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NPS websites

Explore, learn, participate...
Our pages give lots of links for you to visit including park sites, resources, online exhibits, and more! Be sure to look on the volunteer opportunities, events in your state, and amateur certification pages for information on how to get involved.

Archeology and spiritual heritage

The Mormon Churches: The Church and U.S. Archeology
The Book of Mormon describes three migrations from the Middle East to America. Although no evidence in America has illuminated the Book, Mormons support further archeological work to substantiate their beliefs and pursue this important part of their heritage.

Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail
The Mormon Pioneer Historic Trail follows the path of Bringham Young and 70,000 followers as they journeyed approximately 1,300 miles through Illinois and Utah to escape religious persecution.

Recreating the Brick Chapel at St. Mary’s City
Settlers built St. Mary’s City on the Eastern Shore of Maryland after oppression forced Catholics from England to the New World. Archeological data aided in the recreation of a chapel and the interpretation of oppressed worshippers seeking religious freedom.

Asian American communities

Manzanar National Historic Site
Manzanar NHS recognizes the significance to American history of the most notorious relocation camps for Japanese Americans during the second World War. This site includes a historic resources study completed in the planning process of the new park.

Market Street Chinatown Archaeological Project
The Market Street Chinatown Archaeological Project is a research and education program developed to catalog, analyze, and curate a collection of Asian artifacts so that they can once again be used for research and educational programs.

Asian American Comparative Collection
The AACC aims to obtain or document every possible object of Asian manufacture that might be found in an archeological context in the United States or elsewhere in order to aid research into Asian-American history.

Native American communities

Navajo National Monument
Navajo National Monument preserves three of the most-intact cliff dwellings of the Anasazi (Hisatsinom).

Ancient Architects of the Mississippi
This web site interprets the remains of moundbuilders’ culture, evidence of trade and transportation, and the mythology surrounding the native past.

Anasazi Heritage Center Museum
This site invites visitors to learn about the regional heritage of the Anasazi through museum exhibits devoted to the role of archeology in interpreting the prehistory and history of the southwest.

African American communities

Understanding Slavery: The Lives of 18th Century African-Americans
As this web site says, “the history of South Carolina is inexorably intertwined with slavery.” The site discusses the history of the slave trade, the relationship between enslaved and enslaver, and the architectural and other remains that illuminate this significant element of the state’s and our national heritage.

Ransom Place Archaeology: African-American Race, Culture and Consumption in the Circle City, (http://www.iupui.edu/~anthpm/ransom701.html)
Although the title for this Indiana University-Purdue University field school project specifies African-American culture, the website discusses the archeological view of ethnicity in terms of several different American groups whose presence was suggested in the course of field work. Be sure to visit the main page for more information.

African Burial Ground, Manhattan, New York
In June 1991 human remains were discovered during archaeological testing of a site intended for office buildings and by October full-scale excavation for the construction of the Foley Square Federal Office Tower Building had begun. To some in the African American community, archeological research of the burial ground brings to light the atrocities committed and hardships endured in the institution of slavery.

Multi-ethnic communities

Big Dig Archaeology
The Big Dig Project in Boston involves not only a huge infrastructure program, but an archeological investigation into the history of the city. Many people were surprised to learn about the presence of Native Americans and Irish Americans in the survey area.

Kentucky Heritage Council
The archaeology presented on the Kentucky Heritage Council describes investigations into Native American and African American groups.

Communities reading

California Department of Parks and Recreation, Office of Historic Preservation
1988 Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California.

Burton, Jeffrey
1996 Three Farewells to Manzanar: The Archaeology of Manzanar National Historic Site, California (in 3 volumes). Publications in Anthropology 67, Western Archeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Tucson, AZ.

Cockrell, Ron
1999 Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, Ohio.

Kuwanwisiwma, Leigh (Jenkins)
2002 Hopi Understanding of the Past: A Collaborative Approach. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 46-51. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Praetzellis, Adrian
2002 Neat Stuff and Good Stories: Interpreting Historical Archaeology in Two Local Communities. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 51-59. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Ragins, Mary Grzeskowiak
2002 Archaeology in Santa Fe: A Public-Private Balancing Act. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 202-207. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Shull, Carol D.
2002 Irreplaceable Heritage: Archaeology and the National Register of Historic Places. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 195-201. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Slick, Katherine
2002 Archaeology and the Tourism Train. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 219-227. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Welch, John R.
1997 Working Together: Origins of the White Mountain Apache Heritage Program, Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 15(5).

