On-line Book
Book Cover to Mission 66 Visitor Centers. With image of Dinosaur NM Visitor Center, view from beneath ramp


Table of Contentss




Wright Brothers


Pertified Forest

Rocky Mountain

Cecil Doty



Appendix I

Appendix II

Appendix III

Appendix IV

Mission 66 Visitor Centers
Chapter 4
National Park Service Arrowhead


1 Richard J. Neutra to Thomas J. Allen, "Rough Draft of letter," January 25, 1963, Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO) archives.

2 The Painted Desert Inn suffered from severe structural problems. A 1960 "master plan" drawing noted that it would either be adapted or replaced by an interpretive center on the same site. In an earlier memorandum to the Director, Harthon L. Bill commented that "with MISSION 66 at Petrified Forest it has been anticipated that this structure would be evacuated by the concessioner and that as a temporary expedient the structure could be utilized for interpretive exhibits." See "Structural Inspection, Painted Desert Inn, Petrified Forest," memorandum, Harthon L. Bill to Conrad Wirth, September 3, 1958. In 1998 the Inn was open and undergoing renovation.

3 Laura Soulliere Harrison, "Painted Desert Inn," National Register of Historic Places inventory form in Architecture in the Parks (National Park Service, 1986); Jeffrey F. Burton, Days in the Painted Desert and the Petrified Forests of Northern Arizona (National Park Service: Western Archeological and Conservation Center, 1993), 29-30.

4 Wright's project, "Meteor Crater Inn for Burton Tremaine" is pictured in Frank Lloyd Wright Monograph, 1942-1950, Yukio Futagawa, ed. (Tokyo: ADA Edita, 1988). A scrapbook in the office of Meteor Crater Enterprises, Inc., contains an article from the June 25, 1959, Mojave Miner (Kingman) with mention of Philip Johnson's design.

5 Several books on Johnson neglect to mention the Meteor Crater Museum. According to Philip Johnson, Architecture 1949-1965 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966) the Meteor Crater Pavilion designed by the architect in 1950 has been destroyed. Since concessions and services have been expanded, it is unclear whether the extant museum building was designed by Johnson.

6 Richard Neutra, "Housing in Mild Climates," Progressive Architecture (October 1953); Neutra, Mystery and Realities of the Site (Scarsdale, New York: Morgan & Morgan, Publishers, 1951).

7 Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, 1957, PEFO archives.

8 See the following drawings on microfiche in the Technical Information Center (TIC), Denver Service Center (DSC): "Addition to Museum and Administration Building," Rainbow Forest, #2047-A; "Addition to Visitor Center," 2047-B; "Addition to Visitor Center" (working drawing), 2047-C.

9 Assistant Director Stratton to Superintendent, memorandum, September 7, 1962.

10 "News Media Fact Sheet, Dedication of Petrified Forest National Park and New Visitor Facilities," October 27, 1963, PEFO archives.

11 Superintendent's Monthly Report (Fred C. Fagergren), November 9, 1956, PEFO archives.

12 "Proposed Layout, Headquarters, Painted Desert," #3206 (6-10-57); microfiche, TIC.

13 "Employee Residences, Painted Desert Residential Area," #3208 (7-12-97), 2 sheets, TIC.

14 Drawings prepared and designed by Doty, "Residential and Utility Area," #3212 (2-12-58), TIC.

15 Superintendent's Monthly Report, May 9, 1958, PEFO archives.

16 Superintendent's Monthly Report, May 9, 1958, PEFO archives.

17 "Drawings for Headquarters Development, Petrified Forest," memorandum, Thomas C. Vint to Chief, WODC, May 9, 1958. Vint also mentioned an attached sketch, which was "not an attempt to design the development but is to be taken more as an indication of general distribution of facilities in the area."

18 Richard J. Neutra and Robert E. Alexander, "Homes for National Park Service Families on a Wind-Swept Desert," n.d., Rare Book and Manuscripts Collections, Carl A. Kroch Library, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, New York. Some of the drawings used in the text are dated May 15, 1958.

19 The landscape architectural branch of WODC produced a new plan after February 1958 in response to Neutra and Alexander's preliminary drawings. This layout flips the location of administration and concession buildings and locates the employee apartments to the north of the visitor center. During the December conference, this alternative was abandoned and the previous plan reinstated. See "Painted Desert Region, Part of the Master Plan," #3202-D, TIC.

