The formal and
legal documentation of an incoming repository transaction, including
a gift, purchase, exchange, transfer, or field collection. Also includes
establishment of legal title and/or custody.
File that contains
the documentation for each incoming repository transaction, including
all legal records. Often includes the documentation of a deaccession.
A unique number
assigned to a collection or, in some cases, an object for purposes
of identification not description (Buck and Gilmore 1998; Griset and
in manual/paper form and/or electronic form, used by repositories
to keep track of all accessions.
highly flammable liquid that is soluble in water. Commonly used as
a solvent for adhesives.
that has a pH of 7.0 or higher (an alkaline), since acids can weaken
cellulose in paper, cloth, and board and lead to embrittlement" (Griset
and Kodack 1999:155).
A process to
obtain custody of an object, document, or collection that involves
used as a consolidant, as a barrier material or base coat to label
objects, and as an adhesive.
treatment action taken to increase the stability or durability of
The process of
determining the monetary value of an item.
"(1) The permanently valuable non-current records
of an organization, with their original order and provenance intact,
maintained by the original organization. (2) The organization that created
and holds the records. (3) The physical building/room in which the records
are held." (NPS 1996:D60).
have been manufactured of inert materials specifically designed to
extend the life of artifacts and records by protecting them from agents
of deterioration" (Griset and Kodack 1999:156).
educated, trained, and engaged in the administration and management
of archival and manuscript collections.
The process of evaluating a collection for the purpose of documenting its condition,
relating it to the mission and goals of the repository, and determining
courses of action regarding its care and management.
(or copies thereof) that are prepared, assembled and document efforts
to locate, evaluate, record, study, preserve or recover a prehistoric
or historic resource" (36 CFR 79.4(a)(2)).
to support fragile objects, usually attached by adhesives. Backing
may be made of either flexible or rigid materials, but should always
be able to expand and contract in a similar manner as the object it
supports. It should also be reversible.
Transfer of property
to an institution under the terms of a deceased person's will.
containing both a weak acid and its conjugal base, used to restrain
the acid migration of a material. Acid-free paper products are often
buffered" (Buck and Gilmore 1998:360).
A listing of
objects or groups of associated records with descriptive details,
including provenience information, that is arranged systematically.
Cellulose nitrate film
"A flexible film base used for motion picture film and
photographic negatives between about 1890 and 1955. This film base self-destructs
over time going through five stages of deterioration. The film should
be handled with gloves, foldered in buffered sleeves, boxed, placed
in ziplock bags and removed to off-site (non-museum storage) cold storage
in a freezer." (NPS 1996:D60).
that are excavated or removed during a survey, excavation or other
study of a prehistoric or historic resource, and associated records
that are prepared or assembled in connection with the survey, excavation
or other study" (36 CFR 79.4(a)).
Term used by
repositories, it is a document, usually part of a repository's acquisition
policy, that specifically details what the repository is going to
collect in order to fulfill its mission, goals, and scope of collections.
A plan that details what is going to be collected during archeological fieldwork. Can
include details on artifact class/type, number, location, and sampling.
and care of collections with concern for their long term physical
well being and safety. Includes issues of conservation, access and
use, and inventory, as well as management of the overall composition
of the collection(s) in relation to the repository's mission and goals.
A trained professional
who is responsible for any and all aspects of collections care. Specific
responsibilities vary by institution, but can include day-to-day care
of and access to collections, cataloging, and information management.
descriptive report of an object's or document's state of preservation
at a moment in time. Assists in planning for conservation treatment.
to prolong the life of an object or document and its physical, historic,
and scientific integrity as long as possible in its original form.
May involve chemical stabilization or physical strengthening. Treatments
should be fully tested, reviewed, and recorded by professional conservators.
A person trained
in the theoretical and practical aspects of preventive conservation
and in performing treatments to prolong the lives of objects and documents.
Often specializes in a particular class of objects or materials.
A chemical used
to strengthen the structural material of an object.
of special intellectual property rights, distinct from the right of
possession, that a creator may have for their work. Copyright exists
for original works in tangible media and covers the rights to reproduce,
adapt, distribute, perform, or display the work.
process involving gradual destruction of an object, usually metals,
through change in the object's material(s).
usually a representative of an object or document owner or a repository,
who travels with an item to ensure its proper care and safe arrival
at a venue.
