1 The Wilderness Society, the National
Parks Association, the Sierra Club, the National Wildlife Federation,
the Izaak Walton League, the American Planning and Civic Association,
the Wildlife Management Institute, the Audubon Society, and the National
Council of State Garden Clubs were among the approximately thirty conservation
groups involved in the Echo Park issue.
2 Frederick Law Olmsted, "Statement of
Frederick Law Olmsted at Hearings Held by the Department of the Interior,
April 3, 1950, in the Matter of Dinosaur National Monument, Echo Park,
and Split Mt. Dams," library, Dinosaur National Monument; Olmsted's
testimony was based on fieldwork relating to the water project. See
"Dinosaur National Monument Region, Report of Progress, May 13, 1943."
3 Vernal Express (February 15, 1951);
"Dinosaur National Monument, Plan of Development as a National Monument
by the National Park Service," n.d., "Dinosaur" clippings files, Western
History Collection, Denver Public Library.
4Bernard DeVoto, "Shall We Let Them Ruin
Our National Parks?" Saturday Evening Post (July 22, 1950).
5 Knopf had recently visited Dinosaur to
show support for the endangered area. Wallace Stegner, ed., This
is Dinosaur: Echo Park Country and its Magic Rivers (New York: Alfred
A. Knopf, 1955).
6 Owen Stratton and Phillip Sirotkin, The
Echo Park Controversy (Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1959),
7 According to the Vernal Express,
June 3, 1958, the structure came "partly as a result of increased national
interest in the monument, growing from the publicity inherent to the
Echo Park Controversy..." Historian Elmo Richardson provides evidence
that once the Upper Colorado Basin bill passed, the Secretary of the
Interior planned immediate Mission 66 improvements at Dinosaur. See
Richardson, "Just a Tiny Dinosaur," in Dams, Parks and Politics
(Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1973), 151.
8 Richard G. Beidleman, "The Dinosaur MuseumFrom
Idea to Reality," in Administrative History Dinosaur National Monument,
1963, unpublished manuscript, library, Denver Service Center (DSC).
The quotation was taken from Douglass' correspondence.
9 Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Museum," 9;
"correspondence," Holland to Cammerer, November 8, 1921, National Archives,
File 580, Dinosaur National Monument (DINO) archives.
10Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Museum," 9;
"correspondence," Cammerer to Case, December 30, 1924, National Archives,
File 580, DINO archives.
11 Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Museum."
12 Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Quarry and
Federal Works Projects 1933-1938."
13 Ned J. Burns, "Comments on Proposed
Museum at Dinosaur National Monument," in "Quarry Development 1936-1953,"
ca. 1936, DINO archives.
14 "Preliminary Drawing for Museum Building,"
January 24, 1937, DIN-3-A, microfiche, Technical Information Center
15 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed
the proclamation enlarging the park boundaries on July 14, 1938.
16 H. E. Rothrock, "Report on Inspection
of Dinosaur National Monument," June 1938, microfiche, TIC, DSC.
17 Preliminary Sketch, "Museum," February
7, 1944, DIN-3-B, microfiche, TIC, DSC. This drawing includes the following
note: "This preliminary sketch is designed to the approximate dimensional
specifications outlined in Associate Park Naturalist M.V. Walker's 'Report
on Studies and Investigations at Dinosaur National Monument relative
to an interpretive and museum development program,' dated May 2 to June
18 The 1949 park brochure, "Dinosaur National
Monument Past and Present," informed visitors of the Park Service's
"high hopes and plans that this world-famous quarry may be protected
from weathering and erosion by erecting a roof over it. Such a structure
will make it possible to preserve bones now exposed in the quarry face
and also house some dinosaur restorations. But above all it will make
it possible to present to the public an active, working quarry where
men are engaged in uncovering and preserving in place the fossil remains
of these great prehistoric creatures." William Lee Stokes, Dinosaur
National Monument: Past and Present (Washington, D.C.: Government
Printing Office, 1949).
19 Dinosaur National Monument files, memorandum,
"Temporary Quarry Shelter," April 17, 1951.
20 Regional Director to Superintendent,
memorandum, "Report on Conference, May 18, 19, 20, Dinosaur National
Monument" [stamped date June 9, 1955], Box 7, Office Files of Director
Conrad L. Wirth, 1946-1964, RG 79, National Archives.
21 "Dinosaur Improvement Fund Reaches
$615,899," Vernal Express (March 1, 1956).
22 The eight projects included in the
program were "the reliefing of fossils, construction of roads and parking
lots for the visitor center, reconstruction of Split Mountain road,
installation of utilities, roads and walks for utility buildings, signs
and markers," and campground and comfort facilities along the Green
and Yampa Rivers. "Dinosaur Monument Construction Draws Big Response
at Bid Opening," Vernal Express (March 21, 1957), Dinosaur clippings
23 See photo collection, "Quarry," DINO
24 "Dinosaur National Monument Quarry
Development Now Open for Bidding," Vernal Express, July 12, 1956.