20 "Painted Desert Preliminary Plan Discussion, Los Angeles, December 19," memorandum, Superintendent to Regional Director, Region Three, December 23, 1958.

21 Jerome C. Miller and K.M. Saunders met with the architects in their office on December 12 and made the following alterations in building size: administration-orientation building and covered corridor reduced from 11,000 to 8,880 square feet; maintenance structure and vehicle storage shed reduced from 15,350 to 10,600 square feet. The eight apartment units remained 4,000 square feet. Total reduction amounted to 6,870 square feet. See "Painted Desert Preliminary Plan Discussion."

22 "Work Schedule—Painted Desert, Petrified Forest," memorandum, Hugh M. Miller, Regional Director to Director, March 6, 1959.

23 "Work Schedule, Painted Desert, Petrified Forest," memorandum, Director to Chief, WODC, February 17, 1959; "Petrified Forest NM—Painted Desert Development Construction Funds as Now Available or Programmed," January 16, 1959.

24 Sanford Hill to Regional Director, Region Three, "Los Angeles Meeting, Painted Desert Headquarters—Petrified Forest," memorandum, December 24, 1958.

25 "College Buildings: St. John's, Science and Art in a Venerable Setting," Architectural Record, vol. 126, no. 3 (September 1959): 176-179.

26 Hines, Richard Neutra, 236.

27 John Rollow, for Richard Neutra and Robert Alexander, to Fred Fagergren, November 29, 1961.

28 National Geographic, vol. 120, no. 6 (December 1961): 882-885.

29 "Architect Richard Neutra, What Will the Neighbors Think?" Time, vol. 54, no. 7 (August 15, 1949).

30 Superintendent's Monthly Report, October 3, 1958; "Part II, More Livable Homes, Bold New Plan for Best Land Use," Life, vol. 24, no. 12 (September 22, 1958). Fagergren may not have known that the Life magazine with Neutra's picture on the cover (1949) included two pages of "Modern Houses across the U.S." with examples by Stone, Wright, Gropius and others. The article singled out Neutra for special praise.

31 Edward Durell Stone, The Evolution of an Architect (New York: Horizon Press, 1962), 148-149.

32 Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 14, 1960.

33 "New Standard Plans for Permanent Employee Housing," memorandum, Director Wirth to Regional Directors, Chiefs, EODC and WODC; Superintendent, National Capital Parks (NCP), February 17, 1960.

34 "New Standard Plans for Permanent Employee Housing," memorandum, Sanford Hill to Regional Director, March 3, 1960; attachments: floorplans and "Selective Components for NPS Standard House Plans."

35 "Justification for Exceeding Cost Limitation, Single-Unit Employee Housing, Petrified Forest NM," memorandum, Sanford Hill to Fred C. Fagergren, March 11, 1960; "Employee Housing Construction Cost Limitation," memorandum, Fred C. Fagergren to Sanford Hill, March 21, 1960.

36 "Painted Desert Housing Plans," memorandum, Fred C. Fagergren to Regional Director, Region Three, April 21, 1960.

37 "Painted Desert Housing Plans," memorandum, Jerome C. Miller to Fred C. Fagergren, May 3, 1960.

38 Sanford Hill to Richard J. Neutra and Robert E. Alexander, February 29, 1960.

39 "Typical Floor Plans, Housing," Neutra and Alexander, January 9, 1959, microfiche, TIC.

40 Sanford Hill to Richard J. Neutra and Robert E. Alexander, April 6, 1960.

41 Fred C. Fagergren to Sanford Hill, April 11, 1960.

42 Neutra and Alexander's "as constructed" drawings are dated January 31, 1961. Consultants on the project were Boris M. Lemos, mechanical engineer, and Parker, Zehnder and Associates, structural engineers, both of Los Angeles. The Park Service revised the drawings in May 1967.

43 "Residential: Award Citation," Progressive Architecture (January 1959), 146-147.

44 Superintendent's Monthly Report, May 10, 1961.

45 The Stratton Company of Hurricane, Utah, also worked on this contract.

46 Dion Neutra to Fred C. Fagergren, June 13, 1961.

47 This chapter is based on two year's worth of "inspector's weekly construction reports" filed between April 1, 1961, and April 27, 1963. See PEFO archives.