A fine mesh of
minute cracks on an object's surface. Crazing is most often seen on
ceramic glazes and some types of glass.
minute cracking of a material (similar to crazing). In glass, it results
from the leaching out of alkalis.
remains, including historic and archaeological objects, that compose
a culture's non-renewable heritage. Also includes ethnographic objects,
historic and prehistoric buildings, structures, sites, and landscapes.
The process of
selecting and removing objects from a group. Usually entails the rejection
of items with no scientific or historical value to the group.
As defined under
NAGPRA, cultural affiliation is "a relationship of shared group identity
which can be reasonably traced historically or prehistorically between
a present day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and an
identifiable earlier group" (25 U.S.C 3001.2(3)).
Cultural patrimony (objects of):
As defined under
NAGPRA, "an object having ongoing historical, traditional, or cultural
importance central to the American Indian group or culture itself,
rather than property owned by an individual Native American, and which,
therefore, cannot be alienated, appropriated, or conveyed by any individual
regardless of whether or not the individual is a member of the Indian
tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and such object shall have been
considered inalienable by such Native American group at the time the
object was separated from such group. (25 U.S.C 3001.2(3)(D)).
The process of
"managing and preserving a collection according to professional museum
and archival practices" (36 CFR 79.4(b)).
between two parties (one usually a repository) detailing the curation
of a collection(s). It includes details on the state of the collection
when given to the repository, work to be done at the repository, responsibilities
to the collection for both parties, costs, ownership, and issues/details
on access and use of the collection.
A trained professional
who is usually responsible for the care, exhibition, research, and
enhancement of repository collections. Specific duties vary between
The legal, permanent
removal of an object, document, specimen, or collection from a repository.
Requires full documentation of the process.
Method for storing
objects that are not actively used. It usually involves less expensive,
off-site facilities where collections are relatively inaccessible.
Deed of Gift:
A contract that
transfers ownership from one person or institution to another. Should
include any conditions placed on the gift, although these are generally
discouraged by the receiving repository.
The lateral separation
of a surface into constituent layers.
Variant or alternative
version of an original piece of work, such as posters, postcards,
T-shirts, or artwork using original photographs, graphic designs,
maps, or the like.
for any type of scientific analysis that destroys or alters the sample
during the process. In archeology, destructive analysis techniques
include thin-section analysis, DNA analysis, C14 dating, thermoluminescence
dating, and metallography.
A change in the
state of glass from a vitreous to a crystalline condition. It then
loses its glassy luster and transparency.
The act of physically
removing an object from a repository's collection.
to records deemed to not be current after appraisal. Actions include
transfer to a records center for temporary storage, transfer to an
archival agency, donation to an eligible repository, reproduction
on microfilm, and destruction.
A policy document
that directs how long a document (or type of document) is retained
by an institution and whether it is permanently retained or may be
A technique to
clean and remove contaminants off of documents by gently brushing
off surface grime and dirt by using "Gummi" or "Art Gum" erasers or
by using archival "groomsticks" to manually remove mold and other
remains and organics that have cultural relevance. Includes faunal
or floral remains and soil samples. (See also non-cultural artifacts or materials.)
The outward migration and precipitation of salts on the surface from within a porous material.
Environmental Assessment (EA):
A document related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) prepared by a Federal
agency. Used for compliance with NEPA when an Environmental Impact
Statement is not necessary, i.e., there is no significant impact.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS):
A detailed statement prepared under compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act,
which outlines the environmental impact of actions taken by a federal
agency, as well as options for limiting or negating that impact.
for a polyethylene foam that is produced in sheets. Used for shelf
liners in storage and support of objects. Can be carved into specific
shapes, which makes it useful for supporting odd-shaped objects.
by a repository that outlines its facilities, environmental controls
and monitoring, and collections management procedures. Lending institutions
often use these reports to decide whether a borrowing institution
is able to properly care for and manage loaned objects. The standard
form can be obtained from the American Association of Museums.
"(1) A broader
term for any format of textual or electronic tool that assists researchers
in locating or using archival and manuscript collections. Basic finding
aids include guides (for example, repository, collection, and subject
guides), descriptive inventories, accession registers, card catalogs,
special lists (for example, shelf and box lists), indexes, and (for
machine-readable records) software documentation. (2) The file guides,
indexes, registers, and filing system aids produced by the records
creator, usually referred to as "control records" or "contemporaneous
finding aids." (3) The specific type of descriptive tool described
[in the text above]." (NPS 1996:D61).
