon and Mullen was
provided by the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City, which
owns the Howell Q. Cannon Collection.
37 A set of twenty-nine sheets of working
drawings for the visitor center/headquarters, dated May 5, 1958, is
on microfiche in the Technical Information Center, Denver Service Center.
38 Doty's first preliminary drawings were
completed in April 1957; A sheet with alterations is dated September
10, 1957. The drawings are on microfiche in the Technical Information
Center, Denver Service Center.
39 Superintendent's Monthly Reports, February
6, 1959; March 6, 1959; August 13, 1959; September 9, 1959.
40 "Contract No. 14-10-345-5 Visitor Building,
Mr. Cannons visit to Project. W. P. Fairchild to Coordinating Project
Supervisor, Area III." memorandum, April 10, 1960.
41 Superintendent's Monthly Reports, October
14, 1959; November 5, 1959; December 8, 1959; January 11, 1960; February
5, 1960; March 7, 1960; April 8, 1960; May 12, 1960; June 13, 1960;
July 14, 1960.
42 Superintendent's Monthly Reports, August
12, 1960; September 1, 1960.
43 "Visitor Center to be Dedicated at Zion
National Park, Utah," Department of the Interior Information Service,
press release, June 14, 1961.
44 "Zion's New Visitor Center Soon Proves
Itself Notable Success," National Park Courier, vol. 5, no. 3.
45 The thesis by Jonathan Searle Monroe
is based, in part, on an oral history interview performed in June, 1985.
See Monroe, "Architecture and the National Parks: Cecil Doty and Mission
66," Master of Architecture thesis, University of Washington, 1986.
46 Interview with Cecil Doty by Jacilee
Wray, February 26, 1990, Walnut Creek, California.