25 John Good, "73,000 Visit Dinosaur Monument
During Past Year, Says Report," Vernal Express (December 20,
26 Daily Yellow Correspondence, Superintendent's
report, May 9, 1957, DINO archives.
27 Jess H. Lombard, superintendent, to
Mr. Martin Litton, travel editor, Sunset (October 3, 1956).
28 "Master Plan Development Outline,"
ca. December, 1956, filed in 1954-1957 Daily Yellow Correspondence,
29 "Visitor Center for Dinosaur National
Monument," Architectural Record 121 (January 1957): 187.
30 After graduation, Anshen and Allen
were awarded a traveling fellowship abroad and, several years later,
arrived in San Francisco nearly penniless. The young architects heard
that Ralph Davies, Director of the Standard Oil Company, was eager to
have a European residence dismantled and brought back to California.
They convinced Davies to abandon the European plan and hire them to
design his home in Woodside, California. The Davies commission led to
work on Standard Oil stations and ship interiors for an associated business,
American President Lines. Telephone interview with Richard Hein by the
author, April 1, 1999.
31 Marguerite Brunswig Staude (1899-1988),
a sculptress, originally presented her idea for a 500-foot, block-wide
cathedral to Lloyd Wright, Frank Lloyd Wright's son, in the 1930s. Although
the design was finally accepted by nuns in Hungary, World War II prevented
construction. In 1950, Staude contacted Wright again with plans for
a much smaller chapel, but the architect refused to proceed with any
but the original design. Kate Rutland Thorne, "Upon This Rock, Marguerite
Brunswig Staude and her Sedona Chapel," (West Sedona, Arizona: Chapel
of the Holy Cross, 1995).
32 About this time Anshen and Allen were
planning a major housing development in Palo Alto, California. Although
originally named the Fairmeadows Tract, the residences came to be known
as "Eichler Houses" after their patron, Joseph Eichler.
33 According to "Upon this Rock," a brochure
purchased at the chapel, the building appeared in Life Magazine,
The New York Times (August 25, 1957) and The Washington
Post. It received an A.I.A. award for religious structures in 1956
and was pictured in the September 1958 Architectural Record.
34 Architectural Record, vol. 120,
no. 4 (October 1956), 182.
35 Richard Hein graduated from the University
of Oregon with a bachelor's of architecture in 1953. After working for
a private company in San Francisco for eighteen months, Hein joined
the firm of Anshen and Allen. He specialized in passenger ship interiors
for American President Lines, producing approximately twenty-six designs
for marine projects during his career. Hein's early work also included
designing the ramp for the Sedona chapel, the Quarry project, and the
Food Machinery Corporation building in San Jose. After nine years with
the firm, Hein left for eight years and then returned for another fifteen
years. He retired in 1987. Telephone interview by the author, April
36 Richard Hein, "Design: Anshen &
Allen, San Francisco, California," AIA Journal (December 1960).
37 Hein, "Design," 1960.
38 See Harrison, "Interview with Cecil
Doty," 17. Doty repeated his claims in an interview with Jonathan Searle
Monroe, who paraphrased the architect's comments in his master's thesis:
"A more dramatic change occurred at the Dinosaur Quarry Visitor Center
at Dinosaur National Monument. This early Mission 66 building (1958)
was well received by the architectural press and gave Anshen & Allen,
the designers, good publicity. The design concept, the overall size
and functional relationships, the siting, and even some of the construction
details were done by Doty. Anshen & Allen made changes to the roofline
and altered the shape of an office wing from rectangular to round, both
of which significantly changed the final form of the building but not
the basic concept. Doty's name was never mentioned in any of the numerous
articles describing the building." See Monroe, "Architecture in the
National Parks: Cecil Doty and Mission 66," 123-4.
39 "Recent Work of Anshen and Allen,"
Architectural Record 124 (September 1958): 165-180.
40 Acting Chief, Division of Design and
Construction to Director, memorandum, "Monthly Narrative Report, July
1956," Box 7, Office Files of Director Conrad L. Wirth, National Archives.
41 According to Stephen Bruneel, senior
associate of Anshen and Allen, "the shed is usually part of the sepia
background with just the admin/service wing drawn in by hand." Stephen
Bruneel to Christopher Jones, February 11, 1999. No dates or title blocks
are included on the drawings, but one alternative (later rejected) is
signed by Tom Vint.
42 Bruneel to Jones, February 11, 1999.
43 Hein, "Design," 1960.
44 Museum Specialist Robert L. Barrel
to Chief, Museum Branch, memorandum, "Method of Displaying Quarry Face,
Dinosaur NM," August 5, 1956, "Dinosaur" files, National Park Service
History Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.