A method of obtaining
seeds, small bones, and other organic materials from soils or sediments
using water or other liquids. May be performed in the field or laboratory.
Items that, as
part of the death rite or ceremony of a culture, are reasonably believed
to have been placed intentionally with or near individual human remains
at the time of death or later. Used in NAGPRA.
"Refers to the
document's style, content, and form, including the document's purpose
(advertisements, presentation album), the document's viewpoint (panoramic
view), broad topical category (landscape, still life, portrait, or
street scene), method of representation (abstract, figurative), circumstances
of creation (amateur works, student works), or function (dance cards,
cigarette cards, death certificates)" (NPS 1996:D61).
Geographic Information System (GIS):
capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically
referenced information (data identified according to its location).
GIS is often used in archeology for making maps that plot artifact
distribution over a site or sites over a geographic area. Requires
extensive data gathering and sophisticated software.
that is printed in limited numbers and is rarely cataloged in libraries.
For archeology, it is mainly technical reports of archeological investigations
that are most often associated with cultural resources management
assessment and fieldwork. Thus, it is relatively inaccessible to researchers,
other archeologists, and the public.
preservation of buildings, sites, structures, objects, and landscapes
that have historical or cultural significance.
chemical that bonds to organic materials, thereby blocking the sites
in the material that normally absorb and lose water. When the relative
humidity (RH) drops, water is "taken" by the object from the humectant.
Common humectants are glycerol and sorbitol.
small amounts of moisture in an enclosed humidification chamber to
relax paper fibers so that a document can be gently unrolled or unfolded
and then flattened.
Device used to
measure and record relative humidity (RH) and temperature levels in
one area over a continuous period. Depending on the machine, it can
record levels for one day, one week, or one month.
and maintenance of integrated information systems and the optimization
of information flow and access. In repositories, this most often applies
to the systems (manual or computerized) that hold collections information.
This may include accession, catalog, and/or inventory records.
continuing forever. Used in reference to the curation of material
remains and documents by a repository for the entire length of an
In the natural
or original position/place. In archeology, it references the original
burial context or provenience of an object.
Integrated Pest Management:
integration, and implementation of a variety of approaches to prevent
and solve pest problems in the most efficient and ecologically sound
manner. A decision-making process that helps one decide if a treatment
is necessary and appropriate, where the treatment should be applied,
and what strategies should be integrated for immediate and long-term
rights/ Intellectual property rights:
Non-physical (intangible) rights to an object or record that exist independently
from ownership of the physical item. They include copyrights, images,
and rights to use.
as consolidants, fumigants, acids, and other chemicals, used for the
treatment of objects and records, including the addition of preservatives
or the removal of agents of deterioration.
listing of objects in a repository. It may also be the process of
physically locating objects through several different types of inventory:
complete, sectional, and spot.
term for a type of archival quality, non-wood pulp paper that is often
used in museum applications.
Individual tracing his or her ancestry directly and without interruption through the
traditional kinship system of his/her group to a known individual.
Used in compliance with NAGPRA, the lineal descendant has priority
claim over human remains or funerary/sacred objects of his/her direct
Delivery of personal
or institutional property by one person or institution to another
in trust for a specific purpose. This is done with the understanding
that when that purpose is accomplished the property is returned to
A fee charged
of a borrowing institution by a lending institution for a loan. It
is usually a charge in addition to the actual costs (conservation,
packing, shipping, etc.) of handling a loan.
Lossy compression:"...any process for compressing an image file that causes the file, once uncompressed
to differ from the original appearance of the image file. Many lossy
compression file formats look very similar to the uncompressed file,
as the information that is discarded is often not easy to identify
visually" (Vogt O'Connor 1999:49).
A group of artifacts
identified by provenience, material, and/or object name. Provenience
should be as specific as is recorded by the archeologist. Material
may not be mixed, such as glass and ceramics. Object name may be used
to separate out different types of objects of the same material from
the same provenience (e.g., flakes, projectile points).
Lumens per square
meter. Lux is a measure for visible light.
records with informational content that is usually in code and is
most efficiently read with the aid of a machine. Coded information
is retrievable only by a machine. If not coded, the information may
be read without the assistance of a machine. For example, microformat
is a machine-readable record yet may be read without a machine.
specimens and other physical evidence that are excavated or removed
in connection with efforts to locate, evaluate, document, study, preserve
or recover a prehistoric or historic resource" (36 CFR 79.4(a)(1)).