1998 Working Together: White Mountain Apache Heritage Program Operation and Challenges, Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 16(1)

Ecologist links

Dendrochronology, NPS WebRangers
Archaeologists and other scientists who study past events are always looking for new ways to answer the question "How old is it?" Try virtual dendrochronology yourself with this interactive activity.

North American Drought: A Paleo Perspective
This site talks about how tree rings, lake and dune sediments, archaeological remains, historical documents, and other environmental indicators can extend our understanding of past climates.

Isotopic research at UC Davis – Using mussel shells gathered archeologically to investigate ecological change
A research team at UC Davis studied prehistoric hunter-gatherers along the northern California coast, and their work uncovered the role past climatic events played in harvesting California sea mussels.

Harvard Forest, Harvard University
Harvard University has its own forest for investigating historical change in ecosystems. The research staff includes several archeologists, and work takes place across New England. Research results help scientists create effective management tools for sustainability.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Introduction to Paleoclimatology
NOAA work in paleoecology provides comparative data for its analysis of modern weather systems and their effects. This site introduces paleoclimatology and talks about what can be done with it.

What We Do, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
This site briefly describes the work of STRI and contains indexes of publications relating to its work in archeology and ecology. Be sure to look at the Educational Links for up-to-date news on research and results.

Ecologists reading

National Park Service
1995 Investigating Ecosystems. Common Ground 8(1).

Briggs, John M. et al.
2006 Why Ecology Needs Archaeologists and Archaeology Needs Ecologists. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(4).

Cannon, Kenneth P.
2001 What the Past Can Provide: Contribution of Prehistoric Bison Studies to Modern Bison Management. Great Plains Research 11: 145-174.

Carlson, Catherine C.
1996 The (In)Significance of Atlantic Salmon. Common Ground 8(3/4).

Jackson, Jeremy B.C. et al,
2001 Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems. Science Magazine 293.

Lyman, R. Lee and Kenneth P. Cannon
2004 Zooarchaeology and Conservation Biology. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Rick, Torben C. and Jon M. Erlandson
2003 Archeology, Ancient Human Impacts on the Environment, and Cultural Resource Management on Channel Islands National Park, California. CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship 1(1).

Stahle, David W.
n.d. Climatology: Lessons from the Past and the Reality of Global Warming. PBS TeacherSource.

Educators links

Federal archeology links

For Teachers
Take a look at this page for recommendations on how to start using archeology as part of the learning process.

Archeology for Interpreters: A Guide to the Resource
Designed originally for NPS interpreters, our online training course also serves as a resource for anyone who wants to learn more about what archeology is and what archeologists do.

Project Archaeology, Bureau of Land Management
Project Archaeology aims to use the vast historic and archaeological resources under the custody of the Bureau of Land Management to teach young Americans to value and protect our rich cultural heritage.

Lesson plans

The Internet is a great place to find lesson plans with archeological components. Use your favorite Internet browser to find examples of lesson plans as inspiration to create your own! Just do a keyword search for “lesson plan,” “archeology or archaeology” and your state.

Teaching with Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places
This site includes archeology-themed lesson plans, as well as a guide to creating your own plans. Current lesson plans are:
Frederica: An 18th-Century Planned Community (31)
Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village (66)
Johnson Lake Mine: Mining for Tungsten in Nevada’s Snake Range (110)
Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains (1)
Mammoth Cave: Its Explorers, Miners, Archeologists, and Visitors (35)
Saugus Iron Works: Life and Work at an Early American Industrial Site (30)

M.A.T.R.I.X. (Making Archaeology Teaching Relevant in the XXI Century), (http://www.indiana.edu/%7Earch/saa/matrix/)
The M.A.T.R.I.X. site offers college teachers help in designing educational programs with archeology.

Archaeology Merit Badge, Boy Scouts of America
< http://www.meritbadge.com/mb/132.htm >
This web site provides a course of action for Boy Scouts to acquire and demonstrate their knowledge of archeology. Teachers can adapt the activities listed on this site and the Merit Badge worksheet for their own classroom needs.

Educators reading

Standards and Guidelines

National Center for History in the Schools
1996 National Standards for History.