45 Although Anshen and Allen stipulated
colored concrete for the exterior of the building, the Park Service
used local aggregate without added coloring. According to Richard Hein,
the color that naturally resulted from the native stone was exactly
what the architects had chosen. Richard Hein, Interview by the author,
April 1, 1999.
46 Anshen and Allen, "Finish and Color
Schedule," ca. Nov., 1956, archives of Anshen and Allen, San Francisco.
47 See, for example, "3 Bedroom Residence,
Quarry Area," Drawing #3116B, July 27, 1956, TIC, DSC.
48 "Utility Building, Quarry Site," drawing
#3114A, November 21, 1956, and #3114B, April 29, 1957, TIC.
49 Hanson Construction Company of Altamont
submitted the lowest bid of $224,000, but was allowed to withdraw after
recognizing the insufficiency of its estimate.
50 R. Neil Grunigen, Project Supervisor,
to Chief, WODC, "Weekly Construction Report," May 13, 1957.
51 Grunigen to Chief, WODC, "Weekly Construction
Report," June 24, 1957.
52 "Rising Visitor Center Revives Dinosaur
Era," Vernal Express, September 26, 1957.
53 Superintendent's monthly report, Jess
H. Lombard, December 1957, DINO archives.
54 John K. Good to Dr. A. S. Coggeshall,
December 6, 1957.
55 "Progress Report of Mission 66 at Dinosaur
National Monument," National Park Service, March 7, 1958.
56 "Dinosaur and Sputnik," Vernal Express
(November 23, 1957), DINO archives.
57 Jess H. Lombard to Director, Region
Two, "Report on Operation of Visitor Center," October 8, 1958.
58 "Dinosaurs Meet the People," Geotimes,
vol. 3, no. 1 (July-August 1958).
59 George E. Thomas, The Book of the
School: 100 Years (Philadelphia: The Graduate School of Fine Arts
of the University of Pennsylvania, 1990). Even before the construction
of Quarry Visitor Center, some critics grouped Anshen and Allen among
the significant firms of the future. Architectural Forum predicted
that the "names of Charles Goodman and Anshen and Allen and Quincy Jones
and Fred Emmons and Carl Koch and Keyes, Satterless and Smith may have
a place in future history as pioneers only a little less revolutionary
than Frank Lloyd Wright." See Architectural Forum, ed., Building
U.S.A. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955), 8.
60 "Exhibit PlanDinosaur Nat'l Monument
Visitor Center," May 3, 1957, microfiche drawings, TIC.
61 John W. Jenkins to Director, "Exhibit
Plans, Dinosaur National Monument," May 6, 1958, in "Dinosaur Interpretive
Plans," vol. 1, DINO archives.
62 Project Construction Proposal, Theodore
E. White and Harold J. Broderick, April 1963, DINO archives.
63 William H. Clemons, supervisory park
ranger, to Chief Ranger, "Structural Damage to Quarry Visitor Center
Parking Area," November 27, 1957.
64 "Reconstruction Visitor Center Plaza,"
drawing #3149C, August 16, 1962, TIC.
65 "Repairs to Visitor Center," drawing
#3330A (six sheets), September 1967, TIC.
66 "Report of Investigative Studies, Adverse
Settlement, Visitor Center Building, Dinosaur National Monument, for
National Park Service," Dames and Moore, July 14, 1966.
67 Gene Mott to Al Heubner, "Inspection
of Headquarters Building at Dinosaur National Monument," May 9, 1968.
68 A. Sayre Hutchison, historical architect,
"Dinosaur National Monument Site Visit, May 19-23, 1997," Rocky Mountain
69 The name of the town has since been
changed to Dinosaur, Colorado.
70 The masonry pattern featured in the
visitor center appears on the facade of a commercial building at 92
West Main Street in downtown Vernal. The masonry front was applied to
an older brick building.
71 After the untimely death of Bob Anshen
in 1964, Allen expanded the firm with three partners. Allen retired
in 1987 and died two years later. See "Bob Anshen Dies at 54," Architectural
Forum 121 (July 1964): 11; Interview with Richard Hein.
72 "Development Concept," Dinosaur National
Monument, ca. 1972; "Environmental Assessment, Proposed Comprehensive
Design Plan," Dinosaur National Monument, Denver Service Center, May
73 National Register Nomination Form,
"Dinosaur National Monument Multiple Resources," December 1986. This
was the first National Register Nomination to include a substantial
description of the significance of a Mission 66 building.
74 "Hearing Before National Park Service
on Mission 66 Program for Dinosaur National Monument," Vernal, Utah,
May 24, 1958; transcription in DINO archives.