48 Harry J. Mills to Fred C. Fagergren, March 9, 1962.

49 Fred C. Fagergren to Dean Rasmussen, August 23, 1962; John Rollow to Fred Fagergren, August 17, 1962.

50 Fred C. Fagergren to Harry J. Mills, June 4, 1962.

51 "Occupancy of New Headquarters Building," memorandum, Fred C. Fagergren to Regional Director, Southwest Region, July 18, 1962. PEFO archives.

52 "Open House Coincides with 'Founders Day' at Painted Desert Reception Center," Holbrook Tribune (August 17, 1962).

53 "Painted Desert Reception Center," Marc Sagan and Edward J. Bierly, Branch of Museums, Washington, February 4, 1960.

54 The monument was authorized to become a park when Eisenhower signed legislation on March 28, 1958, but the designation was delayed until the government gained title of private lands. See Lubick, "Petrified Forest National Park," 137.

55 Stratton to Fred C. Fagergren, September 7, 1962.

56 John Rollow to Fred Fagergren, July 27, 1961.

57 John Rollow to Fred C. Fagergren, November 28, 1961.

58 John Rollow to Fred C. Fagergren, May 2, 1962.

59 Superintendent's Monthly Report, April 13, 1962.

60 Fred C. Fagergren to Dean Rasmussen, February, 1962.

61 Fred C. Fagergren to Dean Rasmussen, October 23, 1962.

62 "Color Schedule Painted Desert Community," Neutra and Alexander, May 7, 1962, PEFO archives.

63 "Suggestions from Mr. Richard J. Neutra regarding residences," ca. January 26, 1963.

64 Richard Neutra to Thomas J. Allen, "Rough Draft," January 25, 1963.

65 A plan for the "Proposed School" by the WODC dated February, 1962, shows the footprint of the school building and the proposed play area with baseball diamond and tennis court. See drawing #3236, TIC, DSC.

66 Alexander took on the project after the dissolution of the partnership.

67 A "Bob Petley Postcard," published by Petley Studios, Inc. of Albuquerque, New Mexico, featured "Painted Desert Northern Arizona" in an "aerial view showing the visitors center and the vast Painted Desert." The undated card is in the collection of Rita Garcia, Petrified Forest, National Park.

68 "Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona," brochure accompanying dedication material, n.d., PEFO archives.

69 Richard Neutra to Thomas J. Allen, "rough draft," January 25, 1963.

70 Fred C. Fagergren to Chief, WODC, February 21, 1962; Richard Neutra to Fred C. Fagergren and Philip F. Van Cleave, chief park naturalist, February 17, 1962.

71 Richard Neutra, Life and Shape (New York: Van Rees Press, 1962), 338-343.

72 See the following drawings located in the Technical Information Center, "General Plan, Painted Desert Plaza," March 1962; "Plaza and Related Areas, Painted Desert Community," March 1963; "Planting Trees and Periphery," April 1963.

73 Interview with Charlene Yazzie, chief of maintenance, by the author, Petrified Forest National Park, July 31, 1998.

74 Jerry A. Riddell to Chief, WODC, "Inspection of buildings at Painted Desert Community," July 30, 1964.

75 Robert E. Alexander, "Report on Petrified Forest Installation," July 22, 1964; Robert Alexander to Sanford Hill, July 24, 1964, PEFO archives.

76 The Petrified Forest archives contain extensive records relating to the lawsuit.

77 H. G. Gibbs, "Inspection of damage and foundation movements at Painted Desert Community," travel report, August 24, 1964; L. Kucera, "Investigation of Structural Failures of Block Walls," ca. August, 1964.

78 Murray L. Crosse to Chairman, Board of Contract Appeals, memorandum, ca. September 8, 1964.

79 "Remodeling Carports to Garages," WODC, #3310, March, 1964, TIC.

80 See "Alterations to Lobby," Western Regional Office, #80005, TIC. The community room was remodeled at this time and the "large metal door removed and the area enclosed." Charles A. Veitl, Superintendent's Annual Report, 1973.

81 Roger K. Rector, Superintendent's Annual Report, 1979.

82 The present entrance to the Fred Harvey building was not part of the Neutra/Alexander design. Originally, visitors saw only the entrance to the visitor center from the parking lot, and could only enter the concession building from within the courtyard. The new entrance was installed at an unknown date.

83 David B. Ames to Manager, Texaco, Inc., March 18, 1976.



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