National Council for the Social Studies
1994 Expectations for Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, National Council for the Social Studies. Silver Spring, MD.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
2002 Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, VA.

National Council for Geographic Education
n.d. The Eighteen National Geography Standards.

Books and articles

Jones, Kevin T. and Julie E. Maurer Longstreth
2002 Pursuing the ZiNj Strategy Like There’s No Tomorrow. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 187-193. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Metcalf, Fay
2002 Myths, Lies, and Videotapes: Information as Antidote to Social Studies Classrooms and Pop Culture. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 167-175. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Moe, Jeanne M.
2002 Project Archaeology: Putting the Intrigue of the Past in Public Education. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 176-186. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

NPS Training Manager for Interpretation, Education, and Cooperating Associations (editor)
2000 Module 270: Developing and Presenting a Curriculum-Based Education Program. National Park Service.

Seelye, Ned H., editor
1996 Experiential Activities for Intercultural Learning. Intercultural Press, Yarmouth, ME.

Schreiber, Susan P.
2000 Interpreting Archeology at National Trust Sites: A case study in addressing difficult topics. CRM 23(5).

Smardz, Karolyn and Shelley J. Smith, editors
2000 The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

Further reading

Cha-Jua, Sundiata
2000 America’s First Black Town: Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830-1915. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.

Shackel, Paul A., Terrance J. Martin, Joy D. Beasley, and Tom Gwaltney
2004 Rediscovering New Philadelphia: Race and Racism on the Illinois Frontier. Illinois Antiquity 39(1):3-7.

Walker, Juliet E.K.
1983 Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Forensic links

Archeology at the Battle of Little Bighorn
What really happened at the Battle of Little Bighorn? No white soldiers survived to tell their side. The perspective of the Native Americans who fought and delivered a stunning defeat to the troops led by General George A. Custer was discounted by the white world. After a fire destroyed the grasses on the battlefield in 1983, visitors noted metal artifacts and bones on the surface of the ground. Forensic archeologists mapped the bones and bullets to learn more.

NPS Archeology and the Vietnam War
This site provides two case studies, one discussed as a case study in this feature, about the role of NPS forensic archeologists in solving MIA cases in Vietnam.

African Burial Ground, Manhattan, New York
In June 1991 human remains were discovered during archaeological testing of a site intended for office buildings and by October full-scale excavation for the construction of the Foley Square Federal Office Tower Building had begun. To some in the African American community, archeological research of the burial ground brings to light the atrocities committed and hardships endured in the institution of slavery.

Dead Man’s Tales, Public Broadcasting Teacher Source
This site has pages devoted to forensic work at Jamestown, an interactive skeleton excavation, and profiles of “bone reader” forensic archeologists.

Forensic Anthropology
< http://www.forensicanthro.com/ >
This site identifies what forensic anthropologists do and discusses how to prepare for entering the profession.

Forensics Reading

Forensic Archeology: A Humanistic Science. CRM 19(10).

Benedict, Jeff
2003 No Bone Unturned - The Adventures of a Top Smithsonian Forensic Scientists and the Legal Battle for America's Oldest Skeletons. HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.

Crist, Thomas A.
2002 Empowerment, Ecology, and Evidence: The Relevance of Mortuary Archaeology to the Public. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 101-119. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Owsley, Douglas W.
2001 Why the Forensic Anthropologist Needs the Archaeologist, Archaeologists as Forensic Investigators: Defining the Role. Historical Archeology 35(1):35-38.

Salazar, Virginia, Alexa Roberts, and Allen Bohnert
2001 Cultural Sensitivity and Tribal Authority. In Research Projects and Museum Collection Management, CRM 7.

Smiley, Brenda
1999 Sand Creek Massacre. Archaeology 52(6).

Sonderman, Robert C.
2001 Looking for a Needle in a Haystack: Developing Closer Relationships with Law Enforcement, Archaeologists as Forensic Investigators: Defining the Role. Historical Archaeology 35(1):70-78.

Stover, Eric and Molly Ryan
2001 Breaking Bread with the Dead, Archaeologists as Forensic Investigators: Defining the Role. Historical Archaeology 35(1):7-25.

Historians links

African Americans

African Reflections on the American Landscape
Chapter 1 discusses how archeological research has contributed to the examination of slave history through bringing to light material culture associated with sites of enslaved African Americans.