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA):
under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. A MOA
details an agreement between parties (such as the Advisory Council
on Historic Preservation and a federal agency) on what may be done
to resolve any adverse effects of an action on the cultural environment.
"Refers to documentation
about data, such as descriptions of electronic files that effectively
tell you the format, structure, contents, and authority of the materials.
Metadata standards, such as the Dublin Core and the Encoded Archival
Description Standards, are developed and being adopted or adapted."
(Vogt O'Connor 1999:49).
photographic images that are 20 to 150 times smaller than the original"
(Balough 1993:17). It is generally produced on film that has a life
expectancy of 500 years, commonly called microfilm.
Also called a
"statement of purpose", a document drawn up by a repository to succinctly
outline its purpose, current scope and uses of its collections, and
nonprofit organization, essentially educational and often aesthetic
in purpose, which, utilizing professional staff, acquires tangible
objects, interprets them, cares for them, and exhibits them to the
public on a regular basis." (Malaro 1994:81).
Trade name (DuPont)
for a plastic polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) sheet, commonly
used for mapping field projects. Mylar is characterized by its transparency,
colorlessness, high tensile strength, and chemical stability.
National Historic Landmarks Program:
the Historic Sites Act of 1935, it coordinates, manages, and preserves
historic and archeological sites that have been designated by the
Secretary of the Interior to have national significance and illustrate
the nation's heritage.
National Register of Historic Places:
List of districts,
sites, buildings, structures, and objects determined to be of historic,
cultural, architectural, archeological, or engineering significance
at the national, state, or local level. The name also applies to the
NPS staff unit that processes and manages the list and manages the
extensive archives of property records in the Register.
Non-cultural artifacts or materials:
applied to items collected at archeological sites that are natural
(not man-made), but still have cultural or archeological significance.
Includes soil samples, shell, and floral remains. (See also Ecofacts)
filing arrangement imposed on a document collection by its creator.
The original order of collections can provide information not found
elsewhere, such as when the creator received a communication, who
reviewed a document, or what the sequence of an administrative activity
was. Original order should be preserved or reconstructed in a collection
as it allows for rapid arrangement, accurate contextual research,
and additional insight into the record creator's methods and activities.
If a collection has no order because of mismanagement or disaster,
a decision to impose an order may be made only by an experienced archivist."
pH level /pH scale:
measure of the acidity or alkalinity of material. The pH scale goes
from 0 to 14 with each number indicating a ten-fold increase or decrease
from the next number. Neutral is pH 7. Numbers below neutral indicate
acidity. Numbers above neutral indicate alkalinity.
Phase I, II, III:
Terms primarily used in contract archeology or cultural
resources management to note the type of archeological fieldwork being
carried out. Phase I typically refers to site reconnaissance survey
and mapping to find and inventory sites. Phase II refers to intensive
survey, collection, and site testing. Phase III refers to full excavation
or "mitigation" for data recovery. Collections are made in each phase,
although Phase III usually yields the largest and most complete collections
based on the collecting strategy.
stable, flexible, transparent or translucent plastic. May be found
in the form of film, sheets, foam, and rods. It is widely used for
making archival quality plastic bags and sleeves.
A chemical compound
or mixture of compounds (like or unlike) formed of repeating structural
units. All plastics are polymers.
Similar to polyethylene only stiffer and more heat resistant. Commonly used to make sleeves
for slides or film or small containers.
An unstable polymer
that should not be used for storage or in repositories. Tends
to off-gas, which can create chemical reactions on or in objects.
Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA) emulsion:
A colorless, transparent polymer of vinyl acetate upon drying that is used in adhesives.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC):
A plastic polymer.
Not as chemically stable as other plastics because it may emit hydrochloric
acid as it deteriorates. Its use for preservation is limited for that
A series of steps
undertaken on an archeological collection prior to its deposit for
long-term curation, often including cleaning, labeling, packing, and
and history of ownership for an object or records. Generally used
for works of art, historical objects, and archival records.
it is the specific geographic or spatial location (either in two-dimensional
or three-dimensional space) where an object was found.
Range of variation:
it is the extent of differences that exists between items in an artifact
class. For artifacts, variation can exist and be measured for variables
such as time period, size, style, material, and technology.
"(1) All information
fixed in a tangible (textual, electronic, audiovisual, or visual)
form that was created by an organization as part of its daily business.
(2) Two or more data fields that are grouped as a unit in machine-readable
records." (NPS 1996:D:64).
are defined as all books, papers, maps, photographs, machine readable
materials, or other documentary materials, regardless of physical
form or characteristics, made or received by an agency of the United
States Government under Federal law or in connection with the transaction
of public business and preserved or appropriate for preservation
by that agency or its legitimate successor as evidence of the organization,
functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other
activities of the Government or because of the informational value
of data in them." (36 CFR 1222.12).
The process involved
in determining the status, value, and disposition of administrative
records throughout their lifetime (for example, active or inactive).
Also involves scheduling records for their ultimate disposition.
Trade name for
a nonwoven, spunbonded polyester product that is used in museum applications
for labeling, tags, and packaging.
duplication of original archival materials through the use of long-lived
copy technology such as silver halide microfilms or large format digital
files and computer output microfilms (NPS 1996:D64).
responsible for the development and implementation of procedures and
policies affecting the acquisition, management, and disposition of
collections. A registrar also usually maintains all collection documentation,
including inventory and loans. Specific duties vary between institutions.
To restore to
a former state or good condition. In conservation, this applies to
the restoration of deteriorated objects. It can also refer to the
upgrade of an entire collection.
Relative humidity (RH):
The measure of
moisture in the air in relation to the saturation point of the air
at its current temperature. RH is measured as a percentage of the
absolute humidity divided by the saturation humidity.
As cited in
NAGPRA, "...use in religious rituals or spiritual activities. Religious
remains generally are of interest to medicine men and women, and other
religious practitioners and persons from Indian tribes, Alaskan Native
corporations, Native Hawaiians, and other indigenous and immigrant
ethnic, social and religious groups that have aboriginal or historic
ties to the lands from which the remains are recovered, and have traditionally
used the remains or class of remains in religious rituals or spiritual
activities." (36 CFR 79.10(c)).
To return or
restore the control of an object or collection to the country of origin
or rightful owner. Used to describe the return of items to lineal
descendants or culturally affiliated tribes under NAGPRA.
"A facility such
as a museum, archeological center, laboratory or storage facility
that is managed by a university, college, museum, or other educational
or scientific institution, a federal, state, or local government agency,
or Indian tribe that can provide professional, systematic, and accountable
curatorial services on a long-term basis." (36 CFR 79, Section 79.4(j)).
plan for a research project. Usually includes formulating a strategy
to resolve a research question(s). It also details the methods for
collecting, recording, processing, and analyzing the recovered data
in the field and laboratory.
and use of available resources to minimize overall risk to collections.
Involves identifying risks, identifying strategies to eliminate or
manage risks, and setting priorities for risk elimination and management.
In repositories, this involves measures for security, fire control,
pests, and disaster planning.
objects which are needed by traditional religious leaders for the
practice of traditional religions by their present-day adherents.
An important component of NAGPRA for American Indians, Native Hawaiians,
and Native Alaskans.
A process of
selecting a representative part of a population for the purpose of
determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population.
The selection process may be based on a mathematical probability theory,
a regularized pattern, or existing knowledge of data patterning.
Scope of Collections:
planning document that details the extent of its collections, including
what it may acquire in the future to fulfill its mission.
it involves determining the extent of a site and what work may be
performed on that site. In CRM terms, scoping is done under NEPA and
involves determining the extent of the environmental/cultural impact
of a proposed action and what can be done about that impact.
of original documentation that is on archival paper and is stored
in a separate location from the original" (Griset and Kodack 1998:158).
"A group of documents
arranged or maintained as a unit within a file system because of their
shared circumstances of creation, receipt, or use. An example of a
list of series would be: 1) incoming correspondence, 2) outgoing correspondence,
3) bills and check receipts, 4) photographs, and 5) legal documents."
A granular substance
which has high moisture absorbing and emitting properties. It is often
used as a moisture stabilizer in packing, storing, and exhibiting
items that are sensitive to humidity.
A document detailing
the findings at an archeological site. Site reports are usually required
for archeological projects conducted on federal, state, and tribal
lands. They can run from simple statements on what was found to detailed
data analysis and interpretation.