The Robinson House A Portrait of African American Heritage
This National Park Service Archeology Program web feature discusses the role of archeology in learning about the Robinson House, which was inhabited by free African Americans during the Civil War. James Robinson, a black man born free, turned the property into one of the wealthiest farms in the Manassas area with the help of his family. Through excavation archeologists learned about how the choices the Robinsons made as consumers may have also expressed their cultural identity.

War

Civil War Archeology, Southeast Archeology Center, National Park Service
Archeological research on Civil War battlefield sites contributes to our understanding of the battles. Case studies at Fort Pulaski and Andersonville in Georgia and Monroe’s Crossroads in North Carolina show how comparison of the historical record to the archeological remains of historic events can result in new interpretations of the past.

Archeology at the Battle of Little Bighorn
What really happened at the Battle of Little Bighorn? No white settlers survived to tell their side andfor years historians discounted the perspective of the Native Americans who fought and delivered a stunning defeat to the troops led by General George A. Custer. An archeological re-interpretation considers what took place.

More National Park Service sites

The Mystery of the Lost Plantation: Archeology at the Charles Pinckney National Historical Site
In 1991 the NPS established the Charles Pinckney National Historical Site and also discovered that the house traditionally thought to belong to his plantation wasn’t built until after his time. So whose house is it? Take a look.

Revealing the Story of Virginius Island
Virginius Island at Harpers Ferry National Historical Park represents a significant part of the industrial and social history of the town. The historical and archeological investigations of Virginius Island reveal a poorly documented but rich culture previously believed lost to periodic floods.

Historians reading

Cockerell, Ron
1999 Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, Ohio

Geier, Clarence R. and Stephen R. Potter, editors
2003 Archeological Perspectives on the American Civil War. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Deetz, James
1996 In Small Things Forgotten An Archaeology of Early American Life. Doubleday, New York, NY.

Ferguson, Leland
1992 Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Levy, Phillip
2003 Always a Handmaiden – Never a Bride. Archaeology, February.

Rathje, William L.
2002 Garbology: The Archaeology of Fresh Garbage. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 85-100. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Shackel, Paul A.
2002 Broadening the Interpretations of the Past at Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 157-166. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Whittenburg, James P.
2002 On the Power of Historical Archaeology to Change Historians’ Minds about the Past. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 74-84. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Museums links

National Park Service

Managing Archeological Collections, National Park Service
This online technical assistance and distance learning effort covers all aspects of caring for archeological collections.

Museum Management Program, National Park Service
The Museum Management Program site highlights the collections of several parks in online exhibits, such as Chaco Culture National Park.

Native Americans

History and Archaeology of the Illinois Indians
Europeans’ and Americans’ accounts of the Illinois (Illiniwek) Indian nation leave many questions unanswered. Archaeological excavations of Illinois villages have provided fresh perspectives.

At Home on the Heartland, Illinois State Museum
This interactive site enables you to choose how to settle on the heartland. Archeological evidence in conjunction with historical material develops a story about the centuries of settlement in Illinois.

Mashantucket Pequot Research and Museum Center
The Mashantucket Pequot Research and Museum Center in Connecticut uses its collections to research and present the past of Native Americans. This site has online exhibits about the natural and cultural worlds.

African Americans

Sukeek’s Cabin, Jefferson Patterson Park Museum
Explore this site to learn about an African American site in Calvert County, Maryland from the perspectives of history, archeology, oral history, and family tradition.

Anacostia Museum, Smithsonian Institution
The Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C. recently renovated its facility to focus on the collection, storage, and study of material culture. An on-line academy is part of the museum's recommitment to identify, study, preserve, and collect African American historical materials.

Museums reading

Fowler, Don D., Nancy J. Parezo, and May Elizabeth Ruwell
1996 Wealth Concealed: The Importance of Preserving the Archeological Record Archeology. Common Ground 1(2).

Nelson, Margaret C. and Brenda Shears
1996 From the Field to the Files: Curation and the Future of Academic Archeology. Common Ground 1(2).

Sullivan, Lynne and S. Terry Childs
2003 Curating Archaeological Collections: From the Field to the Repository. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

Thomas, David Hurst
2002 Roadside Ruins: Does America Still Need Archaeology Museums? In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara J. Little, pp. 130-145. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

 

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