A quantity of
dirt, site matrix, or sediments collected for physical or chemical
Type of salt
(including chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates) that is readily soluble
in water. Can be absorbed by any porous material buried in soil that
contains these salts. When evaporation occurs, salts crystallize on
or near an object's surface and can lead to its destruction.
A substance capable
of dissolving another substance. Solvents are often liquids and tend
to be volatile. Different solvents are needed for dissolving different
substances, depending on chemical composition. A common solvent is
or breaking off into chips and pieces. Spalling is often caused in
archeological materials by subflorescence.
State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO):
"The state official,
designated by the governor, to carry out the functions ascribed to
the SHPO under the National Historic Preservation Act. SHPOs receive
and administer matching grants from NPS to support their work and
pass through to others. They identify historic properties and nominate
them to the National Register. They maintain inventories, do plans,
and consult with others about historic preservation." (King 1998:267).
A passive insect
or rodent trap that uses an adhesive to trap the pest.
Study or type collection:
of archeological items that represents a certain class of objects,
usually demonstrating the typical or the range of variation. It may
be compiled for the purpose of comparison in order to advance scholarly
The process of
locating archeological sites and features over a specific area. It
is the first step (Phase I) in archeological reconnaissance that usually
involves mapping the site, as well as any artifacts and features.
Some artifacts may be collected depending on the field collecting
strategy of the project.
Type of archival
quality string that is often used to attach tags to objects because
of its non-abrasive, non-damaging qualities.
A polymer that
is applied as a liquid and then hardens or sets. They are resoluble
in an appropriate solvent and soften upon heating.
Resins that change
(irreversibly) under heat from a fusible, soluble material into one
that is infusible and insoluble through the formation of a covalently
crosslinked, thermally stable network.
Tribal Historic Preservation Officer (THPO):
of a federally recognized Indian tribe that oversees the tribe's historic
preservation program, particularly where the tribe has been approved
by NPS to carry out all or some of the functions of the SHPO within
the external boundaries of its reservation." (King 1998:267).
A DuPont product
manufactured from spunbonded
polyethylene used for tagging and labeling objects. The product
comes in sheets or as precut tags.
Ultraviolet (UV) rays:
Light rays, not
visible to the human eye, that can cause permanent damage through
fast color degradation, structural weakening, and embrittlement of
objects. UV rays are found in natural sunlight and in some artificial
light sources (such as fluorescent lamps).
Bending or twisting
of a material. Warping is a destructive process that is common to
some archeological materials when they undergo wide fluctuations of
relative humidity and temperature.
Slimy, wet surface
of a material (usually glass) caused by water migrating and being
held on the surface of an object by hygroscopic salts.
Uses x-rays and film to form an image of objects (and
their interior composition) that are otherwise opaque in ultraviolet
and visible light. Used on archeological objects as a non-destructive
method for looking at the interior structure of an item, such as corroded
metals, statues, and complex ceramics.
Balough, Ann, Ira Penn and Eugene F. Brown
Technology to Record Systems: A Media Guide. General Services
Administration for Information Resources Management Services.
Bellardo, Lewis J. and Lynn Lady Bellardo, compilers
Glossay for Archivists, Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers.
Chicago: Society of American Archivists.
Buck, Rebecca A. and Jean Allman Gilmore, eds.
1998 "Glossary." In The New Museum Registration Methods, pp.359-368. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums.
Evans, Frank B., Donald F. Harrison, and Edwin A. Thompson, compilers
1974 "A Basic Glossary for Archivists, Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers."
The American Archivist July.
Griset, Suzanne and Marc Kodack
for the Field Collection of Archaeological Materials and Standard
Operating Procedures for Curating Department of Defense Archaeological
Collections. St. Louis, MO: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mandatory
Center of Expertise for the Curation and Management of Archaeological
King, Thomas F.
Resource Laws and Practice: An Introductory Guide. Walnut Creek,
CA: Alta Mira Press.
Malaro, Marie C.
Governance: Mission, Ethics, Policy. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution
National Park Service
Archives and Manuscript Collections." Museum Handbook, Part III,
Appendix D. Washington, DC: National Park Service.
Methodist University Anthropology glossary
University of California at Santa Barbara Anthropology Glossary
Vogt O'Connor, Diane
Archival Glossary for the Millenium". CRM 22(2):46-52.